Google Books

Google Books (previously known as Google Book Search and Google Print and by its codename Project Ocean)[1] is a service from Google Inc. that searches the full text of books and magazines that Google has scanned, converted to text using optical character recognition (OCR), and stored in its digital database.[2] Books are provided either by publishers and authors, through the Google Books Partner Program, or by Google's library partners, through the Library Project.[3] Additionally, Google has partnered with a number of magazine publishers to digitize their archives.[4][5]

The Publisher Program was first known as Google Print when it was introduced at the Frankfurt Book Fair in October 2004. The Google Books Library Project, which scans works in the collections of library partners and adds them to the digital inventory, was announced in December 2004.

The Google Books initiative has been hailed for its potential to offer unprecedented access to what may become the largest online body of human knowledge[6][7] and promoting the democratization of knowledge.[8] However, it has also been criticized for potential copyright violations,[8][9] and lack of editing to correct the many errors introduced into the scanned texts by the OCR process.

As of October 2015, the number of scanned book titles was over 25 million, but the scanning process has slowed down in American academic libraries.[10][11] Google estimated in 2010 that there were about 130 million distinct titles in the world,[12][13] and stated that it intended to scan all of them.[12]

Google Books
Google Books logo 2015
Screenshot
Google books screenshot
Type of site
Digital library
OwnerGoogle
Websitebooks.google.com
LaunchedOctober 2004 (as Google Print)
Current statusActive

Details

Results from Google Books show up in both the universal Google Search and in the dedicated Google Books search website (books.google.com).

In response to search queries, Google Books allows users to view full pages from books in which the search terms appear if the book is out of copyright or if the copyright owner has given permission. If Google believes the book is still under copyright, a user sees "snippets" of text around the queried search terms. All instances of the search terms in the book text appear with a yellow highlight.

The four access levels used on Google Books are:[14]

  • Full view: Books in the public domain are available for "full view" and can be downloaded for free. In-print books acquired through the Partner Program are also available for full view if the publisher has given permission, although this is rare.
  • Preview: For in-print books where permission has been granted, the number of viewable pages is limited to a "preview" set by a variety of access restrictions and security measures, some based on user-tracking. Usually, the publisher can set the percentage of the book available for preview.[15] Users are restricted from copying, downloading or printing book previews. A watermark reading "Copyrighted material" appears at the bottom of pages. All books acquired through the Partner Program are available for preview.
  • Snippet view: A 'snippet view' – two to three lines of text surrounding the queried search term – is displayed in cases where Google does not have permission of the copyright owner to display a preview. This could be because Google cannot identify the owner or the owner declined permission. If a search term appears many times in a book, Google displays no more than three snippets, thus preventing the user from viewing too much of the book. Also, Google does not display any snippets for certain reference books, such as dictionaries, where the display of even snippets can harm the market for the work. Google maintains that no permission is required under copyright law to display the snippet view.[16]
  • No preview: Google also displays search results for books that have not been digitized. As these books have not been scanned, their text is not searchable and only the metadata such as the title, author, publisher, number of pages, ISBN, subject and copyright information, and in some cases, a table of contents and book summary is available. In effect, this is similar to an online library card catalog.[3]

In response to criticism from groups such as the American Association of Publishers and the Authors Guild, Google announced an opt-out policy in August 2005, through which copyright owners could provide a list of titles that it did not want scanned, and Google would respect the request. Google also stated that it would not scan any in-copyright books between August and 1 November 2005, to provide the owners with the opportunity to decide which books to exclude from the Project. Thus, Google provides a copyright owner with three choices with respect to any work:[16]

  1. It can participate in the Partner Program to make a book available for preview or full view, in which case it would share revenue derived from the display of pages from the work in response to user queries.
  2. It can let Google scan the book under the Library Project and display snippets in response to user queries.
  3. It can opt out of the Library Project, in which case Google will not scan the book. If the book has already been scanned, Google will reset its access level as 'No preview'.

