Google News is a news aggregator and app developed by Google. It presents a continuous, customizable flow of articles organized from thousands of publishers and magazines. Google News is available on Android, iOS, and the web.
Google News Homepage
Type of site
|Available in||35 languages|
List of languages
Arabic, Bengali, Bulgarian, Cantonese, Chinese, Czech, Dutch, English, French, German, Greek, Hebrew, Hindi, Hungarian, Italian, Indonesian, Japanese, Korean, Latvian, Lithuanian, Malayalam, Norwegian, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Russian, Serbian, Spanish, Swedish, Tamil, Telugu, Thai, Turkish, Ukrainian, Vietnamese.
As of 2013, Google News was watching more than 50,000 news sources worldwide. Versions for more than 60 regions in 28 languages were available in March 2012. As of September 2015, service is offered in the following 35 languages: Arabic, Bengali, Bulgarian, Cantonese, Chinese, Czech, Dutch, English, French, German, Greek, Hebrew, Hindi, Hungarian, Italian, Indonesian, Japanese, Korean, Latvian, Lithuanian, Malayalam, Norwegian, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Russian, Serbian, Spanish, Swedish, Tamil, Telugu, Thai, Turkish, Ukrainian and Vietnamese.
The service covers news articles appearing within the past 30 days on various news websites. In total, Google News aggregates content from more than 25,000 publishers. For the English language, it covers about 4,500 sites; for other languages, fewer. Its front page provides roughly the first 200 characters of the article and a link to its larger content. Websites may or may not require a subscription; sites requiring subscription are noted in the article description.
On December 1, 2009, Google announced changes to their "first click free" program, which has been running since 2008 and allows users to find and read articles behind a paywall. The reader's first click to the content is free, and the number after that would be set by the content provider.
The layout of Google News underwent a major revision on May 16, 2011.
Additionally in July 2011, the Sci/Tech section of the English Google News versions was split up into two sections: Science and Technology. It was announced that this section split would be performed on other language versions as well. As of early 2013, this split had not been applied to all language versions of Google News.
In June 2017, the desktop version of Google News saw a thorough redesign that according to Google had the goal to "make news more accessible and easier to navigate ... with a renewed focus on facts, diverse perspectives, and more control for users." Yet several options such as the search tools menu were removed along with the redesign, making searches much more difficult. It now uses a card format for grouping related news stories, and as summarized by Engadget, "doesn't look like a search results page anymore", removing text snippets and blue links.
In March 2005, Agence France-Presse (AFP) sued Google for $17.5 million, alleging that Google News infringed on its copyright because "Google includes AFP's photos, stories and news headlines on Google News without permission from Agence France Presse". It was also alleged that Google ignored a cease and desist order, though Google counters that it has opt-out procedures which AFP could have followed but did not. Google now hosts Agence France-Presse news, as well as the Associated Press, Press Association and the Canadian Press. This arrangement started in August 2007. In 2007, Google announced it was paying for Associated Press content displayed in Google News, however the articles are not permanently archived. That arrangement ceased on December 23, 2009 when Google News ceased carrying Associated Press content.
In 2007, a Belgian court ruled that Google did not have the right to display the lead paragraph from French-language Belgian news sources when Google aggregated news stories.
Newspapers representing more than 90 percent of the market in Brazil opted out of having their links appear in Google News according to reports, resulting in only a "negligible" drop in traffic. Some Europe-based news outlets have asked their governments to consider making Google pay to host links. In Germany, their lobbying lead the introduction of the ancillary copyright for press publishers in 2013. In October 2014, a group of German publishers granted Google a license to use snippets of their publications gratis; the group had first claimed that such snippets were illegal, and then complained when they were removed by Google.
In December 2014, Google announced it would be shutting down the Google News service in Spain. A new law in Spain, lobbied for by the Spanish newspaper publishers' association AEDE, would require that news aggregators would have to pay news services for the right to use snippets of their stories on Google News. Rather than add advertisements to the news site, Google chose to shut down their service, and remove all links to Spain-based news sites from international versions of the site.
Users can request e-mail "alerts" on various keyword topics by subscribing to Google News Alerts. E-mails are sent to subscribers whenever news articles matching their requests come online. Alerts are also available via RSS and Atom feeds.
