Google Earth

Google Earth is a computer program that renders a 3D representation of Earth based primarily on satellite imagery. The program maps the Earth by superimposing satellite images, aerial photography, and GIS data onto a 3D globe, allowing users to see cities and landscapes from various angles. Users can explore the globe by entering addresses and coordinates, or by using a keyboard or mouse. The program can also be downloaded on a smartphone or tablet, using a touch screen or stylus to navigate. Users may use the program to add their own data using Keyhole Markup Language and upload them through various sources, such as forums or blogs. Google Earth is able to show various kinds of images overlaid on the surface of the earth and is also a Web Map Service client.

In addition to Earth navigation, Google Earth provides a series of other tools through the desktop application. Additional globes for the Moon and Mars are available, as well as a tool for viewing the night sky. A flight simulator game is also included. Other features allow users to view photos from various places uploaded to Panoramio, information provided by Wikipedia on some locations, and Street View imagery. The web-based version of Google Earth also includes Voyager, a feature that periodically adds in-program tours, often presented by scientists and documentarians.

Google Earth has been viewed by some as a threat to privacy and national security, leading to the program being banned in multiple countries. Some countries have requested that certain areas be obscured in Google's satellite images, usually areas containing military facilities.

Google Earth
Google Earth Logo
Google Earth 9 on Google Chrome
Google Earth 9 on Google Chrome
Original author(s)Google
Developer(s)Google
Initial releaseJune 11, 2001
Stable release
  • Windows, macOS, Linux
    7.3.2.5495 (December 13, 2018[1]) [±]
  • Google Chrome
    9.2.53.2 (November 13, 2017[2]) [±]
  • Android
    9.2.40.6 (March 8, 2019[3]) [±]
  • iOS
    9.2.37 (December 9, 2018[4]) [±]
Preview releaseWindows, macOS, Linux
7.3.2 (June 20, 2018[5]) [±]
Written inC++
Operating systemWindows, macOS, Linux, Xbox One, Android, iOS
Size
  • Windows: 12.5 MB
  • macOS: 35 MB
  • Linux: 24 MB
  • Android: 9.99 MB
  • iOS: 186.9 MB
Available inVarious languages
TypeVirtual globe
LicenseFreeware
Websiteearth.google.com

History

The core technology behind Google Earth was originally developed at Intrinsic Graphics in the late 1990s. At the time, the company was developing 3D gaming software libraries.[6] As a demo of their 3D software, they created a spinning globe that could be zoomed into, similar to the Powers of Ten film.[6] The demo was popular, but the board of Intrinsic wanted to remain focused on gaming, so in 1999, they created Keyhole, Inc., headed by John Hanke.[6] Keyhole then developed a way to stream large databases of mapping data over the internet to client software, a key part of the technology,[7] and acquired patchworks of mapping data from governments and other sources.[6] The product, called "Keyhole EarthViewer", was sold on CDs for use in fields such as real estate, urban planning, defense, and intelligence; users paid a yearly fee for the service.[7] Despite making a number of capital deals with Nvidia and Sony,[7] the small company was struggling to make payroll, and employees were leaving.[6]

Fortunes for the company changed in early 2003 when CNN received a discount for the software in exchange for placing the Keyhole logo on-air whenever the map was used.[7][6] Keyhole did not expect it would amount to more than brief 5 or 10 second prerecorded animation clips, but it was used extensively by Miles O'Brien live during the 2003 invasion of Iraq, allowing CNN and millions of viewers to follow the progress of the war in a way that had never been seen before.[7][6] Public interest in the software exploded and Keyhole servers were not able to keep up with demand.[7][6] Keyhole was soon contacted by the Central Intelligence Agency's venture capital firm, In-Q-Tel,[8] and the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency,[9] for use with defense mapping databases, which gave Keyhole a much-needed cash infusion.[6] Intrinsic Graphics was sold in 2003 to Vicarious Visions after its gaming libraries did not sell well, and its core group of engineers and management transitioned to Keyhole with Hanke remaining at the head.[6]

At the time, Google was finding that over 25% of its searches were of a geospatial character, including searches for maps and directions.[6] In October 2004, Google acquired Keyhole as part of a strategy to better serve its users.[10]