Most scanned works are no longer in print or commercially available.[17]

In addition to procuring books from libraries, Google also obtains books from its publisher partners, through the "Partner Program" – designed to help publishers and authors promote their books. Publishers and authors submit either a digital copy of their book in EPUB or PDF format, or a print copy to Google, which is made available on Google Books for preview. The publisher can control the percentage of the book available for preview, with the minimum being 20%. They can also choose to make the book fully viewable, and even allow users to download a PDF copy. Books can also be made available for sale on Google Play.[3] Unlike the Library Project, this does not raise any copyright concerns as it is conducted pursuant to an agreement with the publisher. The publisher can choose to withdraw from the agreement at any time.[16]

For many books, Google Books displays the original page numbers. However, Tim Parks, writing in The New York Review of Books in 2014, noted that Google had stopped providing page numbers for many recent publications (likely the ones acquired through the Partner Program) "presumably in alliance with the publishers, in order to force those of us who need to prepare footnotes to buy paper editions."[18]

Scanning of books

The project began in 2002 under the codename Project Ocean. Google co-founder Larry Page had always had an interest in digitizing books. When he and Marissa Mayer began experimenting with book scanning in 2002, it took 40 minutes for them to digitize a 300-page book. But soon after the technology had been developed to the extent that scanning operators could scan up to 6000 pages an hour.[19]

Google established designated scanning centers to which books were transported by trucks. The stations could digitize at the rate of 1,000 pages per hour. The books were placed in a custom-built mechanical cradle that adjusted the book spine in place for the scanning. An array of lights and optical instruments were used – including four cameras, two directed at each half of the book, and a range-finding LIDAR that overlaid a three-dimensional laser grid on the book's surface to capture the curvature of the paper. A human operator would turn the pages by hand and operate the cameras through a foot pedal. The system was made efficient since there was no need to flatten the book pages or align them perfectly. The crude images were worked upon by de-warping algorithms that used the LIDAR data to process the images. Optical character recognition (OCR) software were developed to process the raw images to text. Algorithms were also created to extract page numbers, footnotes, illustrations and diagrams.[19]

Many of the books are scanned using a customized Elphel 323 camera[20][21] at a rate of 1,000 pages per hour.[22] A patent awarded to Google in 2009 revealed that Google had come up with an innovative system for scanning books that uses two cameras and infrared light to automatically correct for the curvature of pages in a book. By constructing a 3D model of each page and then "de-warping" it, Google is able to present flat-looking pages without having to really make the pages flat, which requires the use of destructive methods such as unbinding or glass plates to individually flatten each page, which is inefficient for large scale scanning.[23][24]

Website functionality

Each book on Google Books has an associated "About this book" page which displays analytical information regarding the book such as a word map of the most used words and phrases, a selection of pages, list of related books, list of scholarly articles and other books that cite the book, and tables of content.[a] This information is collated through automated methods, and sometimes data from third-party sources is used.[25] This information provides an insight into the book, particularly useful when only a snippet view is available. The list of related books can often contain irrelevant entries.[26] In some cases, a book summary and information about the author is also displayed. The page also displays bibliographic information, which can be exported as citations in BibTeX, EndNote and RefMan formats. Registered users logged in with their Google accounts can post reviews for books on this page. Google Books also displays reviews from Goodreads alongside these reviews.[26] For books still in print, the site provides links to the website of the publisher and booksellers.

Google Books can retrieve scanned books from URLs based on the ISBN, LCCN and OCLC record numbers. The 'About this book' page of a book with the ISBN123456789 can be linked as books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN123456789. For some books, Google also provides the ability to link directly to the front cover, title page, copyright page, table of contents, index, and back cover of a book, by using an appropriate parameter. For example, the front cover of a book with the OCLC number 17546826 can be linked as books.google.com/books?vid=OCLC17546826&printsec=frontcover[27]

Signed-in users can create a personalized collection or a "library" of books, using the "My Library" feature. Organized through "bookshelves", books can be added to the library using a button that appears along with search results or from the "Overview" page of books. The library can be shared with friends by making bookshelves publicly visible and sharing the private library URL. Users can also import a list of books to the library using their ISBN or ISSN numbers. There are four default bookshelves which cannot be renamed: "Favorites", "Reading now", "To read" and "Have read".[28][29] The library also has default bookshelves ("Purchased", "Reviewed", "My Books on Google Play", "Recently viewed", "Browsing history", and "Books for you") to which books get added automatically. Users cannot add or remove books from these bookshelves.

Ngram Viewer

The Ngram Viewer is a service connected to Google Books that graphs the frequency of word usage across their book collection. The service is important for historians and linguists as it can provide an inside look into human culture through word use throughout time periods.[30] This program has fallen under criticism because of metadata errors used in the program.[31]

Content issues and criticism

The project has received criticism that its stated aim of preserving orphaned and out-of-print works is at risk due to scanned data having errors and the problems being not solved.[32][33]

Users can report errors in Google scanned books at support.google.com/books/partner/troubleshooter/2983879.

