Google Calendar

Google Calendar is a time-management and scheduling calendar service developed by Google. It became available in beta release April 13, 2006, and in general release in July 2009, on the web and as mobile apps for the Android and iOS platforms.

Google Calendar allows users to create and edit events. Reminders can be enabled for events, with options available for type and time. Event locations can also be added, and other users can be invited to events. Users can enable or disable the visibility of special calendars, including Birthdays, where the app retrieves dates of births from Google contacts and displays birthday cards on a yearly basis, and Holidays, a country-specific calendar that displays dates of special occasions. Over time, Google has added functionality that makes use of machine learning, including "Events from Gmail", where event information from a user's Gmail messages are automatically added to Google Calendar; "Reminders", where users add to-do activities that can be automatically updated with new information; "Smart Suggestions", where the app recommends titles, contacts, and locations when creating events; and "Goals", where users enter information on a specified personal goal, and the app automatically schedules the activity at optimal times.

Google Calendar's mobile apps have received polarized reviews. 2015 reviews of the Android and iOS apps both praised and criticized the design. While some critics praised the design for being "cleaner", "bold" and making use of "colorful graphics", other reviewers asserted that the graphics took up too much space. The Smart Suggestions feature was also liked and disliked, with varying levels of success in the app actually managing to suggest relevant information upon event creation. The integration between Google Calendar and Gmail was praised, however, with critics writing that "all of the relevant details are there".

Google Calendar
Google Calendar screenshot
Initial releaseBeta - April 13, 2006 General - July 2009
Stable release(s) [±]
Android6.0.22-234118388-release / February 25, 2019[1]
iOS2.56.0 / August 22, 2018[2]
PlatformWeb, Android, iOS
TypeElectronic calendaring


Google Calendar allows users to create and edit events. Events have a set start time and stop time, with an option for an "All-day event". Users can enable a "Recurring" functionality with optional parameters for frequency. Users can add a color to an event for recognition or to distinguish the event from others. Users can optionally set notifications, with options for type (email, mobile push notification) and time. Locations can be added for easy understanding of an event's place. Events are viewable in different types of setups, including day, week, month, or schedule. Users can invite other people to events; for other Google Calendar users, the event becomes visible in their calendar, and for non-Google Calendar users, an email will have options for "Yes", "No", or "Maybe". Privacy settings allow the user to define the levels of public visibility of the entire calendar or individual events. Although the calendar defaults to showing users event times in their local time, users can specify a different time zone for an event. Users can enable or disable the visibility of special calendars, including a Birthdays calendar, that automatically retrieves dates of births from a user's Google contacts and displays the dates on a yearly basis, and a Holidays calendar, a country-specific calendar featuring dates of special occasions.[3]

The user interface of Google Calendar was originally designed by Kevin Fox.[4] Google Calendar allows the user to import events from a different calendar application, with notable support for both Microsoft Outlook and Apple iCloud calendars.[5]


In December 2010, Google added the ability for users to select a time zone for an event,[6] a notable feature that was previously missing; the feature's absence was criticized in the media.[7]

In August 2015, Google added an "Events from Gmail" feature, where event information from a user's Gmail messages are automatically added to Google Calendar. The feature, enabled by default, will also update events with new information based on new email messages received, such as flight delays.[8][9]

In December 2015, Google added a "Reminders" feature, enabling users to add to-do activities as Reminders, with those activities being displayed in the calendar alongside regular events. Google also states that Reminders can automatically add additional, helpful information to Reminders based on known details, such as numbers or addresses. Reminders serves as a cross-service feature, meaning Reminders also show up in Inbox by Gmail, Google Now, and Google Keep.[10]

In January 2016, Google added "Smart Suggestions" to Google Calendar on the mobile apps. Smart suggestions recommend titles of events, as well as locations and contacts.[11] At the same time as Smart Suggestions, Google also added holiday calendars for 54 new countries, adding up to a total of 143 country-specific holiday calendars.[12]

In April 2016, Google added a "Goals" feature. Goals are activities the user wishes to complete. After answering brief questions, including "How often?" and "Best time?", Google Calendar will automatically "find the best windows to pencil in time for that goal", with the calendar adapting to the user's schedule over time, such as rescheduling a goal activity if an event is added that causes a direct conflict with the time of the goal.[13][14] The feature was expanded in January 2017 with support for Google Fit and Apple Health, to see the progress made towards completing a goal.[15][16]