Imagery

Google Earth's imagery is displayed on a digital globe, which displays the planet's surface using a single composited image from a far distance. After zooming in far enough, the imagery transitions into different imagery of the same area with finer detail, which varies in date and time from one area to the next. The imagery is retrieved from satellites or aircraft.[11] Before the launch of NASA and the USGS's Landsat 8 satellite, Google relied partially on imagery from Landsat 7, which suffered from a hardware malfunction that left diagonal gaps in images.[12] In 2013, Google used datamining to remedy the issue, providing what was described as a successor to the Blue Marble image of Earth, with a single large image of the entire planet. This was achieved by combining multiple sets of imagery taken from Landsat 7 to eliminate clouds and diagonal gaps, creating a single "mosaic" image.[13] Google now uses Landsat 8 to provide imagery in a higher quality and with greater frequency.[14] Imagery is hosted on Google's servers, which are contacted by the application when opened, requiring an Internet connection.

Imagery resolution ranges from 15 meters of resolution to 15 centimeters. For much of the Earth, Google Earth uses digital elevation model data collected by NASA's Shuttle Radar Topography Mission.[15] This creates the impression of three-dimensional terrain, even where the imagery is only two-dimensional.

Every image created from Google Earth using satellite data provided by Google Earth is a copyrighted map. Any derivative from Google Earth is made from copyrighted data which, under United States Copyright Law, may not be used except under the licenses Google provides. Google allows non-commercial personal use of the images (e.g. on a personal website or blog) as long as copyrights and attributions are preserved.[16] By contrast, images created with NASA's globe software World Wind use The Blue Marble, Landsat, or USGS imagery, each of which is in the public domain.

In version 5.0, Google introduced Historical Imagery, allowing users to view earlier imagery. Clicking the clock icon in the toolbar opens a time slider, which marks the time of available imagery from the past. This feature allows for observation of an area's changes over time.[17] Utilizing the timelapse feature allows for the ability to view a zoomable video as far back as 32 years.[18]

3D imagery

3D locations in Google Earth
Countries with 3D coverage in Google Earth as of February 2019.
Google Earth (iOS) - 3D Mode at Wisconsin Dells Great Wolf Lodge
3D imagery in the iOS version of Google Earth, seen here at Wisconsin Dells, Wisconsin

Google Earth shows 3D building models in some cities, including photorealistic 3D imagery. The first 3D buildings in Google Earth were created using 3D modeling applications such as SketchUp and, beginning in 2009, Building Maker,[19] and were uploaded to Google Earth via the 3D Warehouse. In June 2012, Google announced that it would be replacing user-generated 3D buildings with an auto-generated 3D mesh.[20] This would be phased in, starting with select larger cities, with the notable exception of cities such as London and Toronto which required more time to process detailed imagery of their vast number of buildings. The reason given is to have greater uniformity in 3D buildings, and to compete with Nokia Here and Apple Maps, which were already using this technology. The coverage began that year in 21 cities in four countries.[21] By early 2016, 3D imagery had been expanded to hundreds of cities in over 40 countries, including every U.S. state and encompassing every continent except Antarctica.

In 2009, in a collaboration between Google and the Museo del Prado in Madrid, the museum selected 14 of its paintings to be photographed and displayed at the resolution of 14,000 megapixels inside the 3D version of the Prado in Google Earth and Google Maps.[22][23]

Street View

On April 15, 2008, with version 4.3, Google fully integrated Street View into Google Earth.[24] Street View displays 360° panoramic street-level photos of select cities and their surroundings. The photos were taken by cameras mounted on automobiles, can be viewed at different scales and from many angles, and are navigable by arrow icons imposed on them.