On June 6, 2006, Google News expanded, adding a News Archive Search feature, offering users historical archives going back more than 200 years from some of its sources. There was a timeline view available, to select news from various years.
An expansion of the service was announced on September 8, 2008, when Google News began to offer indexed content from scanned newspapers. The depth of chronological coverage varies; beginning in 2008, the entire content of the New York Times back to its founding in 1851 has been available.
In early 2010, Google removed direct access to the archive search from the main Google News page, advanced news search page and default search results pages. These pages indicated that the search covered "Any time", but did not include the archive and only included recent news.
During the summer of 2010, Google decided to redesign the format of the Google news page, creating a firestorm of complaints.
In May 2011, Google cancelled plans to scan further old newspapers. About 60 million newspaper pages had been scanned prior to this event. Google announced that it would instead focus on "Google One Pass, a platform that enables publishers to sell content and subscriptions directly from their own sites".
In August 2011, the "News Archive Advanced Search" functionality was removed entirely, again generating complaints from regular users who found that the changes rendered the service unusable. Archival newspaper articles could still be accessed via the Google News Search page, but key functionalities such as the timeline view and ability to specify more than 10 results per page were removed.
On September 7, 2008, United Airlines, which was the subject of an indexed, archived article, lost and later not quite regained US$1 billion in market value when a 2002 Chicago Tribune article about the bankruptcy filing of the airline in that year appeared in the current "most viewed" category on the website of the Sun-Sentinel, a sister paper. Google News index's next pass found the link as new news, and Income Security Advisors found the Google result to be new news, which was passed along to Bloomberg News, where it was briefly a current headline and very widely viewed.
There are more than 25,000 publishers from around the world in Google News today.
[...] we'll add a "(subscription)" tag to your publication name when your articles appear in our search results.
"Because the Associated Press, Agence France-Presse, U.K. Press Association and the Canadian Press don't have a consumer Web site where they publish their content, they have not been able to benefit from the traffic that Google News drives to other publishers", Josh Cohen, business product manager for Google News, explained in a blog post. "As a result, we're hosting it on Google News".
Today we’re launching a new feature on Google News that will help you quickly and easily find original stories from news publishers – including stories from some of the top news agencies in the world, such as the Associated Press, Agence France-Presse, UK Press Association and the Canadian Press – and go directly to the original source to read more.
Google News has stopped hosting new articles from the Associated Press the search giant confirmed Monday, in a sign that contract negotiations between the two companies may have broken down.
The earlier decision required Google to stop displaying extracts of French and German-language articles from Belgian newspapers.The majority Dutch-language press is fully included in Google News
Today, we're launching an initiative to make more old newspapers accessible and searchable online by partnering with newspaper publishers to digitize millions of pages of news archives.
The 1961 Alabama Crimson Tide football team (variously "Alabama", "UA" or "Bama") represented the University of Alabama in the 1961 NCAA University Division football season. It was the Crimson Tide's 67th overall and 28th season as a member of the Southeastern Conference (SEC). The team was led by head coach Bear Bryant, in his fourth year, and played their home games at Denny Stadium in Tuscaloosa, Legion Field in Birmingham and Ladd Stadium in Mobile, Alabama. They finished season undefeated with eleven wins (11–0 overall, 7–0 in the SEC), with a victory over Arkansas in the Sugar Bowl and as consensus national champions. The 1961 national championship was the first of the six that Bear Bryant would win as head coach of the Crimson Tide.Alabama opened the season with a win over Georgia on the road in week one, and then defeated Tulane in their home game at Ladd Stadium in week two. After they won their second road game of the season at Vanderbilt, Alabama returned to Tuscaloosa where they defeated NC State in the first Denny Stadium game of the season. The next week, Alabama defeated Tennessee for the first time since the 1954 season in the first Legion Field game of the year.