In March 2017, the iOS app was updated to feature support for the iPad,[17][18] and it was again updated in July to add a widget in the iOS "Today" panel.[19][20]

In June 2017, following May's announcement of Google's new Family Groups feature across several of its services,[21][22] Google began rolling out "family calendars" for users in Google Calendar. The feature lets family members create shared events visible in a "Family" calendar option.[23]

G Suite

For users of Google's G Suite service, a subscription service for business, education and government customers offering additional functionality, Google Calendar has a "Finding a time" feature that can suggest the best time for an event with a group of people, based on available times for each individual in the group. Additionally, the feature can also schedule the meeting room.[24][25]


Google Calendar entered a limited beta release on April 13, 2006,[26] and exited the beta stage in July 2009.[27] Initially only available on the web and on the Android operating system, an iOS app was released on March 10, 2015.[28][29]


In a March 2015 review of the Android app, Sarah Mitroff of CNET wrote that the new Material Design-inspired app was "cleaner", with "fewer distractions and colorful graphics that add a lot of personality to an otherwise dull app". She praised the Smart Suggestions feature for making new event creation easy, adding that "Even after just a few letters, the app will suggest the most relevant appointments. This is a great feature for creating events that occur over and over, like a haircut or doctor's appointment, because the app remembers the phrases you use". She complimented the integration between Google Calendar and Gmail, writing that "All of the relevant details are there, including confirmation numbers, links to the source email, even gate assignments for flights", and called it "one of my favorite parts of the app", but also noted that the feature could be turned off. Furthermore, she praised "the personal design touches that keep it from looking dull", namely the app offering visual illustrations for certain types of events, like a bucket of popcorn for movie events, or a visual map of the event location, as well as themed illustrations for different months, including "a snow-covered mountain and a skier" for December. Overall, she wrote that Google Calendar "is a reliable, simple and playful alternative to your device's built-in calendar" and that it is "efficient and a breeze to use".[30]

In contrast, Allyson Kazmucha of iMore criticized several aspects of the iPhone app. She wrote that "The first thing you notice about Google Calendar is the bold interface", adding that "Google automatically detects certain event types and puts graphics behind them, which is a nice touch". However, she criticized the amount of space the graphics take up, writing that "it wastes a lot of space that could be used to show more events at a glance. It's not a huge peeve, but for anyone who has a busy calendar, it could result in a lot of scrolling". She also criticized the Smart Suggestions, writing that "in my short time using Google Calendar, the natural language support leaves a lot to be desired. I had trouble typing times or days and getting Google to understand it". She did, however, like the view options available, writing that "The three day view is one of my favorites", but also noted that there was a lack of "the ability to quickly drag events around to reschedule them". Kazmucha also criticized the then-lack of a widget in the Notification Center, but wrote conclusively that "Google Calendar is off to a good start but it isn't making me switch away from [current calendar app]."[31]

Derek Walter of Macworld, however, praised the iPhone app, writing that "It’s a gorgeous calendar app that mines your Gmail account to automatically add events", with "a splash of color and graphics for effect". Walter also criticized the then-lack of a widget in the Notification Center, as well as the then-lack of iPad support. Walter called the Material Design "rather elegant and polished, with a focus on parceling off information for easy viewing, registering touches with a subtle splash on the screen, and using a lot of visuals cues", but noted that "it’s not for everyone, especially if you prefer Apple’s design overhaul first introduced in iOS 7. You’ll also find that some elements of Material Design don’t translate well to the iPhone, such as the loss of the slide gesture to go back".[32]