Water and ocean

Introduced in Google Earth 5.0 in 2009, the Google Ocean feature allows users to zoom below the surface of the ocean and view the 3D bathymetry. Supporting over 20 content layers, it contains information from leading scientists and oceanographers.[25] On April 14, 2009, Google added bathymetric data for the Great Lakes.[26][27]

In June 2011, Google increased the resolution of some deep ocean floor areas from 1-kilometer grids to 100 meters.[28] The high-resolution features were developed by oceanographers at Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory from scientific data collected on research cruises. The sharper focus is available for about 5 percent of the oceans. This can be seen in the Hudson off New York City, the Wini Seamount near Hawaii, and the Mendocino Ridge off the U.S Pacific coast.[29]

Outer space

Google Earth Mars
A picture of Mars' landscape
Google Earth Sky
Google Earth in Sky Viewing Mode
Google moon 1
One of the lunar landers viewed in Google Moon

Google has programs and features, including within Google Earth, allowing exploration of Mars, the Moon, the view of the sky from Earth and outer space, including the surfaces of various objects in the Solar System.

Google Sky

Google Sky is a feature that was introduced in Google Earth 4.2 on August 22, 2007, in a browser-based application on March 13, 2008,[30] and to Android smartphones, with augmented reality features. Google Sky allows users to view stars and other celestial bodies.[31] It was produced by Google through a partnership with the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) in Baltimore, the science operations center for the Hubble Space Telescope. Dr. Alberto Conti and his co-developer Dr. Carol Christian of STScI plan to add the public images from 2007,[32] as well as color images of all of the archived data from Hubble's Advanced Camera for Surveys. Newly released Hubble pictures will be added to the Google Sky program as soon as they are issued.

New features such as multi-wavelength data, positions of major satellites and their orbits as well as educational resources will be provided to the Google Earth community and also through Christian and Conti's website for Sky.[33] Also visible on Sky mode are constellations, stars, galaxies, and animations depicting the planets in their orbits. A real-time Google Sky mashup of recent astronomical transients, using the VOEvent protocol, is being provided by the VOEventNet collaboration.[34] Other programs similar to Google Sky include Microsoft WorldWide Telescope and Stellarium.

Google Mars

Google Mars is an application within Google Earth that is a version of the program for imagery of the planet Mars. Google also operates a browser-based version, although the maps are of a much higher resolution within Google Earth, and include 3D terrain, as well as infrared imagery and elevation data. There are also some extremely-high-resolution images from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's HiRISE camera that are of a similar resolution to those of the cities on Earth. Finally, there are many high-resolution panoramic images from various Mars landers, such as the Mars Exploration Rovers, Spirit and Opportunity, that can be viewed in a similar way to Google Street View.

Mars also has a small application found near the face on Mars. It is called Meliza, a robot character the user can speak with.[35]

Google Moon

Originally a browser application, Google Moon is a feature that allows exploration of the Moon. Google brought the feature to Google Earth for the 40th anniversary of the Apollo 11 mission on July 20, 2009.[36] It was announced and demonstrated to a group of invited guests by Google along with Buzz Aldrin at the Newseum in Washington, D.C.[37][38] Google Moon includes several tours, including one for the Apollo missions, incorporating maps, videos, and Street View-style panoramas, all provided by NASA.

Other features

Google Earth has numerous features which allow the user to learn about specific places. These are called "layers", and include different forms of media, including photo and video. Some layers include tours, which guide the user between specific places in a set order. Layers are created using the Keyhole Markup Language, or KML, which users can also use to create customized layers.[39] Locations can be marked with placemarks and organized in folders; For example, a user can use placemarks to list interesting landmarks around the globe, then provide a description with photos and videos, which can be viewed by clicking on the placemarks while viewing the new layer in the application.

In December 2006, Google Earth added a new integration with Wikipedia and Panoramio. For the Wikipedia layer, entries are scraped for coordinates via the Coord templates. There is also a community-layer from the project Wikipedia-World. More coordinates are used, different types are in the display, and different languages are supported than the built-in Wikipedia layer.[40][41] The Panoramio layer features pictures uploaded by Panoramio users, placed in Google Earth based on user-provided location data. In addition to flat images, Google Earth also includes a layer for user-submitted panoramic photos, navigable in a similar way to Street View.

