Google's Chrome for Android is an edition of Google Chrome released for the Android system. On February 7, 2012, Google launched Google Chrome Beta for Android 4.0 (Ice Cream Sandwich) devices, for selected countries. The first stable version of the browser was released on June 27, 2012. Chrome 18.0.1026.311, released on September 26, 2012, was the first version of Chrome for Android to support Intel x86 based mobile devices.
|Google Chrome for Android|
Google Chrome running on Android Oreo
|Initial release||June 27, 2012|
|73.0.3683.75 (March 12, 2019) [±]|
|Operating system||Android KitKat and later|
|License||Freeware vastly based on Chromium (mostly BSD license)|
'Google Chrome Beta' for Android devices was available for devices running the Android 4.0 (Ice Cream Sandwich) or above version of the operating system. It was launched on February 7, 2012, for a limited number of countries. The Android version can be installed from Google Play. It currently lacks some features available in the desktop version, but has some additional features:
On June 27, 2012 Google Chrome for Android exited beta and became stable.
Google brought Chrome for Android in line with the desktop version with Chrome 25. They released a separate Chrome for Android beta channel on January 10, 2013, which runs side-by-side with the stable channel for Android.
JR Raphael, writing for Computerworld noted "[It] functions separately from the stock system browser -- and offers plenty of advantages over it, too." "Chrome for Android gets tabs right. [...] [it] automatically pops up a magnified view anytime you tap a link that's close to other links on the page". "Perhaps the most impressive feature of Chrome for Android is its integrated sync capability [including] the ability to sync open tabs, meaning you can actually see what tabs you have open on any other Chrome-running device." "One of the biggest benefits of the new Chrome Android browser is its speed" concluding that "My first impression, without a doubt, is that Chrome for Android is a tremendous step forward for Android-based browsing".
Android "Jelly Bean" is the tenth version of Android and the codename given to three major point releases of the Android mobile operating system developed by Google, spanning versions between 4.1 and 4.3.1.
The first of these three, 4.1, was unveiled at Google's I/O developer conference in June 2012, focusing on performance improvements designed to give the operating system a smoother and more responsive feel, improvements to the notification system allowing for "expandable" notifications with action buttons, and other internal changes. Two more releases were made under the Jelly Bean name in October 2012 and July 2013 respectively, including 4.2—which included further optimizations, multi-user support for tablets, lock screen widgets, quick settings, and screen savers, and 4.3—contained further improvements and updates to the underlying Android platform.
Jelly Bean versions are no longer supported. As of October 2018, statistics issued by Google indicate that 3.0% of all Android devices accessing Google Play run Jelly Bean. However, this does not mean that a greater number of devices running Jelly Bean aren't out there, sideloading apps rather than getting them from Google Play due to the lack of support for the last version of Android to have truly expandable memory (Expandable memory was broken on KitKat and Lollipop, then tied to the device on Marshmallow).Android Runtime
Android Runtime (ART) is an application runtime environment used by the Android operating system. Replacing Dalvik, the process virtual machine originally used by Android, ART performs the translation of the application's bytecode into native instructions that are later executed by the device's runtime environment.Android 2.2 "Froyo" brought trace-based just-in-time (JIT) compilation into Dalvik, optimizing the execution of applications by continually profiling applications each time they run and dynamically compiling frequently executed short segments of their bytecode into native machine code. While Dalvik interprets the rest of application's bytecode, native execution of those short bytecode segments, called "traces", provides significant performance improvements.Unlike Dalvik, ART introduces the use of ahead-of-time (AOT) compilation by compiling entire applications into native machine code upon their installation. By eliminating Dalvik's interpretation and trace-based JIT compilation, ART improves the overall execution efficiency and reduces power consumption, which results in improved battery autonomy on mobile devices. At the same time, ART brings faster execution of applications, improved memory allocation and garbage collection (GC) mechanisms, new applications debugging features, and more accurate high-level profiling of applications.To maintain backward compatibility, ART uses the same input bytecode as Dalvik, supplied through standard .dex files as part of APK files, while the .odex files are replaced with Executable and Linkable Format (ELF) executables. Once an application is compiled by using ART's on-device dex2oat utility, it is run solely from the compiled ELF executable; as a result, ART eliminates various application execution overheads associated with Dalvik's interpretation and trace-based JIT compilation. As a downside, ART requires additional time for the compilation when an application is installed, and applications take up slightly larger amounts of secondary storage (which is usually flash memory) to store the compiled code. Android 4.4 KitKat brought a technology preview of ART, including it as an alternative runtime environment and keeping Dalvik as the default virtual machine. In the subsequent major Android release, Android 5.0 Lollipop, Dalvik was entirely replaced by ART. Android 7.0 Nougat introduced JIT compiler with code profiling to ART, which lets it constantly improve the performance of Android apps as they run. The JIT compiler complements ART's current Ahead of Time compiler and helps improve runtime performance.Android application package
Android Package (APK) is the package file format used by the Android operating system for distribution and installation of mobile apps and middleware.