See also


  1. ^ "Google Calendar". APKMirror. Android Police. March 11, 2018. Retrieved March 11, 2018.
  2. ^ "Google Calendar". App Store. Apple Inc. March 11, 2018. Retrieved March 11, 2018.
  3. ^ "Google Calendar Desktop App for Windows 10 / Mac – An Ultimate Guide". Retrieved January 22, 2019.
  4. ^ Lenssen, Philipp (June 2, 2008). "Kevin Fox of Gmail & FriendFeed on User Experience Design". Google Blogoscoped. Retrieved January 10, 2017.
  5. ^ "Import events to Google Calendar". Calendar Help. Google. Retrieved January 10, 2017.
  6. ^ Kyreiev, Oleksandr (December 7, 2010). "Event time zones in Google Calendar". Official Gmail Blog. Google. Retrieved January 10, 2017.
  7. ^ Sullivan, Mark (September 27, 2010). "Is Google Calendar Time-Zone Challenged?". PC World. International Data Group. Retrieved January 10, 2017.
  8. ^ "Save time planning business travel and more with events from Gmail on Google Calendar". G Suite Updates. Google. August 25, 2015. Retrieved January 10, 2017.
  9. ^ Protalinski, Emil (August 25, 2015). "Gmail will now automatically add Google Calendar events for emails with flight, hotel, restaurant, or ticket info". VentureBeat. Retrieved January 10, 2017.
  10. ^ Umapathy, Vijay (December 7, 2015). "Add to-dos to your Google Calendar using Reminders". The Keyword Google Blog. Google. Retrieved January 10, 2017.
  11. ^ "Smart suggestions in Google Calendar for event titles, places and people―now in more than 30 new languages". G Suite Updates. Google. January 28, 2016. Retrieved January 10, 2017.
  12. ^ "54 new country-based holiday calendars added to the Google Calendar app". G Suite Updates. Google. January 28, 2016. Retrieved January 10, 2017.
  13. ^ Ramnath, Jyoti (April 12, 2016). "Find time for your goals with Google Calendar". The Keyword Google Blog. Google. Retrieved January 10, 2017.
  14. ^ Shu, Catherine (April 12, 2016). "Google Calendar's newest feature uses machine learning to help you actually accomplish your goals". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved January 10, 2017.
  15. ^ Goerisch, Florian (January 5, 2017). "Track your New Year's fitness goals with Google Calendar". The Keyword Google Blog. Google. Retrieved January 10, 2017.
  16. ^ Vincent, James (January 5, 2017). "Google Calendar update makes it easier to track your New Year's fitness goals". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved January 10, 2017.
  17. ^ Bohn, Dieter (March 29, 2017). "Google Calendar finally has a proper iPad app". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved March 29, 2017.
  18. ^ Fingas, Jon (March 29, 2017). "Google's official calendar app is finally ready for your iPad". Engadget. AOL. Retrieved March 29, 2017.
  19. ^ Kahn, Jordan (July 7, 2017). "Google Calendar for iOS adds Today Widget". 9to5Mac. Retrieved July 7, 2017.
  20. ^ Gartenberg, Chaim (July 7, 2017). "Google Calendar gets an iOS widget, nearly three years after widgets launched". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved July 7, 2017.
  21. ^ Welch, Chris (May 23, 2017). "Google adds easy, simple family sharing to Calendar, Keep, and Photos". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved June 4, 2017.
  22. ^ Whitwam, Ryan (May 23, 2017). "Google family groups make it easy to share photos, calendars, Keep, YouTube TV, and more". Android Police. Retrieved June 4, 2017.
  23. ^ Davenport, Corbin (June 3, 2017). "Google family calendars are going live". Android Police. Retrieved June 4, 2017.
  24. ^ Asara, Federico (September 29, 2016). "Save time with smart scheduling in Google Calendar". The Keyword Google Blog. Google. Retrieved January 10, 2017.
  25. ^ "Smarter meeting scheduling in Google Calendar on the web". G Suite Updates. Google. January 19, 2017. Retrieved January 20, 2017.
  26. ^ Sjogreen, Carl (April 13, 2016). "It's about time". Official Google Blog. Google. Retrieved January 10, 2017.
  27. ^ Glotzbach, Matthew (July 7, 2009). "Google Apps is out of beta (yes, really)". Official Google Blog. Google. Retrieved January 10, 2017.
  28. ^ Bonnington, Christina (March 10, 2015). "Google's Calendar App Finally Arrives on the iPhone". Wired. Condé Nast. Retrieved March 7, 2017.
  29. ^ Kahn, Jordan (March 10, 2015). "Google releases Calendar for iPhone app". 9to5Mac. Retrieved March 7, 2017.
  30. ^ Mitroff, Sarah (March 13, 2015). "Google Calendar for Android review". CNET. CBS Interactive. Retrieved March 7, 2017.
  31. ^ Kazmucha, Allyson (March 18, 2015). "Google Calendar for iPhone review". iMore. Retrieved March 7, 2017.
  32. ^ Walter, Derek (March 11, 2015). "Hands on with Google Calendar for iPhone: An awesome calendar for Gmail addicts". Macworld. International Data Group. Retrieved March 7, 2017.