Google Earth includes multiple features that allow the user to monitor current events. In 2007, Google began offering users the ability to monitor traffic data provided by Google Traffic in real time, based on information crowdsourced from the GPS-identified locations of cell phone users.[42]

Flight simulators

Toronto downtown
Downtown Toronto as seen from an F-16 Fighting Falcon during a simulated flight

In Google Earth 4.2, a flight simulator was added to the application. It was originally a hidden feature when introduced in 2007, but starting with 4.3, it was given a labeled option in the menu. In addition to keyboard control, the simulator can be controlled with a mouse or joystick.[43][44] The simulator also runs with animation, allowing objects such as planes to animate while on the simulator.[45]

Another flight simulator, GeoFS, was created under the name GEFS-Online using the Google Earth Plug-in API to operate within a web browser. As of September 1, 2015, the program now uses the open-source program CesiumJS, due to the Google Earth Plug-in being discontinued.[46]

Liquid Galaxy

Liquid Galaxy is a cluster of computers running Google Earth creating an immersive experience. On September 30, 2010, Google made the configuration and schematics for their rigs public,[47] placing code and setup guides on the Liquid Galaxy wiki.[48] Liquid Galaxy has also been used as a panoramic photo viewer using KRpano, as well as a Google Street View viewer using Peruse-a-Rue[49] Peruse-a-Rue is a method for synchronizing multiple Maps API clients.[50]

Versions

Google Earth has been released on macOS, Linux, iOS, and Android. The Linux version began with the version 4 beta of Google Earth, as a native port using the Qt toolkit. The Free Software Foundation consider the development of a free compatible client for Google Earth to be a High Priority Free Software Project.[51] Google Earth was released for Android on February 22, 2010,[52] and on iOS on October 27, 2008.[53][54] The mobile versions of Google Earth can make use of multi-touch interfaces to move on the globe, zoom or rotate the view, and allow to select the current location. An automotive version of Google Earth was made available in the 2010 Audi A8.[55]

Version history
Version Release date Changes
1.0 July 2001
1.4 January 2002
1.6 February 2003
1.7.2 October 2003
2.2 August 2004
3.0 June 2005
  • The first version released after Google acquired Keyhole, Inc.
4.0 June 2006
4.1 May 2007
4.2 August 2007
  • Google Sky was introduced
  • A flight simulator was added
4.3 April 2008
  • First release to implement KML version 2.2
  • Google Street View was added
5.0 May 2009
  • Google Ocean was introduced
  • Historical Imagery was introduced
5.1 November 2009
5.2 July 2010
  • Last version to support Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger (PPC & Intel) and 10.5 Leopard (PPC)
6.0 March 2011
  • 3D Trees were added
6.1 October 2011
6.2 April 2012
  • Last version to support Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard (Intel)
7.0 December 2012
  • Support for 3D Imagery data was introduced
  • Tour Guide was introduced
7.1 April 2013
  • Last version to support Mac OS X 10.6 Snow Leopard and Mac OS X 10.7 Lion
7.3 July 2017
  • Google Earth Pro became the standard version of the desktop program. (A free license key was also publicly provided by Google for all the earlier Pro versions.) [56]
9.0 April 2017
  • An entirely redesigned version of the program; Currently only available for Google Chrome and Android. The desktop application continues to be Google Earth Pro, with regular updates.

Google Earth Pro

Google Earth
Google Earth running on Android

Google Earth Pro was originally the business-oriented upgrade to Google Earth, with features such as a movie maker and data importer. Up until late January 2015, it was available for $399/year, though Google decided to make it free to the public.[57][58] Google Earth Pro is currently the standard version of the Google Earth desktop application as of version 7.3.[59] The Pro version includes add-on software for movie making, advanced printing, and precise measurements, and is currently available for Windows, Mac OS X 10.8 or later, and Linux.[60]

Google Earth Plus

Discontinued in December 2008, Google Earth Plus was a paid subscription upgrade to Google Earth that provided customers with the following features, most of which have become available in the free Google Earth.[61] One such feature was GPS integration, which allowed users to read tracks and waypoints from a GPS device. A variety of third-party applications have been created which provide this functionality using the basic version of Google Earth by generating KML or KMZ files based on user-specified or user-recorded waypoints.