The Crimson Tide then defeated Houston in their final road game of the season and then returned home and defeated Mississippi State on homecoming in Tuscaloosa. The next week Alabama scored their most points in a game since the 1951 season when they defeated Richmond 66–0. They then closed the regular season with wins over Georgia Tech and Auburn in the Iron Bowl and captured the national championship as awarded by the major wire services. The Crimson Tide then closed the season with a victory over Arkansas in the Sugar Bowl.1965 Alabama Crimson Tide football team
The 1965 Alabama Crimson Tide football team (variously "Alabama", "UA" or "Bama") represented the University of Alabama in the 1965 NCAA University Division football season. It was the Crimson Tide's 71st overall and 32nd season as a member of the Southeastern Conference (SEC). The team was led by head coach Bear Bryant, in his eighth year, and played their home games at Denny Stadium in Tuscaloosa, Legion Field in Birmingham and Ladd Stadium in Mobile, Alabama. They finished season with nine wins, one loss and one tie (9–1–1 overall, 6–1–1 in the SEC), as SEC champions and with a victory over Nebraska in the Orange Bowl. Alabama was also recognized as national champions by the AP Poll after their Orange Bowl win.
Alabama opened the season ranked No. 5, but were upset by Georgia 18–17 in the first game of the season. They rebounded with their first win of the season over Tulane and followed that with a 17–16 win over Ole Miss in a game in which Alabama had to rally from a nine-point fourth quarter deficit for the victory. The next week, the Crimson Tide defeated Vanderbilt in Nashville before they returned home for their rivalry game against Tennessee. Against the Volunteers, the score was deadlocked 7–7 in the closing seconds, but Alabama had driven to the Tennessee four-yard line. Ken Stabler believing that it was third down, threw the ball out of bounds with six seconds left to stop the clock. However, it was actually fourth down, possession went to Tennessee, and the game ended in a tie.
After the tie, the Crimson Tide won five in a row over Florida State, Mississippi State, LSU, South Carolina and Auburn en route to Bryant's fourth SEC title at Alabama. Because the Associated Press was holding its vote until after the bowl games instead of before for the first time, No. 4 Alabama still had a chance to win the national championship when they played No. 3 Nebraska in the Orange Bowl. On New Year's Day, No. 1 Michigan State lost in the Rose Bowl and No. 2 Arkansas lost in the Cotton Bowl Classic, and Alabama defeated Nebraska 39–28 in the Orange Bowl and captured its third AP National Championship in five years.1966 Alabama Crimson Tide football team
The 1966 Alabama Crimson Tide football team (variously "Alabama", "UA" or "Bama") represented the University of Alabama in the 1966 NCAA University Division football season. It was the Crimson Tide's 72nd overall and 33rd season as a member of the Southeastern Conference (SEC). The team was led by head coach Bear Bryant, in his ninth year, and played their home games at Denny Stadium in Tuscaloosa, Legion Field in Birmingham and Ladd Stadium in Mobile, Alabama. They finished season undefeated with eleven wins (11–0 overall, 6–0 in the SEC), as SEC co-champions and with a victory over Nebraska in the Sugar Bowl.
Alabama opened the season with a victory over Louisiana Tech in Birmingham and followed that with a victory at Ole Miss for their first conference win of the season. The Crimson Tide then returned home and defeated Clemson in the first Tuscaloosa game of the season before they traveled to Knoxville for their annual rival game against Tennessee. In the game, Alabama trailed the Volunteers 10–0 in the fourth quarter before they rallied for an 11–10 victory that saw Tennessee miss a game-winning field goal in the final minute of play.