External links

Astrid (application)

Astrid was a multi-platform to-do list and task management application that was created in San Francisco, CA in 2008. It was identified by the company's octopus icon. The service reminded users of scheduled tasks and was designed for limited integration with Google Calendar. Yahoo! acquired the company on May 1, 2013 and shuttered the Astrid service on August 5, 2013.

Calendar (Apple)

Calendar is a personal calendar app made by Apple Inc. that runs on both the macOS desktop operating system and the iOS mobile operating system. It offers online cloud backup of calendars using Apple's iCloud service, or can synchronize with other calendar services, including Google Calendar and Microsoft Exchange Server.

The macOS version was known as iCal before the release of OS X Mountain Lion in July 2012. Originally released as a free download for Mac OS X v10.2 on September 10, 2002, it was bundled with the operating system as iCal 1.5 with the release of Mac OS X v10.3. iCal was the first calendar application for Mac OS X to offer support for multiple calendars and the ability to intermittently publish/subscribe to calendars on WebDAV servers. Version 2 of iCal was released as part of Mac OS X v10.4, Version 3 as part of Mac OS X v10.5, Version 4 as part of Mac OS X v10.6, Version 5 as part of Mac OS X v10.7, Version 6 as part of OS X v10.8, Version 7 as part of OS X v10.9, Version 8 as part of OS X v10.10 and OS X v10.11, and version 9 as part of macOS v10.12.

Apple licensed the iCal name from Brown Bear Software, who have used it for their iCal application since 1997.iCal's initial development was quite different from other Apple software: it was designed independently by a small French team working "secretly" in Paris, led by Jean-Marie Hullot, a friend of Steve Jobs. iCal's development has since been transferred to Apple US headquarters in Cupertino.

Calendar (Windows)

Calendar is a personal calendar application made by Microsoft. It offers synchronization of calendars using Microsoft Exchange Server, Apple's iCloud calendar service, and Google Calendar. It supports the popular iCalendar format.

Calendaring software

Calendaring software is software that minimally provides users with an electronic version of a calendar. Additionally, the software may provide an appointment book, address book, and/or contact list. These tools are an extension of many of the features provided by time management software such as desk accessory packages and computer office automation systems. Calendaring is a standard feature of many PDAs, EDAs and smartphones and also of many office suites for personal computers.

The software may be a local application designed for individual use (e.g. the Lightning extension for Mozilla Thunderbird, Microsoft Outlook without Exchange Server, or Windows Calendar) or may be a networked package that allows for the sharing of information between users (e.g. Mozilla Sunbird, Windows Live Calendar, Google Calendar, or Microsoft Outlook with Exchange Server).

G Suite

G Suite (formerly Google Apps for Work and Google Apps for Your Domain) is a brand of cloud computing, productivity and collaboration tools, software and products developed by Google, first launched on August 28, 2006 as "Google Apps for Your Domain". G Suite comprises Gmail, Hangouts, Calendar, and Google+ for communication; Drive for storage; Docs, Sheets, Slides, Forms, and Sites for collaboration; and, depending on the plan, an Admin panel and Vault for managing users and the services. It also includes the digital interactive whiteboard Jamboard and the app development platform App Maker.

While these services are free to use for consumers, G Suite adds enterprise features such as custom email addresses at a domain (, option for unlimited cloud storage (depending on plan and number of members), additional administrative tools and advanced settings, as well as 24/7 phone and email support.Being based in Google's data centers, data and information is saved instantly and then synchronized to other data centers for backup purposes. Unlike the free, consumer-facing services, G Suite users do not see advertisements while using the services, and information and data in G Suite accounts do not get used for advertisement purposes. Furthermore, G Suite administrators can fine-tune security and privacy settings.

As of January 2017, G Suite has 4 million paying businesses, and 70 million G Suite for Education users.

G Suite Marketplace

G Suite Marketplace (formerly Google Apps Marketplace) is a product of Google Inc. It is an online store for web applications that work with Google Apps (Gmail, Google Docs, Google Sites, Google Calendar, Google Contacts, etc.) and with third party software. Some Apps are free. Apps are based on Google APIs or on Google Apps Script.

