Frederic Gordon Foster (24 February 1921 – 20 December 2010) was an Irish computational engineer, statistician, professor, and college dean who is widely known for devising, in 1965, a nine-digit code upon which the International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is based.
F. Gordon Foster
|Born||24 February 1921|
|Died||20 December 2010 (aged 89)|
|Known for||Foster's theorem|
|Doctoral advisor||David George Kendall|
Foster was born in Belfast, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, between 1920 enactment and 1921 implementation of the partition of Ireland. He studied at the Royal Belfast Academical Institution and began advanced study in mathematics at Queen's University Belfast. During World War II, he was recruited from Queen's by MI6 to work as a code-breaker at Bletchley Park.
After the war he resumed studies at Magdalen College, Oxford. A lecture on feedback control by Norbert Wiener, regarded as the originator of cybernetics, proved to be a great influence on Foster's research. Upon completing his PhD at Magdalen, he accepted an offer to lecture on his research at the University of Manchester, where he met Alan Turing, a Bletchley Park veteran who became known as the father of computer science. Turing introduced him to the Manchester Mark I computer and enlisted his help working on it. In 1952 Foster joined the faculty of the London School of Economics (LSE), first as an assistant lecturer in statistics, then lecturer and reader. In 1964, he was appointed to the chair of computational methods. While at LSE he helped develop operations research as an academic discipline.
Foster became professor of statistics at Trinity College Dublin in 1967. There he flourished, promoting statistical analysis and computer applications in several constituent schools and academic departments. He also developed his own department, with a strong postgraduate as well as undergraduate program, and set up the statistics and operations research laboratory, known for outreach to industry and public services. Eventually he was Dean of Engineering and System Sciences.
Foster died in Dublin, 20 December 2010.
Elections to Kesteven County Council were held on Saturday, 6 March 1937. Kesteven was one of three divisions of the historic county of Lincolnshire in England; it consisted of the ancient wapentakes (or hundreds) of Aswardhurn, Aveland, Beltisloe, Boothby Graffoe, Flaxwell, Langoe, Loveden, Ness, and Winnibriggs and Threo. The Local Government Act 1888 established Kesteven as an administrative county, governed by a Council; elections were held every three years from 1889, until it was abolished by the Local Government Act 1972, which established Lincolnshire County Council in its place.1946 Kesteven County Council election
Elections to Kesteven County Council were held on Saturday, 2 March 1946. Kesteven was one of three divisions of the historic county of Lincolnshire in England; it consisted of the ancient wapentakes (or hundreds) of Aswardhurn, Aveland, Beltisloe, Boothby Graffoe, Flaxwell, Langoe, Loveden, Ness, and Winnibriggs and Threo. The Local Government Act 1888 established Kesteven as an administrative county, governed by a Council; elections were held every three years from 1889, until it was abolished by the Local Government Act 1972, which established Lincolnshire County Council in its place.For the 1946 election, the county was divided into sixty wards, ten of which accounted for the town of Grantham, five for Stamford, three for Sleaford and two for Bourne. Only twenty-six were contested and most of these were in the towns: every seat in Stamford and Bourne and all but one in Grantham and Sleaford. The results were extremely close in two wards: in Sleaford no. 3 there was a tie, forcing the returning office to cast his ballot; and in Corby, the difference between the two candidates was one vote. In summarising the result, the Lincolnshire Echo stated that "politics play little part in Kesteven County Council affairs"; this was true at least insofar that Labour was the only political party to contest any of the wards. Having won five seats, the remainder went to independent candidates.1962 Southern Rhodesian general election
The Southern Rhodesia general election of 1962 took place on 14 December 1962. Voters elected 65 members of the Legislative Assembly. The election was notable for bringing to power the Rhodesian Front, initially under Winston Field, which set the colony on the course for its eventual Unilateral Declaration of Independence.1985 New Year Honours
The New Year Honours 1985 were appointments by most of the Commonwealth realms of Queen Elizabeth II to various orders and honours to reward and highlight good works by citizens of those countries, and honorary ones to citizens of other countries. They were announced on 31 December 1984 to celebrate the year passed and mark the beginning of 1985 in the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Barbados, Mauritius, Fiji, the Bahamas, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Tuvalu, Saint Lucia Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Antigua and Barbuda, and Saint Christopher and Nevis.The recipients of honours are displayed here as they were styled before their new honour, and arranged by honour, with classes (Knight, Knight Grand Cross, etc.) and then divisions (Military, Civil, etc.) as appropriate.2006–07 Vanderbilt Commodores men's basketball team
The 2006–07 Vanderbilt Commodores men's basketball men's basketball team finished with a 22–12 record (SEC East: 10–6, 2nd) and reached the Sweet 16 of the NCAA Tournament. The Commodores were ranked No. 19 in the final ESPN/USA Today (Coaches) poll.