Scanning errors

Hand of Google
A hand scanned in a Google book

The scanning process is subject to errors. For example, some pages may be unreadable, upside down, or in the wrong order. Scholars have even reported crumpled pages, obscuring thumbs and fingers, and smeared or blurry images.[34] On this issue, a declaration from Google at the end of scanned books says:

The digitization at the most basic level is based on page images of the physical books. To make this book available as an ePub formated file we have taken those page images and extracted the text using Optical Character Recognition (or OCR for short) technology. The extraction of text from page images is a difficult engineering task. Smudges on the physical books' pages, fancy fonts, old fonts, torn pages, etc. can all lead to errors in the extracted text. Imperfect OCR is only the first challenge in the ultimate goal of moving from collections of page images to extracted-text based books. Our computer algorithms also have to automatically determine the structure of the book (what are the headers and footers, where images are placed, whether text is verse or prose, and so forth).

Getting this right allows us to render the book in a way that follows the format of the original book. Despite our best efforts you may see spelling mistakes, garbage characters, extraneous images, or missing pages in this book. Based on our estimates, these errors should not prevent you from enjoying the content of the book. The technical challenges of automatically constructing a perfect book are daunting, but we continue to make enhancements to our OCR and book structure extraction technologies.[35]

As of 2009 Google stated that they would start using ReCAPTCHA to help fix the errors found in Google Book scannings. This method would only improve scanned words that are hard to recognize because of the scanning process and cannot solve errors such as turned pages or blocked words.[36]

Errors in metadata

Scholars have frequently reported rampant errors in the metadata information on Google Books – including misattributed authors and erroneous dates of publication. Geoffrey Nunberg, a linguist researching on the changes in word usage over time noticed that a search for books published before 1950 and containing the word "internet" turned up an unlikely 527 results. Woody Allen is mentioned in 325 books ostensibly published before he was born. Google responded to Nunberg by blaming the bulk of errors on the outside contractors.[31]

Other metadata errors reported include publication dates before the author's birth (e.g. 182 works by Charles Dickens prior to his birth in 1812); incorrect subject classifications (an edition of Moby Dick found under "computers", a biography of Mae West classified under "religion"), conflicting classifications (10 editions of Whitman's Leaves of Grass all classified as both "fiction" and "nonfiction"), incorrectly spelled titles, authors, and publishers (Moby Dick: or the White "Wall"), and metadata for one book incorrectly appended to a completely different book (the metadata for an 1818 mathematical work leads to a 1963 romance novel).[37][38]

"A review of the author, title, publisher, and publication year metadata elements for 400 randomly selected Google Books records was undertaken. The results show 36% of sampled books in the digitization project contained metadata errors. This error rate is higher than one would expect to find in a typical library online catalog.".[39]
"The overall error rate of 36.75% found in this study suggests that Google Books’ metadata has a high rate of error. While “major” and “minor” errors are a subjective distinction based on the somewhat indeterminate concept of “findability”, the errors found in the four metadata elements examined in this study should all be considered major."[40]

Metadata errors based incorrect scanned date makes research using the Google Books Project database difficult. Google has shown only limited interest in cleaning up these errors.[41]

Language issues

Some European politicians and intellectuals have criticized Google's effort on linguistic imperialism grounds. They argue that because the vast majority of books proposed to be scanned are in English, it will result in disproportionate representation of natural languages in the digital world. German, Russian, French, and Spanish, for instance, are popular languages in scholarship. The disproportionate online emphasis on English, however, could shape access to historical scholarship, and, ultimately, the growth and direction of future scholarship. Among these critics is Jean-Noël Jeanneney, the former president of the Bibliothèque nationale de France.[42]

Google Books versus Google Scholar

While Google Books has digitized large numbers of journal back issues, its scans do not include the metadata required for identifying specific articles in specific issues. This has led the makers of Google Scholar to start their own program to digitize and host older journal articles (in agreement with their publishers).[43]

Library partners

The Google Books Library Project is aimed at scanning and making searchable the collections of several major research libraries.[44] Along with bibliographic information, snippets of text from a book are often viewable. If a book is out of copyright and in the public domain, the book is fully available to read or download.[14]

In-copyright books scanned through the Library Project are made available on Google Books for snippet view. Regarding the quality of scans, Google acknowledges that they are "not always of sufficiently high quality" to be offered for sale on Google Play. Also, because of supposed technical constraints, Google does not replace scans with higher quality versions that may be provided by the publishers.[27]

The project is the subject of the Authors Guild v. Google lawsuit, filed in 2005 and ruled in favor of Google in 2013, and again, on appeal, in 2015.