Google Earth Enterprise

Google Earth Enterprise is designed for use by organizations whose businesses could take advantage of the program's capabilities, for example by having a globe that holds company data available for anyone in that company.[62] As of March 20, 2015, Google has retired the Google Earth Enterprise product, with support ended March 22, 2017.[63] Google Earth Enterprise allowed developers to create maps and 3D globes for private use, and host them through the platform. GEE Fusion, GEE Server, and GEE Portable Server source code was published on GitHub under the Apache2 license in March 2017.[64]

Google Earth 9

Google Earth 9 is a version of Google Earth first released on April 18, 2017, having been in development for two years.[65] The main feature of this version was the launching of a new web version of Google Earth, which is currently only available for Google Chrome.[66] This version added the "Voyager" feature, whereby users can view a portal page containing guided tours led by scientists and documentarians.[67] The version also added an "I'm Feeling Lucky" button, represented by a die, which takes the user to a random location on earth along with showing them a "Knowledge Card" containing a short excerpt from the location's Wikipedia article.[67]

Google Earth Plug-in

The Google Earth API was a free beta service, allowing users place a version of Google Earth into web pages. The API enabled sophisticated 3D map applications to be built.[68] At its unveiling at Google's 2008 I/O developer conference, the company showcased potential applications such as a game where the player controlled a milktruck atop a Google Earth surface.[69] The Google Earth API has been deprecated as of December 15, 2014 and remained supported until December 15, 2015.[70] Google Chrome ended support for the Netscape Plugin API (which the Google Earth API relies on) by the end of 2016.[71]

Google Earth VR

On November 16, 2016, Google released a virtual reality version of Google Earth for Valve's Steam computer gaming platform.[72][73] Google Earth VR allows users to navigate using VR controllers, and is currently compatible with the Oculus Rift and HTC Vive virtual reality headsets. On September 14, 2017, as part of Google Earth VR's 1.4 update, Google added Street View support.[74]

Google Earth Outreach

Google Earth Outreach is a charity program, through which Google promotes and donates to various non-profit organizations. Beginning in 2007, donations are often accompanied by layers featured in Google Earth, allowing users to view a non-profit's projects and goals by navigating to certain related locations.[75] Google Earth Outreach offers online training on using Google Earth and Google Maps for public education on issues affecting local regions or the entire globe. In June 2008, training was given to 20 indigenous tribes in the Amazon rainforest, such as the Suruí, to help them preserve their culture and raise awareness for the problem of deforestation.[76]

Non-profit organizations featured in Google Earth via the Outreach program include Arkive, the Global Heritage Fund, WaterAid, and the World Wide Fund for Nature.[77][78]

Google Earth Engine

Google Earth Engine is a cloud computing platform for processing satellite imagery and other geospatial and observation data. It provides access to a large database of satellite imagery and the computational power needed to analyze those images.[79] Google Earth Engine allows observation of dynamic changes in agriculture, natural resources, and climate using geospatial data from the Landsat satellite program, which passes over the same places on the Earth every sixteen days.[80][81] Google Earth Engine has become a platform that makes Landsat and Sentinel-2 data easily accessible to researchers in collaboration with the Google Cloud Storage.[80] The Google Earth Engine provides a data catalog along with computers for analysis; this allows scientists to collaborate using data, algorithms, and visualizations.[82] The platform uses Python and Javascript application programming interfaces for making requests to the servers.[83]

Google Earth Engine has been used multiple times as a tool for tracking deforestation. Initial applications of the engine have included mapping the forests of Mexico, identifying water in the Congo basin, and detecting deforestation in the Amazon rainforest.[84] Using the Google Earth Engine to track global forest loss or gain, the University of Maryland reported an overall loss in global forest cover.[85] The Carnegie Institute for Science's CLASlite system and Imazon’s Sisteme de Alerta de Deforesation (SAD) are two institutions that partnered with Google in the development of Google Earth Engine. Both organizations use the program to build maps of forests that measure environmental disturbances.[86] Additionally, Google Earth Engine has been expanded to further applications. These range from: Tiger Habitat Monitoring,[87] Malaria Risk Mapping[88] and Global Surface Water.[89]

Controversy and criticism

The software has been criticized by a number of special interest groups, including national officials, as being an invasion of privacy or posing a threat to national security. The typical argument is that the software provides information about military or other critical installations that could be used by terrorists. Google Earth has been blocked by Google in Iran[90] and Sudan[91] since 2007, due to United States government export restrictions. The program has also been blocked in Morocco since 2006 by Maroc Telecom, a major service provider in the country.[92]

Royal Stables
Blurred out image of the Royal Stables in The Hague, Netherlands. This has since been partially lifted.