APK files are analogous to other software packages such as APPX in Microsoft Windows or a Debian package in Debian-based operating system. To make an APK file, a program for Android is first compiled, and then all of its part are packaged into one container file. An APK file contains all of a program's code (such as .dex files), resources, assets, certificates, and manifest file. As is the case with many file formats, APK files can have any name needed, provided that the file name ends in the file extension ".apk".APK files are a type of archive file, specifically in zip format-type packages, based on the JAR file format, with .apk as the filename extension. The MIME type associated with APK files is application/vnd.android.package-archive.APK files can be installed on Android-powered devices just like installing software on a PC. When a user downloads and installs an Android application, from either an official source (such as the Google Play Store), or from an unofficial site, they are installing an APK file on to their device. A user or developer can also install an APK file directly to a device (that is, not via download from the network) from a desktop computer, using a communication program such as adb, or from within a file manager app in a process known as sideloading. The installation of APK files downloaded outside the Google Play is disabled by default. Users can install unknown APK files by enabling "Unknown sources" from "Accounts and Security" in Settings.CyanogenMod
CyanogenMod ( sy-AN-o-jen-mod; CM) is a discontinued open-source operating system for mobile devices, based on the Android mobile platform. It was developed as free and open-source software based on the official releases of Android by Google, with added original and third-party code, and based on a rolling release development model. Although only a subset of total CyanogenMod users elected to report their use of the firmware, on 23 March 2015, some reports indicated that over 50 million people ran CyanogenMod on their phones. It was also frequently used as a starting point by developers of other ROMs.
In 2013, the founder, Steve Kondik, obtained venture funding under the name Cyanogen Inc. to allow commercialization of the project. However, the company did not, in his view, capitalize on the project's success, and in 2016 he left or was forced out as part of a corporate restructure, which involved a change of CEO, closure of offices and projects, and cessation of services, and therefore left uncertainty over the future of the company. The code itself, being open source, was later forked, and its development continues as a community project under the LineageOS name.CyanogenMod offered features and options not found in the official firmware distributed by mobile device vendors. Features supported by CyanogenMod included native theme support, FLAC audio codec support, a large Access Point Name list, Privacy Guard (per-application permission management application), support for tethering over common interfaces, CPU overclocking and other performance enhancements, unlockable bootloader and root access, soft buttons, status bar customisation and other "tablet tweaks", toggles in the notification pull-down (such as Wi-Fi, Bluetooth and GPS), and other interface enhancements. CyanogenMod did not contain spyware or bloatware, according to its developers. CyanogenMod was also said to increase performance and reliability compared with official firmware releases.The name CyanogenMod derived from cyanogen (the name of a chemical compound adopted as a nickname by Kondik) + Mod (a term for user-developed modifications, known as modding).Firefox for Android
Firefox for Android (codenamed Fennec) is the build of the Mozilla Firefox web browser for devices such as smartphones and tablet computers. Mozilla also makes another mobile browser for iOS called Firefox for iOS.