Copyright owners can claim the rights for a scanned book and make it available for preview or full view (by "transferring" it to their Partner Program account), or request Google to prevent the book text from being searched.[27]

The number of institutions participating in the Library Project has grown since its inception.[45] The University of Mysore has been mentioned in many media reports as being a library partner,[46][47] although it is not listed as a partner by Google.[48]

Initial partners

Google Book Search - notice board at michigan university library
Notice about the project at Michigan University Library
The Harvard University Library and Google conducted a pilot throughout 2005. The project continued, with the aim of increasing online access to the holdings of the Harvard University Library, which includes more than 15.8 million volumes. While physical access to Harvard's library materials is generally restricted to current Harvard students, faculty, and researchers, or to scholars who can come to Cambridge, the Harvard-Google Project has been designed to enable both members of the Harvard community and users everywhere to discover works in the Harvard collection.
As of March 2012, 5.5 million volumes were scanned.[51]
In this pilot program, NYPL is working with Google to offer a collection of its public domain books, which will be scanned in their entirety and made available for free to the public online. Users will be able to search and browse the full text of these works. When the scanning process is complete, the books may be accessed from both The New York Public Library's website and from the Google search engine.[52]

Additional partners

Other institutional partners have joined the project since the partnership was first announced:

It was reported in 2007 that Google had agreed to digitizing some 800,000 texts at the University of Mysore – including 100,000 manuscripts written on both paper and palm leaves.[68] However, there has been no update on the status of the project since then.
The partnership was for digitizing the library's Latin American collection – about half a million volumes.[51]
As of March 2012, about 600,000 volumes had been scanned.[51]

History

2002: A group of team members at Google officially launch the “secret ‘books’ project.”[72] Google founders Sergey Brin and Larry Page came up with the idea that later became Google Books while still graduate students at Stanford in 1996. The history page on the Google Books website describes their initial vision for this project: “in a future world in which vast collections of books are digitized, people would use a ‘web crawler’ to index the books’ content and analyze the connections between them, determining any given book's relevance and usefulness by tracking the number and quality of citations from other books.”[72] This team visited the sites of some of the larger digitization efforts at that time including the Library of Congress’s American Memory Project, Project Gutenberg, and the Universal Library to find out how they work, as well as the University of Michigan, Page’s alma mater, and the base for such digitization projects as JSTOR and Making of America. In a conversation with the at that time University President Mary Sue Coleman, when Page found out that the University’s current estimate for scanning all the library’s volumes was 1,000 years, Page reportedly told Coleman that he “believes Google can help make it happen in six."[72]

2003: The team works to develop a high-speed scanning process as well as software for resolving issues in odd type sizes, unusual fonts, and "other unexpected peculiarities."[72]

December 2004: Google signaled an extension to its Google Print initiative known as the Google Print Library Project.[45] Google announced partnerships with several high-profile university and public libraries, including the University of Michigan, Harvard (Harvard University Library), Stanford (Green Library), Oxford (Bodleian Library), and the New York Public Library. According to press releases and university librarians, Google planned to digitize and make available through its Google Books service approximately 15 million volumes within a decade. The announcement soon triggered controversy, as publisher and author associations challenged Google's plans to digitize, not just books in the public domain, but also titles still under copyright.

September–October 2005: Two lawsuits against Google charge that the company has not respected copyrights and has failed to properly compensate authors and publishers. One is a class action suit on behalf of authors (Authors Guild v. Google, Sept. 20 2005) and the other is a civil lawsuit brought by five large publishers and the Association of American Publishers. (McGraw Hill v. Google, Oct. 19 2005)[9][73][74][75][76][77]

November 2005: Google changed the name of this service from Google Print to Google Book Search.[78] Its program enabling publishers and authors to include their books in the service was renamed Google Books Partner Program,[79] and the partnership with libraries became Google Books Library Project.

2006: Google added a "download a pdf" button to all its out-of-copyright, public domain books. It also added a new browsing interface along with new "About this Book" pages.[72]

August 2006: The University of California System announced that it would join the Books digitization project. This includes a portion of the 34 million volumes within the approximately 100 libraries managed by the System.[80]

September 2006: The Complutense University of Madrid became the first Spanish-language library to join the Google Books Library Project.[81]

October 2006: The University of Wisconsin–Madison announced that it would join the Book Search digitization project along with the Wisconsin Historical Society Library. Combined, the libraries have 7.2 million holdings.[82]

November 2006: The University of Virginia joined the project. Its libraries contain more than five million volumes and more than 17 million manuscripts, rare books and archives.[83]

January 2007: The University of Texas at Austin announced that it would join the Book Search digitization project. At least one million volumes would be digitized from the university's 13 library locations.

