Gorgias Press is an independent academic publisher of books and journals covering a range of religious and language studies that include Syriac language, Eastern Christianity, Ancient Near East, Arabic and Islam, Early Christianity, Judaism, and more. Gorgias Press was founded in 2001 by George Kiraz, and is based in Piscataway, New Jersey. Authors include Sebastian Brock, Clinton Bennett, David C. Parker, Andrei Orlov, Iain Torrance, Philip Khuri Hitti, George Percy Badger, Ignatius Zakka I Iwas, Ignatius Afram I Barsoum, Ignatius Elias III, Carl Brockelmann, Aziz Suryal Atiya, and William Hatch.
The press publishes new books, but also reprints academic books and rare out of print books, in addition to several peer-reviewed academic journals. In 2010, they published three volumes of peer-reviewed articles as part of a series on Foundations for Syriac Lexicography in association with the International Syriac Language Project.
|Country of origin||United States|
|Headquarters location||Piscataway, New Jersey|
|Publication types||Books, academic journals|
|Imprints||Tigris, Euphrates, Harp of the Gazelle|
The American Journal of Ancient History (often abbreviated AJAH) is a peer-reviewed academic journal covering ancient history and classical studies. It was established in 1976 at Harvard University and is published by Gorgias Press. The journal is abstracted and indexed by L'Année philologique. The editor-in-chief is T. Corey Brennan (Rutgers University).Assyrian genocide
The Assyrian or Syriac genocide (also known as Sayfo or Seyfo, "Sword"; Syriac: ܩܛܠܥܡܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ or ܣܝܦܐ) refers to the mass slaughter of the Syriac Christian population of the Ottoman Empire and those in neighbouring Persia by Ottoman troops during the First World War, in conjunction with the Armenian and Greek genocides.The Assyrian/Syriac civilian population of upper Mesopotamia (the Tur Abdin region, the Hakkâri, Van, and Siirt provinces of present-day southeastern Turkey, and the Urmia region of northwestern Iran) was forcibly relocated and massacred by the Ottoman army, together with other armed and allied Muslim peoples, including Kurds, Chechens and Circassians, between 1914 and 1920, with further attacks on unarmed fleeing civilians conducted by local Arab militias.The Assyrian genocide took place in the same context as the Armenian and Greek genocides. Since the Assyrian genocide took place within the context of the much more widespread Armenian genocide, scholarship treating it as a separate event is scarce, with the exceptions of the works of Joseph Yacoub, Gabriele Yonan, David Gaunt and Hannibal Travis, who have classified the genocide as a systematic campaign by the Young Turk government. Other scholars, such as Hilmar Kaiser, Donald Bloxham and Taner Akçam have differing opinions with regards to the extent of governmental involvement and systematic nature of the genocide, as part of the genocide denial movement, asserting a less systematic policy and different treatment in comparison to the Armenians.
Unlike the Armenians, there were no orders to deport Assyrians. The attacks against them were not of standardized nature and incorporated various methods of massacre; in some cities, all Assyrian men were slain and the others were forced to flee. These massacres were often carried out upon the initiatives of local politicians and Kurdish tribes. Exposure, disease and starvation during the flight of Assyrians increased the death toll, and women were subjected to widespread sexual abuse in some areas.
Estimates on the overall death toll have varied. Providing detailed statistics of the various estimates of the Churches' population after the genocide, David Gaunt accepts the figure of 275,000 deaths as reported by the Assyrian delegation at the Treaty of Lausanne and ventures that the death toll would be around 300,000 because of uncounted Assyrian-inhabited areas. Rudolph Rummel gives the number of Christian deaths in Assyrian-populated regions of Turkey as 102,000 and adds to this the killing of around 47,000 Assyrians in Persia.