Firefox for Android uses the same Gecko layout engine as Mozilla Firefox, also incorporated new technology under the code name Quantum. For example, version 1.0 used the same engine as Firefox 3.6, and the following release, 4.0, shared core code with Firefox 4.0. Its features include HTML5 support, Firefox Sync, add-ons support and tabbed browsing.Google Chrome
Google Chrome (commonly known simply as Chrome) is a cross-platform web browser developed by Google. It was first released in 2008 for Microsoft Windows, and was later ported to Linux, macOS, iOS, and Android. The browser is also the main component of Chrome OS, where it serves as the platform for web apps.
Most of Chrome's source code comes from Google's open-source Chromium project, but Chrome is licensed as proprietary freeware. WebKit was the original rendering engine, but Google eventually forked it to create the Blink engine; all Chrome variants except iOS now use Blink.As of February 2019, StatCounter estimates that Chrome has a 62% worldwide browser market share across all platforms. Because of this success, Google has expanded the "Chrome" brand name to other products: Chrome OS, Chromecast, Chromebook, Chromebit, Chromebox, and Chromebase.Google Play Services
Google Play Services is a proprietary background service and API package for Android devices from Google. When first introduced in 2012, it provided simple access to the Google+ APIs and OAuth 2.0, but since then it has expanded to cover a large variety of Google's services, allowing applications to easily communicate with the services through common means. As of April 2018, it has been installed more than five billion times on Android devices.Google Trips
Google Trips is a trip planner mobile app developed by Google for the Android and iOS operating systems. The mobile app launched on September 19, 2016 for Android and iOS.HTML5 audio
HTML5 Audio is a subject of the HTML5 specification, incorporating audio input, playback, and synthesis, as well as speech to text, in the browser.Huawei EMUI
Huawei EMUI, formerly known as Emotion UI, is a custom mobile operating system that is based on Android that Huawei uses on most Huawei Smartphone devices and its subsidiaries the Honor series.Internet Explorer Mobile
Internet Explorer Mobile (formerly named Pocket Internet Explorer; commonly abbreviated to IE Mobile) is a discontinued mobile browser developed by Microsoft, based on versions of the Trident layout engine. IE Mobile comes loaded by default with Windows Phone and Windows CE. Later versions of Internet Explorer Mobile (since Windows Phone 8) are based on the desktop version of Internet Explorer. Older versions however, called Pocket Internet Explorer (found on Windows Phone 7 and Windows Mobile), are not based on the same layout engine.
Internet Explorer Mobile 11, the last version that was supported, is based on the desktop version of Internet Explorer 11 and came with Windows Phone 8.1. A new browser, Microsoft Edge replaced Internet Explorer Mobile in Windows 10 Mobile.List of Android app stores
The functionality of mobile devices running the Android operating system, the most used mobile operating system globally, can be extended using "apps" – specialized software designed to offer users the means to use their devices for certain additional purposes. Such apps are compiled in the Android-native APK file format which allows easy redistribution of apps to end-users.
Most apps are distributed through Google's Play Store but many alternative software repositories, or app stores, exist. Alternative app stores use the "Unknown Sources" option of Android devices to install APK files directly via the Android Package Manager.List of Google apps for Android
The list of Google apps for Android lists the mobile apps developed by Google for its Android operating system. All of these apps are available for free from the Google Play Store, although some may not show up in search results if they are listed as incompatible with your device (even though they may still function from an *.apk). Some of Google's apps may be pre-installed on some devices, depending upon the device manufacturer and the version of Android. A few of these apps, such as Gboard, are not supported on older versions of Android.Nexus 7 (2012)
The first-generation Nexus 7 is a mini tablet computer co-developed by Google and Asus that runs the Android operating system. It is the first tablet in the Google Nexus series of Android consumer devices marketed by Google and built by an original equipment manufacturer partner. The Nexus 7 features a 7-inch (180 mm) display, an Nvidia Tegra 3 quad-core chip, 1 GB of memory, Wi-Fi and near field communication connectivity, and 8, 16 or 32 GB of storage. The tablet was the first device to ship with version 4.1 of Android, nicknamed "Jelly Bean". By emphasizing the integration of the Google Play multimedia store with Android 4.1, Google intended to market the Nexus 7 as an entertainment device and a platform for consuming e-books, television shows, films, games, and music.