March 2007: The Bavarian State Library announced a partnership with Google to scan more than a million public domain and out-of-print works in German as well as English, French, Italian, Latin, and Spanish.[84]

May 2007: A book digitizing project partnership was announced jointly by Google and the Cantonal and University Library of Lausanne.[85]

May 2007: The Boekentoren Library of Ghent University announced that it would participate with Google in digitizing and making digitized versions of 19th century books in the French and Dutch languages available online.[86]

June 2007: The Committee on Institutional Cooperation (rebranded as the Big Ten Academic Alliance in 2016) announced that its twelve member libraries would participate in scanning 10 million books over the course of the next six years.[58]

July 2007: Keio University became Google's first library partner in Japan with the announcement that they would digitize at least 120,000 public domain books.[87]

August 2007: Google announced that it would digitize up to 500,000 both copyrighted and public domain items from Cornell University Library. Google would also provide a digital copy of all works scanned to be incorporated into the university's own library system.[88]

September 2007: Google added a feature that allows users to share snippets of books that are in the public domain. The snippets may appear exactly as they do in the scan of the book, or as plain text.[89]

September 2007: Google debuted a new feature called "My Library" which allows users to create personal customized libraries, selections of books that they can label, review, rate, or full-text search.[90]

December 2007: Columbia University was added as a partner in digitizing public domain works.[91]

May 2008: Microsoft tapered off and planned to end its scanning project, which had reached 750,000 books and 80 million journal articles.[92]

October 2008: A settlement was reached between the publishing industry and Google after two years of negotiation. Google agreed to compensate authors and publishers in exchange for the right to make millions of books available to the public.[9][93]

November 2008: Google reached the 7 million book mark for items scanned by Google and by their publishing partners. 1 million were in full preview mode and 1 million were fully viewable and downloadable public domain works. About five million were out of print.[17][94][95]

December 2008: Google announced the inclusion of magazines in Google Books. Titles include New York Magazine, Ebony, and Popular Mechanics[96][97]

February 2009: Google launched a mobile version of Google Book Search, allowing iPhone and Android phone users to read over 1.5 million public domain works in the US (and over 500,000 outside the US) using a mobile browser. Instead of page images, the plain text of the book is displayed.[98]

May 2009: At the annual BookExpo convention in New York, Google signaled its intent to introduce a program that would enable publishers to sell digital versions of their newest books direct to consumers through Google.[99]

December 2009: A French court shut down the scanning of copyrighted books published in France, saying this violated copyright laws. It was the first major legal loss for the scanning project.[100]

April 2010: Visual artists were not included in the previous lawsuit and settlement, are the plaintiff groups in another lawsuit, and say they intend to bring more than just Google Books under scrutiny. "The new class action," read the statement, "goes beyond Google's Library Project, and includes Google's other systematic and pervasive infringements of the rights of photographers, illustrators and other visual artists."[101]

May 2010: It was reported that Google would launch a digital book store called Google Editions.[102] It would compete with Amazon, Barnes & Noble, Apple and other electronic book retailers with its own e-book store. Unlike others, Google Editions would be completely online and would not require a specific device (such as kindle, Nook, or iPad).

June 2010: Google passed 12 million books scanned.[12]

August 2010: It was announced that Google intends to scan all known existing 129,864,880 books within a decade, amounting to over 4 billion digital pages and 2 trillion words in total.[12]

December 2010: Google eBooks (Google Editions) was launched in the US.[103]

December 2010: Google launched the Ngram Viewer, which collects and graphs data on word usage across its book collection.[30]

March 2011: A federal judge rejected the settlement reached between the publishing industry and Google.[104]

March 2012: Google passed 20 million books scanned.[105][106]

March 2012: Google reached a settlement with publishers.[107]

January 2013: The documentary Google and the World Brain was shown at the Sundance Film Festival.[108]

November 2013: Ruling in Authors Guild v. Google, US District Judge Denny Chin sides with Google, citing fair use.[109] The authors said they would appeal.[110]

October 2015: The appeals court sided with Google, declaring that Google did not violate copyright law.[111] According to the New York Times, Google has scanned more than 25 million books.[10]

April 2016: The US Supreme Court declined to hear the Authors Guild's appeal, which means the lower court's decision stood, and Google would be allowed to scan library books and display snippets in search results without violating the law.[112]