In the academic realm, increasing attention has been devoted to both Google Earth and its place in the development of digital globes. In particular, the International Journal of Digital Earth features multiple articles evaluating and comparing the development Google Earth and its differences when compared to other professional, scientific, and governmental platforms.[93] Google Earth's role in the expansion of "earth observing media" has been examined for its role in shaping a shared cultural consciousness regarding climate change and humanity's capacity to treat the earth as an engineerable object.[94]

Defense

National security

Other concerns

  • Operators of the Lucas Heights nuclear reactor in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia asked Google to censor high-resolution pictures of the facility.[112] They later withdrew the request.[113]
  • In 2009, Google superimposed old woodblock prints of maps from 18th and 19th century Japan over Japan today. These maps marked areas inhabited by the burakumin caste, who were considered "non-humans" for their "dirty" occupations, including leather tanning and butchery. Descendants of members of the burakumin caste still face discrimination today and many Japanese people feared that some would use these areas, labeled etamura (穢多村, translation: "village of an abundance of defilement""), to target current inhabitants of them. These maps are still visible on Google Earth, but with the label removed where necessary.[114]
  • Late 2000s versions of Google Earth require a software component running in the background that will automatically download and install updates. Several users expressed concerns that there is not an easy way to disable this updater, as it runs without the permission of the user.[115]

See also

Similar programs

References

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External links

ARKive

ARKive was a global initiative with the mission of "promoting the conservation of the world's threatened species, through the power of wildlife imagery", which it did by locating and gathering films, photographs and audio recordings of the world's species into a centralised digital archive. Its priority was the completion of audio-visual profiles for the c. 17,000 species on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.The project was an initiative of Wildscreen, a UK-registered educational charity, based in Bristol. The technical platform was created by Hewlett Packard, as part of the HP Labs' Digital Media Systems research programme.ARKive had the backing of leading conservation organisations, including BirdLife International, Conservation International, International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), The United Nations' World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC), and the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF), as well as leading academic and research institutions, such as the Natural History Museum; Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew; and the Smithsonian Institution. It was a member of the Institutional Council of the Encyclopedia of Life.Two ARKive layers for Google Earth, featuring endangered species and species in the Gulf of Mexico were produced by Google Earth Outreach. The first of these was launched in April 2008 by Wildscreen's Patron, Sir David Attenborough.The website closed on 15 February 2019; its collection of images and videos remains securely stored for future generations.

Avenue of Technology (Philadelphia)

Avenue of Technology is a city designated technology-based district on a segment of Market Street in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The area is known for being the "portal of technology" of the city that includes the University City Science Center and Drexel University. The area was originally dedicated by the mayor Ed Rendell with street plates acknowledging this section of road with turquoise signs.In May 2014, a project with Google Earth will document the mobility in the region.

Chokurdakh Airport

Chokurdakh Airport (sometimes written Chokurdah Airport, Cokurdah Airport) (IATA: CKH, ICAO: UESO) is an airport in Yakutia, Russia located 1 km north of Chokurdakh. It is a major airfield handling small transport aircraft. Google Earth imagery shows a taxiway network on the north side, a feature not common to Russian civilian airports.

DAFIF

DAFIF (pronounced as DAY-fəf) or the Digital Aeronautical Flight Information File is a comprehensive database of up-to-date aeronautical data, including information on airports, airways, airspaces, navigation data and other facts relevant to flying in the entire world, managed by the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the United States.

Google Street View

Google Street View is a technology featured in Google Maps and Google Earth that provides interactive panoramas from positions along many streets in the world. It was launched in 2007 in several cities in the United States, and has since expanded to include cities and rural areas worldwide. Streets with Street View imagery available are shown as blue lines on Google Maps.

Google Street View displays panoramas of stitched images. Most photography is done by car, but some is done by trekker, tricycle, walking, boat, snowmobile, and underwater apparatus.