Alabama then alternated home games between Birmingham and Tuscaloosa over the next four weeks and defeated Vanderbilt, Mississippi State, LSU and South Carolina in each game. After they defeated Southern Miss in their annual Mobile game, the Crimson Tide defeated Auburn in the Iron Bowl and captured a share of the SEC championship. In the January that followed, Alabama then defeated Nebraska in the Sugar Bowl and finished the season undefeated. Although they were the only undefeated and untied college team at the conclusion of the year, Alabama was not selected as national champions for the season. On the 1966 squad, Green Bay Packers head coach Vince Lombardi stated: "I don't know, we haven't played Alabama yet" when asked how it felt to have the world's greatest football team for the season after his Packers won Super Bowl I.A-Day (University of Alabama)
A-Day is an annual college football exhibition game set at the conclusion of spring practice by the University of Alabama Crimson Tide. Played on-campus at Bryant–Denny Stadium in Tuscaloosa, Alabama, the game features teams composed of offensive starters against defensive starters of the Crimson Tide. National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) rules allow for member schools to conduct a series of fifteen practice sessions during the spring months. As part of these practices the NCAA allows three 11-on-11 scrimmages, one of which may be conducted as a spring game.Prior to the game, the captains from the previous seasons' team are honored at the annual "Walk of Fame" ceremony at the base of Denny Chimes. In addition to this ceremony, several other memorable events have occurred as part of the annual A-Day festivities. The 1967 edition of the game saw Dock Rone and Andrew Pernell participate and become the first African American players to play at Denny Stadium as members of the Crimson Tide football team. At halftime of the 1976 game, Denny Stadium was officially rededicated as Bryant–Denny Stadium in honor of then head coach Bear Bryant. The 1985 edition of the A-Day game featured a White team of current, varsity starters against a Crimson team of former Alabama players such as Ken Stabler and Ozzie Newsome.Since the arrival of head coach Nick Saban in 2007, A-Day has become a major event. The 2007 game saw an overflow crowd of 92,138 in attendance and served as the catalyst for other programs to make their spring game a larger event. The growth of A-Day has resulted in its being televised nationally by ESPN first in 2009 and again in subsequent years in addition to being utilized to enhance recruiting.Allegheny County District Attorney
The Allegheny County District Attorney is the elected district attorney for Pittsburgh and Allegheny County, Pennsylvania. The office is responsible for the prosecution of violations of Pennsylvania commonwealth laws. (Federal law violations are prosecuted by the U.S. Attorney for the Western District of Pennsylvania). The current District Attorney is Stephen Zappala.
In 1995 the Assistant District Attorneys formed a collective bargaining unit and voted to be represented by the United Steelworkers of America. The bargaining unit also represents Assistant Public Defenders, Scientists in the Coroner's Office (now the Office of Medical Examiner) and computer professionals in the Prothonotary's Office (now the Department of Court Records.)Bill Dickey
William Malcolm Dickey (June 6, 1907 – November 12, 1993) was an American professional baseball catcher and manager. He played in Major League Baseball for the New York Yankees for 19 seasons. Dickey managed the Yankees after retiring from his playing career.
Dickey played for the Yankees from 1928 through 1943. After serving in the United States Navy during World War II, Dickey returned to the Yankees in 1946 as a player and manager. He retired after the 1946 season, but returned in 1949 as a coach, where he taught Yogi Berra the finer points of catching.
During Dickey's playing career, the Yankees went to the World Series nine times, winning eight championships. He was named to 11 All-Star Games. As a manager and coach, the Yankees won another six World Series titles. Dickey was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1954.Clive Toye
Clive Toye was inducted to the National Soccer Hall of Fame in the United States in 2003.Toye was born in Plymouth, United Kingdom. He was a sports writer for the Express and Echo newspaper in Exeter, and later Chief Sports Writer for the Daily Express.David L. Lawrence Convention Center
The David L. Lawrence Convention Center (DLLCC) is a 1,500,000-square-foot (140,000 m2) convention, conference and exhibition building in downtown Pittsburgh in the U.S. commonwealth of Pennsylvania. It is served by two exits on Interstate 579. The initial David L. Lawrence Convention Center was completed on the site on February 7, 1981, but as part of a renewal plan the new, completely redesigned center was opened in 2003 and funded in conjunction with nearby Heinz Field and PNC Park. It sits on the southern shoreline of the Allegheny River. It is the first LEED-certified convention center in North America and one of the first in the world. It is owned by the Sports & Exhibition Authority of Pittsburgh and Allegheny County.Google Alerts
Google Alerts is a content change detection and notification service, offered by the search engine company Google. The service sends emails to the user when it finds new results—such as web pages, newspaper articles, blogs, or scientific research—that match the user's search term(s). In 2003, Google launched Google alerts which were the result of Naga Kataru's efforts. His name is on the three patents for Google Alerts.Google reported the system was not functioning properly as of 2013: "we’re having some issues with Alerts not being as comprehensive as we’d like". However, the service is still operational and completely accessible around the world. Google Alerts continued to face critical performance issues and temporary unavailability on regional basis but, the Google technical support has been successfully addressing the reported issues by users on its official forum.Google News Archive
Google News Archive is an extension of Google News providing free access to scanned archives of newspapers and links to other newspaper archives on the web, both free and paid.