Status

Google has been quite secretive regarding its plans on the future of the Google Books project. Scanning operations had been slowing down since at least 2012, as confirmed by the librarians at several of Google's partner institutions. At University of Wisconsin, the speed had reduced to less than half of what it was in 2006. However, the librarians have said that the dwindling pace could be a natural result of maturation of the project – initially stacks of books were entirely taken up for scanning whereas now Google only needed to consider the ones that have not been scanned already.[51] The company's own Google Books history page ends in 2007, and the Google Books blog was merged into the Google Search blog in 2012.[113]

Despite winning the decade-long litigation in 2017, The Atlantic has said that Google has "all but shut down its scanning operation."[19] In April 2017, Wired reported that there were only a few Google employees working on the project, and new books were still being scanned, but at a significantly lower rate. It commented that the decade-long legal battle had caused Google to lose its ambition.[113]

Legal issues

Through the project, library books were being digitized somewhat indiscriminately regardless of copyright status, which led to a number of lawsuits against Google. By the end of 2008, Google had reportedly digitized over seven million books, of which only about one million were works in the public domain. Of the rest, one million were in copyright and in print, and five million were in copyright but out of print. In 2005, a group of authors and publishers brought a major class-action lawsuit against Google for infringement on the copyrighted works. Google argued that it was preserving "orphaned works" – books still under copyright, but whose copyright holders could not be located.[114]

The Authors Guild and Association of American Publishers separately sued Google in 2005 for its book project, citing "massive copyright infringement."[115] Google countered that its project represented a fair use and is the digital age equivalent of a card catalog with every word in the publication indexed.[9] The lawsuits were consolidated, and eventually a settlement was proposed. The settlement received significant criticism on a wide variety of grounds, including antitrust, privacy, and inadequacy of the proposed classes of authors and publishers. The settlement was eventually rejected,[116] and the publishers settled with Google soon after. The Authors Guild continued its case, and in 2011 their proposed class was certified. Google appealed that decision, with a number of amici asserting the inadequacy of the class, and the Second Circuit rejected the class certification in July 2013, remanding the case to the District Court for consideration of Google's fair use defense.[117]

In 2015 Authors Guild filed another appeal against Google to be considered by the 2nd U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals in New York. Google won the case unanimously based on the argument that they were not showing people the full texts but instead snippets, and they are not allowing people to illegally read the book.[118] In a report, courts stated that they did not infringe on copyright laws, as they were protected under the fair use clause.[119]

Authors Guild tried again in 2016 to appeal the decision and this time took their case to be considered by the Supreme Court. The case was rejected, leaving the Second Circuit's decision on the case intact, meaning that Google did not violate copyright laws.[120] This case also set a precedent for other case similar in regards to fair use laws as it further clarified the law and expands it. Such clarification is important in the new digital age as it affects other scanning projects similar to Google.[118]

Other lawsuits followed the Authors Guild's lead. In 2006 a German lawsuit, previously filed, was withdrawn.[121] In June 2006, Hervé de la Martinière,[122] a French publisher known as La Martinière and Éditions du Seuil,[123] announced its intention to sue Google France.[124] In 2009, the Paris Civil Court awarded 300,000 EUR (approximately 430,000 USD) in damages and interest and ordered Google to pay 10,000 EUR a day until it removes the publisher's books from its database.[123][125] The court wrote, "Google violated author copyright laws by fully reproducing and making accessible" books that Seuil owns without its permission[123] and that Google "committed acts of breach of copyright, which are of harm to the publishers".[122] Google said it will appeal.[123] Syndicat National de l'Edition, which joined the lawsuit, said Google has scanned about 100,000 French works under copyright.[123]

In December 2009, Chinese author Mian Mian filed a civil lawsuit for $8,900 against Google for scanning her novel, Acid Lovers. This is the first such lawsuit to be filed against Google in China.[126] Also, in November that year, the China Written Works Copyright Society (CWWCS) accused Google of scanning 18,000 books by 570 Chinese writers without authorization. Google agreed on Nov 20 to provide a list of Chinese books it had scanned, but the company refused to admit having "infringed" copyright laws.[127]

In March 2007, Thomas Rubin, associate general counsel for copyright, trademark, and trade secrets at Microsoft, accused Google of violating copyright law with their book search service. Rubin specifically criticized Google's policy of freely copying any work until notified by the copyright holder to stop.[128]

Google licensing of public domain works is also an area of concern due to using of digital watermarking techniques with the books. Some published works that are in the public domain, such as all works created by the U.S. Federal government, are still treated like other works under copyright, and therefore locked after 1922.[129]