The team was led by head coach Kevin Stallings and played its home games at Memorial Gymnasium.2011 News Corporation scandals
In mid-2011, out of a series of investigations following up the News of the World royal phone hacking scandal of 2005–2007, a series of related scandals developed surrounding other News Corporation properties—where initially the scandal appeared contained to a single journalist at the News of the World (with the 2007 jailing of Clive Goodman and the resignation of then-editor Andy Coulson), investigations eventually revealed a much wider pattern of wrongdoing. This led to the closure of the News of the World on 10 July 2011, an apology by Rupert Murdoch in an advertisement in most British national newspapers, and the withdrawing of News Corporation's bid to take over the majority of BSkyB shares it did not own.
Investigations continued into what the company and individuals at the company knew of the phone hacking and when, as well as into other issues, including questions around police bribery. Since police renewed investigations in 2011, 90 people have been arrested and 16 charged with crimes in conjunction with illegal acquisition of confidential information, many if not most of them employees or agents of News Corp.2011 UK Open
The 2011 Speedy Hire UK Open was the ninth year of the PDC darts tournament where, following numerous regional qualifying heats throughout Britain, players competed in a single elimination tournament to be crowned champion. The tournament was held at the Reebok Stadium in Bolton, England, between 2–5 June 2011, and has the nickname, "the FA Cup of darts", as a random draw is staged after each round until the final.
The title was won by James Wade, who defeated Wes Newton 11–8 in the final.Alistair Petrie
Alistair Petrie is an English actor. He has starred in The Bank Job (2010), Cloud Atlas (2012), Rush (2013) and Rogue One: A Star Wars Story (2016). Petrie has also starred in the Channel 4 television series Utopia, the BBC One television series' The Night Manager and Undercover and as Mr. Groff in the Netflix original comedy-drama series Sex Education.Antiques Roadshow
Antiques Roadshow is a British television programme in which antiques appraisers travel to various regions of the United Kingdom (and occasionally in other countries) to appraise antiques brought in by local people. It has been running since 1979, based on a 1977 documentary programme. The programme has spawned versions in other countries with the same TV format, including Canada and the United States. As of 2019 it is in its 41st series and is currently presented by Fiona Bruce (since 2008).Foster's theorem
In probability theory, Foster's theorem, named after Gordon Foster, is used to draw conclusions about the positive recurrence of Markov chains with countable state spaces. It uses the fact that positive recurrent Markov chains exhibit a notion of "Lyapunov stability" in terms of returning to any state while starting from it within a finite time interval.International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is a numeric commercial book identifier which is intended to be unique. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country.
The initial ISBN identification format was devised in 1967, based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten-digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero digit "0").
Privately published books sometimes appear without an ISBN. The International ISBN agency sometimes assigns such books ISBNs on its own initiative.Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number (ISSN), identifies periodical publications such as magazines and newspapers. The International Standard Music Number (ISMN) covers musical scores.List of Trinity College Dublin people
This is a list of notable alumni and faculty members of Trinity College, Dublin and the University of Dublin.Overackers Corners Schoolhouse
Overackers Corners Schoolhouse is a historic school located at Middlesex in Yates County, New York. It is an Italianate style structure built about 1874. The school reopened in 1998 after renovation by the Middlesex Heritage Group.
It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1994.Overackers Corners School
1874 – 1938 
In 1874, the brick schoolhouse on the corner of North Vine Valley Road and State Route 364 was built. The school was heated by a large round stove, had no running water, and no electricity. Students daily carried water from a local well to the school. There was a large woodshed, and as required, there were two separate outhouses. The teacher's desk was on a platform just inside the front door. The school was used until June 1938 when the Middlesex schools were consolidated. The last teacher was Hazel Dinehart Robeson.
After it closed, the building was sold to Leon G. Button, who used it for grain storage until 1989 when it was leased to the Middlesex Heritage Group. In 1998, after 10 years of renovations, the school was opened as a museum. The school was placed on the National and State Registry of Historic Places in 1994. In 2014, the Pomeroy Foundation donated a plaque recognizing this achievement.