Some of the news archives date back to 18th century. There is a timeline view available, to select news from various years.Harold Hilton
Harold Horsfall Hilton (12 January 1869 – 5 May 1942) was an English amateur golfer of the late 19th and early 20th century. He won The Open Championship twice, The Amateur Championship four times, and the U.S. Amateur Championship once.Krishna Bharat
Krishna Bharat (born 7 January 1970) is a founding adviser for Grokstyle Inc, a Visual search company & Laserlike Inc, an interest search engine
. He was a research scientist when he was at Google, Mountain View, where he led a team developing Google's news product. Among other projects, he opened the Research and Development center at Bengaluru, India. He is the creator of Google News, a service that automatically indexes over 25,000 news websites in more than 35 languages to provide a summary of the News resources. He is on the Board of Visitors of Columbia Journalism School and John S. Knight Journalism Fellowships at Stanford.Krishna Bharat created Google News in the aftermath of the September 11, 2001 attacks to keep himself abreast of the developments. Since then, it has been a popular offering from Google's services. Google News was one of Google's first endeavors beyond offering just plain text searches on its page.
Bharat grew up in Bengaluru, now an IT hub in South India. He completed his schooling from St. Joseph's Boys' High School in Bengaluru, and received an undergraduate degree in computer science from the Indian Institute of Technology, Madras. He subsequently received a Ph.D from Georgia Tech in Human Computer Interaction. Before joining Google in 1999, he worked at the DEC Systems Research Center where, with George Mihaila, he developed the Hilltop algorithm. At Google he developed so-called LocalRank, which can be considered to be an adaptation of Hilltop.
In 2015, Krishna received the Distinguished alumnus award from his alma mater IIT Madras.Max Carey
Maximillian George Carnarius (January 11, 1890 – May 30, 1976), known as Max George Carey, was an American professional baseball center fielder and manager. Carey played in Major League Baseball for the Pittsburgh Pirates from 1910 through 1926 and for the Brooklyn Robins from 1926 through 1929. He managed the Brooklyn Dodgers in 1932 and 1933.
Carey starred for the Pirates, helping them win the 1925 World Series. During his 20-year career, he led the league in stolen bases ten times and finished with 738 steals, a National League record until 1974 and still the 9th-highest total in major league history. Carey was elected to the National Baseball Hall of Fame in 1961.Moses Malone
Moses Eugene Malone (March 23, 1955 – September 13, 2015) was an American basketball player who played in both the American Basketball Association (ABA) and the National Basketball Association (NBA) from 1974 through 1995. The center was named the NBA Most Valuable Player (MVP) three times and was a 12-time NBA All-Star and an eight-time All-NBA Team selection. Malone won his only NBA championship in 1983, when he was both the league and Finals MVP with the Philadelphia 76ers. He was inducted into the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame in his first year of eligibility in 2001.
Malone began his professional career out of high school after he was selected in the third round of the 1974 ABA Draft by the Utah Stars. He was named an ABA All-Star as a rookie and played two seasons in the league until it merged with the NBA in 1976. He landed in the NBA with the Buffalo Braves, who traded him after two games to the Houston Rockets. Malone became a five-time All-Star in six seasons with the Rockets. After leading the NBA in rebounding in 1979, he was named league MVP for the first time. He led the Rockets to the NBA Finals in 1981, and won his second MVP award in 1982. Malone was traded to Philadelphia the following season, when he repeated as MVP and led the 76ers to a championship in his first year. In his first of two stints with Philadelphia, he was an All-Star in each of his four seasons. Following another trade, Malone was an All-Star in his only two seasons with the then Washington Bullets (today's Wizards). He signed as a free agent with the Atlanta Hawks, earning his 12th straight and final All-Star selection in his first season. In his later years, he played with the Milwaukee Bucks before returning to the 76ers and completing his career with the San Antonio Spurs.