In 2007, the International Association of Genocide Scholars (IAGS) reached a consensus that the "Ottoman campaign against Christian minorities of the Empire between 1914 and 1923 constituted a genocide against Armenians, Assyrians, and Pontian and Anatolian Greeks." The IAGS referred to the work of Gaunt and Travis in passing this resolution. Gregory Stanton, the President of the IAGS in 2007–2008 and the founder of Genocide Watch, endorsed the "repudiation by the world's leading genocide scholars of the Turkish government's ninety-year denial of the Ottoman Empire's genocides against its Christian populations, including Assyrians, Greeks, and Armenians."Barwari
Barwar (Syriac: ܒܪܘܪ) also known as Barwari and Barwari Bala, is a region situated in northern Dohuk Governorate of Iraqi Kurdistan and Hakkari Province in southeastern Turkey (Upper Barwari). The region is mostly populated by Assyrians and a Kurdish minority. Despite straddling two countries and two provinces, Barwar was historically situated in the single Assyrian region of Hakkari.British Library, Add. 14466
British Library, Add. 14466 is a Syriac manuscript of the New Testament, according to Peshitta version, on parchment. Palaeographically it has been assigned to the 10 or 11th century.Codex Sinaiticus
Codex Sinaiticus (Greek: Σιναϊτικός Κώδικας, Sinaïtikós Kṓdikas, Hebrew: קודקס סינאיטיקוס; Shelfmarks and references: London, Brit. Libr., Additional Manuscripts 43725; Gregory-Aland nº א [Aleph] or 01, [Soden δ 2]) or "Sinai Bible" is one of the four great uncial codices, ancient, handwritten copies of the Greek Bible. The codex is a celebrated historical treasure.The codex is an Alexandrian text-type manuscript written in uncial letters on parchment in the 4th century. Scholarship considers the Codex Sinaiticus to be one of the best Greek texts of the New Testament, along with the Codex Vaticanus. Until Constantin von Tischendorf's discovery of the Sinaiticus text, the Codex Vaticanus was unrivaled.The Codex Sinaiticus came to the attention of scholars in the 19th century at Saint Catherine's Monastery in the Sinai Peninsula, with further material discovered in the 20th and 21st centuries. Although parts of the codex are scattered across four libraries around the world, most of the manuscript is held today in the British Library in London, where it is on public display. Since its discovery, study of the Codex Sinaiticus has proven to be useful to scholars for critical studies of biblical text.
While large portions of the Old Testament are missing, it is assumed that the codex originally contained the whole of both Testaments. About half of the Greek Old Testament (or Septuagint) survived, along with a complete New Testament, the entire Deuterocanonical books, the Epistle of Barnabas and portions of The Shepherd of Hermas.Family 1739
Family 1739 is a group of the New Testament manuscripts. The textual relation of this family to the main text-types, as Alexandrian, Western, and Byzantine, is still unclear. According to some scholars it represents the same text-type as the Caesarean text-type. Caesarean text is represented in the Gospels, and Family 1739 text in the rest of the books of the New Testament (except Apocalypse).Gabriel of Sinjar
Gabriel of Sinjar (Classical Syriac: ܓܒܪܐܝܠ ܕܫܝܓܪ, Gaḅriyel d'Šiggar) was a court physician of the Sasanian shah Khosrau II. He played a major role in inter-Christian rivalries in the Sasanian empire.George Kiraz
George Anton Kiraz (Syriac: ܓܘܪܓܝ ܒܪ ܐܢܛܘܢ ܕܒܝܬ ܟܝܪܐܙ) (b. 1965) is a Syriac-American syriacist, engineer and entrepreneur, best known for his contribution to modern Syriac studies.Ignatius Abraham bar Garib
Ignatius Abraham bar Garib, also known as Ibrahim ibn Gharib, was the Patriarch of Mardin from 1381 until his death in 1412.Konak, Hakkari
Konak is an Assyrian village in the Hakkari, traditionally called Qodchanis (pronounced Ko-cha-niss; Syriac: ܩܘܕܫܐܢܣ Qudshānes, also spelt Qudshanes, Kotchanes, Qochanis or Kocanis). It was the seat of a line of patriarchs whose continuation is at the head of what since 1976 has adopted the name of Assyrian Church of the East.The village is situated about 20 km northeast of the provincial capital Hakkâri of Hakkâri Province in the southeastern corner of Turkey, near the borders of Iran and Iraq, in the Upper Barwari region.Mandaeans
Mandaeans (Arabic: الصابئة المندائيون, translit. aṣ-Ṣābi'a al-Mandā'iyūn) are an ethnoreligious group indigenous to the alluvial plain of southern Mesopotamia and are followers of Mandaeism, a Gnostic religion. The Mandaeans were originally native speakers of Mandaic, a Semitic language that evolved from Eastern Middle Aramaic, before many switched to colloquial Iraqi Arabic and Modern Persian. Mandaic is mainly preserved as a liturgical language. In the aftermath of the Iraq War of 2003, the indigenous Mandaic community of Iraq, which used to number 60,000–70,000 persons, collapsed; most of the community relocated to nearby Iran, Syria and Jordan, or formed diaspora communities beyond the Middle East. The other indigenous community of Iranian Mandaeans has also been dwindling as a result of religious persecution over that decade.National Library of Russia, Codex Syriac 1
National Library of Russia, Codex Syriac 1, designated by siglum A, is a manuscript of Syriac version of the Eusebian Ecclesiastical History. It is dated by a Colophon to the year 462. The manuscript is lacunose.Ras al-Ayn Camps
Ra's al-'Ayn camps (also Ras ul-Ain camps) were desert death camps near Ra's al-'Ayn city, where many Armenians were deported and slaughtered during the Armenian Genocide. The site became "synonymous with Armenian suffering".Renaissance of the 12th century
The Renaissance of the 12th century was a period of many changes at the outset of the high Middle Ages. It included social, political and economic transformations, and an intellectual revitalization of Western Europe with strong philosophical and scientific roots. These changes paved the way for later achievements such as the literary and artistic movement of the Italian Renaissance in the 15th century and the scientific developments of the 17th century.Syriac alphabet
The Syriac alphabet (ܐܠܦ ܒܝܬ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ ʾĀlep̄ Bêṯ Sūryāyā) is a writing system primarily used to write the Syriac language since the 1st century AD. It is one of the Semitic abjads descending from the Aramaic alphabet through the Palmyrene alphabet, and shares similarities with the Phoenician, Hebrew, Arabic and the traditional Mongolian scripts.