Google Classroom

Google Classroom is a free web service developed by Google for schools that aim to simplify creating, distributing and grading assignments in a paperless way. The primary purpose of Google Classroom is to streamline the process of sharing files between teachers and students.Google Classroom combines Google Drive for assignment creation and distribution, Google Docs, Sheets and Slides for writing, Gmail for communication, and Google Calendar for scheduling. Students can be invited to join a class through a private code, or automatically imported from a school domain. Each class creates a separate folder in the respective user's Drive, where the student can submit work to be a graded by a teacher. Mobile apps, available for iOS and Android devices, let users take photos and attach to assignments, share files from other apps, and access information offline. Teachers can monitor the progress for each student, and after being graded, teachers can return work along with comments.

Google Data Liberation Front

The Google Data Liberation Front is an engineering team at Google whose "goal is to make it easier for users to move their data in and out of Google products." The team, which consults with other engineering teams within Google on how to "liberate" Google products, currently supports 27 products. The purpose of the Data Liberation Front is to ensure that data can be migrated from Google once an individual or company stops using their services.

Google Labs

Google Labs was a page created by Google to demonstrate and test new projects.

Google described Google Labs as "a playground where our more adventurous users can play around with prototypes of some of our wild and crazy ideas and offer feedback directly to the engineers who developed them."

Google also uses an invitation-only phase for trusted testers to test projects including Gmail, Google Calendar and Google Wave and many of these have their own "labs" webpages for experimental projects unique to each product.

In 2006, all Google Labs products had a consistent logo, using the flask, and a gray title, as opposed to other color-coded Google products, such as Google News and Google Maps.

Google Sync

Google Sync was a file synchronization service from Google that provided over-the-air synchronization of Gmail, Google Contacts, and Google Calendar with PC and mobile device Mail, Calendar and Address Book applications. It used Microsoft® Exchange ActiveSync® to let service users synchronize their Google Apps mail, contacts, and calendars to their mobile devices, wherein the users can also set up or customize the alerts for incoming messages and upcoming meetings. Google Sync worked with PC, Mac, Linux, Android, BlackBerry, Symbian S60, iPhone, iPad, Windows Mobile, and other devices. Google Sync was announced in February 2009 and discontinued for non-business users in December 2012.

Google Takeout

Google Takeout (Google Takeaway in some languages, on the site itself called "Download your data") is a project by the Google Data Liberation Front that allows users of Google products, such as YouTube and Gmail, to export their data to a downloadable archive file.

Google for Work

Google for Work (also referred to as Google Apps for Work) was a service from Google that provides customizable enterprise versions of several Google products using a domain name provided by the customer. It featured several Web applications with similar functionality to traditional office suites, including Gmail, Hangouts, Google Calendar, Google Drive, Docs, Sheets, Slides, Groups, News, Play, Sites, and Vault. It was the vision of Rajen Sheth, a Google employee who later developed Chromebooks.

History of Gmail

The public history of Gmail dates back to 2004. Gmail, a free, advertising-supported webmail service with support for Email clients, is a product from Google. Over its history, the Gmail interface has become integrated with many other products and services from the company, with basic integration as part of Google Account and specific integration points with services such as Google+, Google Calendar, Google Drive, Google Hangouts, YouTube, and Google Buzz. It has also been made available as part of G Suite. The Official Gmail Blog tracks the public history of Gmail from July 2007.

Holiline Reminder

Holiline Reminder is a free software calendar program for Windows.

Holiline Reminder is characterized by very small space and memory requirements, stability, and an easily customizable user-interface. Holiline Reminder places birthday countdowns, special holidays, and upcoming weddings in a creeping line banner that will stay at the top or bottom of a desktop. It has common functions such as a to-do list and a calendar and unique functions such as a creeping line and adjusting colors to a desktop.

Different event types have a different set of displayed field and a different text of a notification. Each event type can be supplemented with a photo which is displayed in a tooltip. Calendars can also be imported using widespread iCal files.

Holiline Reminder is available as of 2012 in 16 languages.

Alternatives to Holiline Reminder include Google Calendar, Rainlendar and DeskTask.