Design work on the Nexus 7 began in January 2012 after a meeting between Google and Asus executives at International CES. The device's design was based on Asus' Eee Pad MeMO ME370T tablet that had been showcased at the conference. Following a hectic four-month development period during which the device was modified to reach a US$199 price point, mass production started in May. It was unveiled at the Google I/O annual developer conference on June 27, when it also became available for pre-order through Google Play. Shipping commenced in mid-July 2012 to Australia, Canada, the United States, and the United Kingdom, before the tablet was progressively released in other regions. Google expanded the Nexus 7 lineup in October 2012 with the introduction of 32 GB versions, available in Wi-Fi–only and HSPA+ cellular-ready varieties.
The Nexus 7 received positive reviews from critics, particularly for its competitive pricing, premium-quality build, and powerful hardware. Common criticisms included the absence of cellular connectivity from initial models and no expandable storage. The Nexus 7 has been commercially successful, selling approximately 4.5–4.6 million units in 2012 and 7 million units overall. It received honors for "Gadget of the Year" and "Tablet of the Year" in T3 magazine's 2012 awards, and was also named "Best Mobile Tablet" at the 2013 Global Mobile Awards. The second generation Nexus 7 was released on July 26, 2013.Oracle America, Inc. v. Google, Inc.
Oracle America, Inc. v. Google, Inc. is a current legal case within the United States related to the nature of computer code and copyright law. The dispute arose from Oracle's copyright and patent claims on Google's Android operating system. Oracle had come into ownership of the Java programming language including its patents, documentation and libraries through the language's application programming interfaces (APIs), through its acquisition of Sun Microsystems. Oracle made this information freely available to developers to use, but licensed its standard implementation on various platforms including mobile devices. Google developed its Android operating system atop the Java language, including its APIs and a cleanroom version of the standard implementation, to build its own mobile device platform. While Sun had not taken action against Google prior to its acquisition, Oracle became concerned that the Android operating system was a competing product, and filed a lawsuit against Google, claiming both copyright and patent violations. Google claimed that it was unaware of any patent infringements and that its use of the freely available APIs was within fair use allowances. Oracle has sought upward of US$8.8 billion in damages due to the commercial success of the Android system.
In May 2012, the jury trial at District Court found for Google, stating that Google had not infringed on the Java patents, and that the APIs were uncopyrightable. On appeal in May 2014, the Federal Circuit partially reversed the district court ruling, ruling in Oracle's favor on the copyrightability issue, and remanding the issue of copyright and fair use back to the District Court. A second jury trial related to the fair use issue still ruled in favor of Google in May 2016, in that the use of the APIs by Google fell within fair use. Oracle appealed to the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit, which found in March 2018 that Google's reuse of the APIs had not been fair use, ruling in favor of Oracle. The Court considered the reuse was neither minimal nor transformative, and that Google's actions affected the value of Oracle's copyright. The case is currently remanded to the lower district court to determine damages, though Google has petitioned the Supreme Court of the United States to rule on the fundamental questions related to the copyrightability of APIs.
The case is of significant interest within the tech and software industries, as numerous software programs and libraries, particularly in open source, are developed by recreating the functionality of APIs from commercial or competing products to aid developers in interoperability between different systems or platforms.Outline of Google
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Google:
Google – American multinational technology company specializing in Internet-related services and products that include online advertising technologies, search, cloud computing, software, and hardware.Paranoid Android (software)
Paranoid Android is an open-source operating system for smartphones and tablet computers, based on the Android mobile platform.
In September 2015, PC Advisor called it the most famous ROM along with CyanogenMod, and The Economic Times called it the second-largest custom Android ROM in the world with over 200 000 users.Resurrection Remix OS
Resurrection Remix OS known as RR in short is a free and open-source operating system for smartphones and tablet computers, based on the Android mobile platform. UX Designer and Head developer Altan KRK started the Project in 2012.As of February 2018, the Android Nougat based version had been installed on over 900,000 devices.
On February 9 2018, Resurrection Remix 6.0.0 was released, based on Android 8.1 Oreo after months in development
On early 2019 Resurrection Remix 7.0.0 and 7.0.1 was released, based on Android 9 PieSencha Touch