Similar projects

  • Project Gutenberg is a volunteer effort to digitize and archive cultural works, to "encourage the creation and distribution of eBooks". It was founded in 1971 by Michael S. Hart and is the oldest digital library. As of October 3, 2015, Project Gutenberg reached 50,000 items in its collection.
  • Internet Archive is a non-profit which digitizes over 1000 books a day, as well as mirrors books from Google Books and other sources. As of May 2011, it hosted over 2.8 million public domain books, greater than the approximate 1 million public domain books at Google Books.[130] Open Library, a sister project of Internet Archive, lends 80,000 scanned and purchased commercial ebooks to the visitors of 150 libraries.[131]
  • HathiTrust maintains HathiTrust Digital Library since October 13, 2008,[132] which preserves and provides access to material scanned by Google, some of the Internet Archive books, and some scanned locally by partner institutions. As of May 2010, it includes about 6 million volumes, over 1 million of which are public domain (at least in the US).
  • Microsoft funded the scanning of 300,000 books to create Live Search Books in late 2006. It ran until May 2008, when the project was abandoned[133] and the books were made freely available on the Internet Archive.[134]
  • The National Digital Library of India (NDLI) is a project under Ministry of Human Resource Development, India. The objective is to integrate several national and international digital libraries in one single web-portal. The NDLI provides free of cost access to many books in English and the Indian languages.
  • Europeana links to roughly 10 million digital objects as of 2010, including video, photos, paintings, audio, maps, manuscripts, printed books, and newspapers from the past 2,000 years of European history from over 1,000 archives in the European Union.[135][136]
  • Gallica from the French National Library links to about 4,000,000 digitized books, newspapers, manuscripts, maps and drawings, etc. Created in 1997, the digital library continues to expand at a rate of about 5000 new documents per month. Since the end of 2008, most of the new scanned documents are available in image and text formats. Most of these documents are written in French.
  • Wikisource
  • Runivers

See also

Notes

  1. ^ A sample "About this book" page of a book can be viewed at books.google.com/books?uid=104498140124963532048

References

  1. ^ Love, Dylan. "An Inside Look At One Of Google's Most Controversial Projects". Business Insider. Retrieved 21 October 2017.
  2. ^ a b c "Where do these books come from?". Google Books Help. Retrieved 10 November 2014.
  3. ^ Mark O'Neill (28 January 2009). "Read Complete Magazines Online in Google Books". Make Use Of.
  4. ^ "About Magazines search". Google Books Help. Retrieved 13 January 2015.
  5. ^ Bergquist, Kevin (2006-02-13). "Google project promotes public good". The University Record. University of Michigan. Retrieved 2007-04-11.
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Further reading

  • Anna Lauren Hoffmann (2016). "Google Books, Libraries, and Self-Respect: Information Justice beyond Distributions". Library Quarterly. 86: 76–92. doi:10.1086/684141.
  • Jeanneney, Jean-Noël (2008). Google and the Myth of Universal Knowledge: A View from Europe. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

External links

American Guide Series

The American Guide Series was a group of books and pamphlets published in 1937–41 under the auspices of the Federal Writers' Project (FWP), a Depression-era works program in the United States. The American Guide Series books were compiled by the FWP, but printed by individual states, and contained detailed histories of each of the then 48 states of the Union with descriptions of every major city and town. In total, the project employed over 6,000 writers. The format was uniform, comprising essays on the state's history and culture, descriptions of its major cities, automobile tours of important attractions, and a portfolio of photographs.Many books in the project have been updated by private companies or republished without updating. While not states, guides for Alaska and Puerto Rico were published, however Hawaii was not.

Bibliography of New York (state)

The following is a bibliography of New York. New York is a U.S. state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the Northeastern United States. New York is commonly known as the "Empire State" and sometimes the "Excelsior State". It is the nation's third most populous state at over 19 million people. The capital of the state is Albany and its most populous city is New York City. New York is often referred to as New York State to distinguish it from New York City.

Caning of Charles Sumner

The Caning of Charles Sumner, or the Brooks–Sumner Affair, occurred on May 22, 1856, in the United States Senate when Representative Preston Brooks (D-SC) used a walking cane to attack Senator Charles Sumner (R-MA), an abolitionist, in retaliation for a speech given by Sumner two days earlier in which he fiercely criticized slaveholders, including a relative of Brooks. The beating nearly killed Sumner and it drew a sharply polarized response from the American public on the subject of the expansion of slavery in the United States. It has been considered symbolic of the "breakdown of reasoned discourse" that eventually led to the American Civil War.