Facts About the Overackers Corners School
• Built in 1874 on land purchased from Edward and Margaret Hennessy
• It was designated District #3, Town of Middlesex, for grades 1 – 8
• Named after a family that lived nearby
• Bricks from a nearby blacksmith shop were crumbled and used as a foundation for the school
• Bricks for the walls may have been made in a brick factory that was located on the next door Button Farm
• Closed after the 1937-38 school year due to the centralization of schools as Middlesex Valley Central School District
• Some of the teachers who taught there were: Lillian Boyd, Gordon Foster, Nellie Bennett, Mrs. Stanley Voorhees, Ruth Halstead, Carrie Razey, Lela Robson, Nellie Button, Bertha Noble, Alice DeWick, Patrick H. Sheehan, Frank Matteson, Harlan Smith, and Hazel Dinehart Robeson
• Sold at a public auction to Leon G. Button on November 11, 1939 for $128.50
• 1953 Anson Wagar presented a 4’ X 5’ picture of the school to hang in the Middlesex Valley School. After many years it was taken down and stored where it was damaged. In 2014, the Middlesex Heritage Group was awarded a grant to restore the painting. It is currently on display at the Town Hall in Middlesex.
• The picture of the school was in the November 1933 issue of National Geographic, page 560.Patricia Pauley
Patricia Ann Pauley (born 27 August 1943) is a British former figure skater who competed in ladies' singles. She is a two-time British national champion (1959, 1960) and competed at the 1960 Winter Olympics, placing 15th. She came in seventh at the 1958 and 1960 World Championships.R.R. Bowker
R.R. Bowker LLC ("Bowker") is an American limited liability company based in New Providence, New Jersey, and incorporated in Delaware. Among other things, Bowker provides bibliographic information on published works to the book trade, including publishers, booksellers, libraries, and individuals; its roots in the industry trace back to 1868. Bowker is the exclusive U.S. agent for issuing International Standard Book Numbers (ISBNs), a universal method of identifying books in print. Bowker is the publisher of Books in Print and other compilations of information about books and periodical titles. It provides supply chain services and analytical tools to the book publishing industry. Bowker is headquartered in New Providence, New Jersey, with additional operational offices in England and Australia. It is now owned by Cambridge Information Group.Saint John-Fundy
Saint John-Fundy was a provincial electoral district for the Legislative Assembly of New Brunswick, Canada.Trinity College Dublin
Trinity College (Irish: Coláiste na Tríonóide), officially the College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity of Queen Elizabeth near Dublin, is the sole constituent college of the University of Dublin, a research university located in Dublin, Ireland. The college was founded in 1592 by Queen Elizabeth I as the "mother" of a new university, modelled after the collegiate universities of Oxford and Cambridge, but unlike these other ancient universities, only one college was ever established; as such, the designations "Trinity College" and "University of Dublin" are usually synonymous for practical purposes. The college is legally incorporated by "the Provost, Fellows, Foundation Scholars and other members of the Board" as outlined by its founding charter. It is one of the seven ancient universities of Britain and Ireland, as well as Ireland's oldest surviving university.
Trinity College is widely considered the most prestigious university in Ireland and amongst the most elite in Europe, principally due to its extensive history, reputation for social elitism and unique relationship with both the University of Oxford and the University of Cambridge. In accordance with the formula of ad eundem gradum, a form of recognition that exists among the three universities, a graduate of Oxford, Cambridge, or Dublin can be conferred with the equivalent degree at either of the other two universities without further examination. Trinity College, Dublin is a sister college to St John's College, Cambridge and Oriel College, Oxford.Originally Trinity was established outside the city walls of Dublin in the buildings of the outlawed Catholic Augustinian Priory of All Hallows. Trinity College was set up in part to consolidate the rule of the Tudor monarchy in Ireland, and as a result was the university of the Protestant Ascendancy for much of its history. While Catholics were admitted from 1793 certain restrictions on membership of the college remained as professorships, fellowships and scholarships were reserved for Protestants. These restrictions were lifted by Act of Parliament in 1873. However, from 1871 to 1970, the Catholic Church in Ireland in turn forbade its adherents from attending Trinity College without permission. Women were first admitted to the college as full members in January 1904.Trinity College is now surrounded by central Dublin and is located on College Green, opposite the historic Irish Houses of Parliament. The college proper occupies 190,000 m2 (47 acres), with many of its buildings ranged around large quadrangles (known as 'squares') and two playing fields. Academically, it is divided into three faculties comprising 25 schools, offering degree and diploma courses at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels.
The Library of Trinity College is a legal deposit library for Ireland and Great Britain, containing over 6.2 million printed volumes and significant quantities of manuscripts, including the Book of Kells.Under Armour All-America Baseball Game
The Under Armour High School All-America Baseball Game is a high school baseball all-star game held annually to spotlight the United States' top high school players who are juniors or seniors. The game is played in late July or August, at Wrigley Field in Chicago.
Since 2008 and through the 2018 Major League Baseball draft, 318 of the 361 draft-eligible players from the game have been selected in the MLB draft, including 98 first round picks.