Keyhole Markup Language

Keyhole Markup Language (KML) is an XML notation for expressing geographic annotation and visualization within Internet-based, two-dimensional maps and three-dimensional Earth browsers. KML was developed for use with Google Earth, which was originally named Keyhole Earth Viewer. It was created by Keyhole, Inc, which was acquired by Google in 2004. KML became an international standard of the Open Geospatial Consortium in 2008. Google Earth was the first program able to view and graphically edit KML files. Other projects such as Marble have also started to develop KML support.

Kozyrevsk Airport

Kozyrevsk Airport (ICAO: UHPO) was an airport in Russia located 3 km northeast of Kozyrevsk. It is a minor paved airfield with a spartan, neglected appearance. The airport was closed in 1995 by the Russian Ministry of Transport for reasons of lower flight volumes and growing maintenance costs. Overhead imagery from Google Earth show vegetation intrusion in the former runway area beginning (no later than) 2005, and far progressed by 2016.

Lion (2016 film)

Lion is a 2016 biographical drama film directed by Garth Davis (in his feature debut) and written by Luke Davies, based on the non-fiction book A Long Way Home by Saroo Brierley. The film stars Dev Patel, Rooney Mara, David Wenham and Nicole Kidman, as well as Abhishek Bharate, Divian Ladwa, Priyanka Bose, Deepti Naval, Tannishtha Chatterjee, Nawazuddin Siddiqui and Sunny Pawar, and tells the true story of how Brierley, 25 years after being separated from his family in Burhanpur, sets out to find them.

The film, which had its world premiere at the Toronto International Film Festival on 10 October 2016, was given a limited release in the United States on 25 November 2016, by the Weinstein Company before opening generally on 6 January 2017. It was released in Australia on 19 January 2017 and in the United Kingdom on 20 January 2017.

Lion received six Oscar nominations at the 89th Academy Awards, including Best Picture, Best Supporting Actor (Patel), Best Supporting Actress (Kidman) and Best Adapted Screenplay. It won two BAFTA Awards for Best Supporting Actor (Patel) and Best Adapted Screenplay. The film was also commercially successful making $140 million worldwide, becoming one of the highest-grossing Australian films of all time.

List of extreme points of India

The extreme points of India include the coordinates that are further north, south, east or west than any other location in India; and the highest and the lowest altitudes in the country. The northernmost point claimed by India is in territory disputed between India and Pakistan. With the exception of Kanyakumari (Cape Comorin), the southern-most location of mainland India, all other extreme locations are uninhabited.

The latitude and longitude are expressed in decimal degree notation, in which a positive latitude value refers to the northern hemisphere, and a negative value refers to the southern hemisphere. Similarly, a positive longitude value refers to the eastern hemisphere, and a negative value refers to the western hemisphere. The coordinates used in this article are sourced from Google Earth, which makes use of the WGS84 geodetic reference system. Additionally, a negative altitude value refers to land below sea level.

Neftekamsk Airport

Neftekamsk Airport (Russian: Аэропорт Нефтекамск) (IATA: NEF, ICAO: UWUF) is an airport in Bashkortostan, Russia located 6 km northeast of Neftekamsk. It is a minor airfield.

Google Earth imagery from 2017-07-28 through (at least) 2018-09-10 shows the concrete runway marked with 'X's, indicating it is not operational. The grass runway remains open

Palana Airport

Palana Airport (Russian: Аэропорт Палана) (ICAO: UHPL) is an airport in Koryak Okrug, Russia located 4 km west of Palana. It services small transports. There is also the Palana New Airport, which appeared to be under construction around 2000 in Google Earth imagery.

Panoramio

Panoramio is a discontinued geo-located tagging, photo sharing mashup which was bought by Google in 2007. Accepted geo-located tagged photos uploaded to the site could be accessed as a layer in Google Earth and Google Maps, with new photos being added at the end of every month. The site's goal was to allow Google Earth users to learn more about a given area by viewing the photos that other users had taken at that location. The website was available in several languages. In 2009 the website was among 1000 most popular websites worldwide.The headquarters of Panoramio were originally located in Zurich in the office building of Google Switzerland, but subsequently were moved to Mountain View, California, USA.