Syriac is written from right to left in horizontal lines. It is a cursive script where most, but not all, letters connect within a word. Spaces separate individual words.
All 22 letters are consonants, although there are optional diacritic marks to indicate vowels and other features. In addition to the sounds of the language, the letters of the Syriac alphabet can be used to represent numbers in a system similar to Hebrew and Greek numerals.
Apart from Classical Syriac Aramaic, the alphabet has been used to write other dialects and languages. Several Christian Neo-Aramaic languages from Turoyo to the Northeastern Neo-Aramaic dialects of Assyrian and Chaldean, once vernaculars, primarily began to be written in the 19th century. The Serṭā variant specifically has recently been adapted to write Western Neo-Aramaic, traditionally written in a square Aramaic script closely related to the Hebrew alphabet. Besides Aramaic, when Arabic began to be the dominant spoken language in the Fertile Crescent after the Islamic conquest, texts were often written in Arabic using the Syriac script as knowledge of the Arabic alphabet was not yet widespread. Such writings are usually called Karshuni or Garshuni (ܓܪܫܘܢܝ). In addition to Semitic languages, Malayalam was also written with Syriac script and was called Suriyani Malayalam, as well as Sogdian.Thraco-Roman
The term Thraco-Roman describes the Romanized culture of Thracians under the rule of the Roman Empire.
The Odrysian kingdom of Thrace became a Roman client kingdom ca. 20 BC, while the Greek city-states on the Black Sea coast came under Roman control, first as civitates foederatae ("allied" cities with internal autonomy). After the death of the Thracian king Rhoemetalces III in 46 AD and an unsuccessful anti-Roman revolt, the kingdom was annexed as the Roman province of Thracia.Uthman ibn al-Huwayrith
Uthman ibn al-Huwayrith (Arabic: عثمان بن الحويرث) was an Arab of the Quraysh who converted to Christianity. After revolting against idol worship in Mecca in favor of monotheism during the late 6th century, he sought assistance from the Byzantine Empire in 590 in a ploy to install himself as king of Mecca. While in Byzantium, he converted to Christianity. He is also known for having compiled poetic works.Wasit, Iraq
Wasit (Arabic: واسط) is a place in Wasit Governorate, south east of Kut in eastern Iraq.William Taylor (Dean of Portsmouth)
William Henry Taylor was the last provost (and first dean) of Portsmouth Cathedral.
He was born on 23 December 1956 and educated at the University of Kent, Tübingen, Lancaster and London, from where he was awarded a PhD (SOAS) in Ottoman Syriac Studies. He was ordained in 1984 and began his career as Assistant Curate at All Saints, Canterbury. After this he was the Archbishop of Canterbury’s Advisor on Orthodox Affairs at Lambeth Palace and then senior curate at All Saints, Margaret Street, Westminster. He was CMS chaplain in Jordan from 1988 to 1991 and then Vicar of St Peter's Church, Ealing, and Area Dean of Ealing, 1993-98.
From 2000 to 2002 he was provost (subsequently dean) of Portsmouth Cathedral.
Since 2002 he has been Vicar of St John's Notting Hill and Chairman of the Anglican and Eastern Churches Association. He edited, together with the Roman Catholic priest Michael Prior (1942-2004) "Christians in the Holy Land" (1994), and is the author of "Antioch and Canterbury" (Gorgias Press, 2005). He is a director of Jerusalem and the Middle East Church Association (JMECA) and a Freeman of the City of London.