The Internet Calendaring and Scheduling Core Object Specification (iCalendar) is a MIME type which allows users to store and exchange calendaring and scheduling information such as events, to-dos, journal entries, and free/busy information. Files formatted according to the specification usually have an extension of .ics. With supporting software, such as an email reader or calendar application, recipients of an iCalendar data file can respond to the sender easily or counter-propose another meeting date/time. The file format is specified in a proposed internet standard (RFC 5545) for calendar data exchange.iCalendar is used and supported by a large number of products, including Google Calendar, Apple Calendar (formerly iCal), IBM Notes (formerly Lotus Notes), Yahoo! Calendar, Evolution (software), eM Client, Lightning extension for Mozilla Thunderbird and SeaMonkey, and partially by Microsoft Outlook and Novell GroupWise.

iCalendar is designed to be independent of the transport protocol. For example, certain events can be sent by traditional email or whole calendar files can be shared and edited by using a WebDav server, or SyncML. Simple web servers (using just the HTTP protocol) are often used to distribute iCalendar data about an event and to publish busy times of an individual. Publishers can embed iCalendar data in web pages using hCalendar, a 1:1 microformat representation of iCalendar in semantic (X)HTML.

Inbox by Gmail

Inbox by Gmail is an email service developed by Google. Announced in limited invitation-only basis on October 22, 2014, it was officially released to the public on May 28, 2015.

Available on the web, and through mobile apps for Android and iOS, Inbox by Gmail aims to improve email productivity and organization through several key features. Bundles gather emails of the same topic together, highlights surface key details from messages, and reminders, assists, and snooze functionality enable users to control when specific information appears. Updates to the service have enabled an undo send feature, a "Smart Reply" feature that automatically generates short reply examples for certain emails, integration with Google Calendar for event organization, previews of newsletters, and a "Save to Inbox" feature that lets users save links for later use.

Inbox by Gmail has received generally positive reviews. At its launch, it was called "minimalist and lovely, full of layers and easy to navigate". Its features were deemed helpful in finding the right messages, and one reviewer noted that the service "feels a lot like the future of email". However, it also received criticism, particularly for a low density of information, algorithms that need tweaking, and that the service requires users to "give up the control" on organizing their own email, meaning that "Anyone who already has a system for organizing their emails will likely find themselves fighting Google's system". Google noted in March 2016 that 10% of all replies on mobile originated from Inbox's Smart Reply feature.

In September 2018, Google announced it would end the service in March 2019. Google called Inbox "a great place to experiment with new ideas" and noted that many of those ideas had now migrated to Gmail. The company said that going forward, it wanted to focus its resources on a single email system.

Kevin Fox (designer)

Kevin Fox is the user experience designer who created the interface for Gmail, Google Calendar, Google Reader, and Friendfeed.He was a co-founder of the Internet of Things startup Electric Imp. Since 2015 he has been the chief experience officer at Evan Prodromou's

List of Google apps for Android

The list of Google apps for Android lists the mobile apps developed by Google for its Android operating system. All of these apps are available for free from the Google Play Store, although some may not show up in search results if they are listed as incompatible with your device (even though they may still function from an *.apk). Some of Google's apps may be pre-installed on some devices, depending upon the device manufacturer and the version of Android. A few of these apps, such as Gboard, are not supported on older versions of Android.


MindMapper is a Microsoft Windows-based mind mapping software developed by SimTech Systems, that allows users to create mind maps, concept maps, flowcharts, organizational charts, process maps, Gantt charts, Ishikawa diagrams, and variety of brainstorming diagrams. MindMapper offers integration with Microsoft Office and Unicode support.

The new MindMapper combines a versatile visual mapping tool with a convenience of a planner and bird's-eye view of a dashboard, creating a perfect visual tool to help users achieve goals and manage schedules. Dashboard is bird’s-eye view the past, present and future activities. The visual map is a project blueprint that facilitates ideation and collaboration. The Planner is a time management tool that fosters project execution. MindMapper was first developed as an in-house tool to help with industrial simulation projects for SimTech Systems in 1997.

The latest edition adds split-view of mind map and planner. The planner syncs to Google Calendar for convenience. Also, the new planner ribbon menu tab helps users to create easily create a master map that consists of vision map, life plan map, and annual plan map for clear goal management and implementation.


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