Panoramio commenced in 2005, and officially closed on November 4, 2016. The layer in Google Earth was, however, available until January 2018. Still available, though, are the image source URL's.

Sail Rock (South Shetland Islands)

Sail Rock is the remaining uppermost part of a submerged volcanic edifice lying 7 nautical miles (13 km) southwest of Deception Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. It is 20 m long in southwest-northeast direction, 12 m wide and 30 m high. From a distance, the rock is reported to resemble a ship under sail, but at close range it is more like a house with a gable roof. The feature's name, which dates back to at least 1822, was probably given by sealers.

In June 2016, the Daily Mail published a satellite photo of the rock with the caption, "Has a Kraken been spotted on Google Earth?". with theories that the rock might be a giant squid, a plesiosaur, an underwater UFO, and other unlikely theories.

Sannihit Sarovar

Sannihit Sarovar is a sacred water reservoir in Thanesar in Kurukshetra district. It is believed to be the meeting point of seven sacred Sarasvatis. The sarovar, according to popular belief, contains sacred water. Bathing in the waters of the tank on the day of Amavasya (night of complete darkness) or on the day of an eclipse bestows blessings equivalent to performing the ashvamedh yajna.

Bathing in this sarovar is believed to offer peace to wandering and unhappy souls. Prayers and pind daan, a memorial service for the dead, is performed here. The Hindu genealogy registers at Kurukshetra, Haryana are kept here. Alongside the sarovar are small shrines dedicated to Lord Vishnu, Dhruv Narayan, Laxmi Narayan, Dhruv Bhagat, Sri Hanuman and Goddess Durga. The Sannihit Sarovar is believed to be the abode of Lord Vishnu.Find it on Google Earth at 29° 57' 60" N 76° 50' 08 E

Saratov South Air Base

Saratov South was a former air base in Russia located 8 km southwest of Saratov. And was a military airfield during the Cold War with 17 parking stands and tarmac space. It later served as a Yakovlev factory airfield.

Google Earth high-resolution imagery from the 2004-2005 time-frame showed one Yak-42 and a couple of general aviation propeller planes, indicating the airfield remained operational. However, imagery from late-2017 showed the runway and stands being de-constructed and multi-storied buildings under construction near the former apron areas.

Severouralsk Airport

Severouralsk Airport (Russian: Аэропорт Североуральск) (ICAO: USSE) is an airport in Russia located 6 km southeast of Severouralsk. Google Earth satellite imagery suggests that the original runway length was 2000 meters. It handles small transport and passenger aircraft (An-24, Tu-134, Yak-40).

The airport has been disused since the early 1990s, but its infrastructure is in satisfactory condition.

Vaskovo Airport

Vaskovo Airport (Russian: Аэропорт Васьково) is an airport in Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia located 13 km southwest of central Arkhangelsk as the crow flies but 19 km by road. It is 10 km west of Isakogorka station.

It is a general aviation airfield. Google Earth high-resolution imagery shows about 50 small propeller planes and a few helicopters.

The airport is the main base for the airline 2nd Arkhangelsk Aviation Enterprise.

Commercial flights in small prop-planes operate to the Solovetsky Islands three times a week.

Wikimapia

Wikimapia is a privately owned internet company that provides an open-content collaborative mapping project. The project implements an interactive "clickable" web map with a geographically-referenced wiki system, with the aim to mark and describe all geographical objects in the world.

Wikimapia was created by Alexandre Koriakine and Evgeniy Saveliev in May 2006. The data, a crowdsourced collection of places marked by registered users and guests, has grown to just under 28,000,000 objects as of November 2017, and is released under the Creative Commons License Attribution-ShareAlike (CC BY-SA). Although the project's name is reminiscent of that of Wikipedia, and the creators share the "wiki" philosophy, it is not a part of the non-profit Wikimedia Foundation family of wikis.

Zyryanka Airport

Zyryanka Airport (IATA: ZKP, ICAO: UESU) is the main airport serving the locality of Zyryanka, Verkhnekolymsky District in the Sakha Republic of Russia. When it cannot be used, the Zyryanka West Airport complements it.

Google Earth Images of June, 2017 show the runway covered by floodwaters, possibly destroyed.

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