Malone was a tireless and physical player who led the NBA in rebounding six times, including a then-record five straight seasons (1981–1985). Nicknamed the "Chairman of the Boards" for his rebounding prowess, he finished his career as the all-time leader in offensive rebounds after leading both the ABA and NBA in the category a combined nine times. Combining his ABA and NBA statistics, Malone ranks ninth all-time in career points (29,580) and third in total rebounds (17,834). He was named to both the ABA All-Time Team and the NBA's 50th Anniversary All-Time Team.Pittsburgh City Council
The Pittsburgh City Council serves as the legislative body in the City of Pittsburgh. It consists of nine members. City council members are chosen by plurality elections in each of nine districts. The city operates under a strong-mayor-council system of local governance.Port Charles
Port Charles (commonly abbreviated as PC) is an American television soap opera that aired on ABC from June 1, 1997 to October 3, 2003. It was a spin-off of the serial General Hospital, which has been running since 1963 and takes place in the fictional city of Port Charles, New York. The new show features longtime General Hospital characters Lucy Coe, Kevin Collins, Scott Baldwin, and Karen Wexler, along with several new characters, most of whom were interns in a competitive medical school program. In its later years, the program shifted more towards supernatural themes and stories, with a reduced emphasis on the original hospital setting.Presque Isle Air Force Base
Presque Isle Air Force Base was a military installation of the United States Air Force in Maine. In the late 1950s and early 1960s it became a base for Strategic Air Command.
The original airport was constructed in 1930 by the Civilian Conservation Corps as a commercial airport located 1.5 miles (2.4 km) west of the "business center". In 1941, the federal government appropriated the local airport, establishing Presque Isle Army Airfield for planes bound to and from Great Britain. It was activated as an Army Air Corps field on 15 September 1941. The main Army Air Force unit at Presque Isle was the 23d AAF Ferrying Wing, assigned to the Air Transport Command. It was closed after the war ended
The airfield was reactivated by the United States Air Force and redesignated Presque Isle Air Force Base on January 12, 1948, assigned to the Air Defense Command (ADC) Eastern Air Defense Force.Tony Canadeo
Anthony Robert Canadeo (May 5, 1919 – November 29, 2003) was a professional American football player who played halfback in the National Football League (NFL) for the Green Bay Packers from 1941 to 1952, having missed most of the 1944 season and the entire 1945 season while serving in the U.S. Army during World War II. Canadeo was born and raised in Chicago, Illinois before moving to Spokane, Washington to attend Gonzaga University. He played football for the Gonzaga Bulldogs, where he earned the nickname "Gray Ghost of Gonzaga". Drafted by the Packers in the 1941 NFL Draft, Canadeo went on to play multiple positions, including running back, quarterback, defensive back, punter, and return specialist.
Before the war, Canadeo was a triple-threat halfback for the Packers, leading the team in rushing and passing in 1943. When he returned from the war in 1946 he served primarily as a running back, and in 1949 became the third player in NFL history to rush for 1,000 or more yards in a season. He retired as the Packers' all-time rushing yards leader, and as of 2018 ranks fourth in franchise history in that category. Canadeo's number 3 was retired by the Packers immediately following his retirement as a player. He was inducted into the Pro Football Hall of Fame and Wisconsin Athletic Hall of Fame in 1974. After his playing career, Canadeo worked as a color commentator for NFL on CBS, covering Packers with Ray Scott. He also was a long-time member of the Green Bay Packers, Inc. Board of Directors and Executive Committee, most notably during the Vince Lombardi era. Canadeo died in 2003 at the age of 84.Tony Lazzeri
Anthony Michael Lazzeri (December 6, 1903 – August 6, 1946) was an Italian-American professional baseball second baseman during the 1920s and 1930s, predominantly with the New York Yankees of Major League Baseball. He was part of the famed "Murderers' Row" Yankee batting lineup of the late 1920s (most notably the legendary 1927 team), along with Babe Ruth, Lou Gehrig, and Bob Meusel.
Lazzeri was born and raised in San Francisco, California. He dropped out of school to work with his father as a boilermaker, but at the age of 18, began to play baseball professionally. After playing in minor league baseball from 1922 through 1925, Lazzeri joined the Yankees in 1926. He was a member of the original American League All-Star team in 1933. He was nicknamed "Poosh 'Em Up" by Italian-speaking fans, from a mistranslation of an Italian phrase meaning to "hit it out" (hit a home run).
Lazzeri is one of only 14 major league baseball players to hit for the natural cycle (hitting a single, double, triple and home run in sequence) and the only player to complete a natural cycle with a grand slam. He also holds the American League record for the most RBI in a single game, with 11 on May 24, 1936. In that same 1936 game, he became the first major league player to hit two grand slams in one game. Lazzeri was posthumously inducted into the National Baseball Hall of Fame by the Veterans Committee in 1991.