Catholic Encyclopedia

The Catholic Encyclopedia: An International Work of Reference on the Constitution, Doctrine, Discipline, and History of the Catholic Church, also referred to as the Old Catholic Encyclopedia and the Original Catholic Encyclopedia, is an English-language encyclopedia published in the United States and designed to serve the Roman Catholic Church. The first volume appeared in March 1907 and the last three volumes appeared in 1912, followed by a master index volume in 1914 and later supplementary volumes. It was designed "to give its readers full and authoritative information on the entire cycle of Catholic interests, action and doctrine".The Catholic Encyclopedia was published by the Robert Appleton Company (RAC), a publishing company incorporated at New York in February 1905 for the express purpose of publishing the encyclopedia. The five members of the encyclopedia's Editorial Board also served as the directors of the company. In 1912 the company's name was changed to The Encyclopedia Press. Publication of the encyclopedia's volumes was the sole business conducted by the company during the project's lifetime.

Driving wheel

On a steam locomotive, a driving wheel is a powered wheel which is driven by the locomotive's pistons (or turbine, in the case of a steam turbine locomotive). On a conventional, non-articulated locomotive, the driving wheels are all coupled together with side rods (also known as coupling rods); normally one pair is directly driven by the main rod (or connecting rod) which is connected to the end of the piston rod; power is transmitted to the others through the side rods.On diesel and electric locomotives, the driving wheels may be directly driven by the traction motors. Coupling rods are not usually used, and it is quite common for each axle to have its own motor. Jackshaft drive and coupling rods were used in the past (e.g. in the Swiss Crocodile locomotive) but their use is now confined to shunting locomotives.

On an articulated locomotive or a duplex locomotive, driving wheels are grouped into sets which are linked together within the set.

Eastern Mediterranean

The Eastern Mediterranean denotes the countries geographically to the east of the Mediterranean Sea (Levantine Seabasin). The Eastern Mediterranean populations share not only geographic position but also cuisine, certain customs and a long, intertwined history.

Eunuch

The term eunuch (; Greek: εὐνοῦχος) generally refers to a man who has been castrated, typically early enough in his life for this change to have major hormonal consequences. In Latin, the words eunuchus, spado (Greek: σπάδων spadon), and castratus were used to denote eunuchs.Castration was typically carried out on the soon-to-be eunuch without his consent in order that he might perform a specific social function. The earliest records for intentional castration to produce eunuchs are from the Sumerian city of Lagash in the 21st century BC. Over the millennia since, they have performed a wide variety of functions in many different cultures: courtiers or equivalent domestics, treble singers, religious specialists, soldiers, royal guards, government officials, and guardians of women or harem servants.

Eunuchs would usually be servants or slaves who had been castrated in order to make them reliable servants of a royal court where physical access to the ruler could wield great influence. Seemingly lowly domestic functions—such as making the ruler's bed, bathing him, cutting his hair, carrying him in his litter, or even relaying messages—could in theory give a eunuch "the ruler's ear" and impart de facto power on the formally humble but trusted servant. Similar instances are reflected in the humble origins and etymology of many high offices.

Eunuchs supposedly did not generally have loyalties to the military, the aristocracy, or to a family of their own (having neither offspring nor in-laws, at the very least), and were thus seen as more trustworthy and less interested in establishing a private 'dynasty'. Because their condition usually lowered their social status, they could also be easily replaced or killed without repercussion. In cultures that had both harems and eunuchs, eunuchs were sometimes used as harem servants (compare the female odalisque) or seraglio guards.

Google Ngram Viewer

The Google Ngram Viewer or Google Books Ngram Viewer is an online search engine that charts the frequencies of any set of comma-delimited search strings using a yearly count of n-grams found in sources printed between 1500 and 2008 in Google's text corpora in English, Chinese (simplified), French, German, Hebrew, Italian, Russian, or Spanish. There are also some specialized English corpora, such as American English, British English, English Fiction, and English One Million; and the 2009 version of most corpora is also available.The program can search for a single word or a phrase, including misspellings or gibberish. The n-grams are matched with the text within the selected corpus, optionally using case-sensitive spelling (which compares the exact use of uppercase letters), and, if found in 40 or more books, are then plotted on a graph.The Google Ngram Viewer, as of January 2016, supports searches for parts of speech and wildcards.

Horchata

Horchata (; Spanish: [oɾˈtʃata] (listen)), or orxata (Valencian: [oɾˈʃata]), is a name given to various plant milk beverages of similar taste and appearance.

List of anti-war films

While some films criticize armed conflicts in a general sense, others focus on acts within a specific war, such as the use of poison gas or the genocidal killing of civilians (e.g., Hotel Rwanda, 2004). Some anti-war films such as Dr. Strangelove or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb (1964) use parody and black comedy to satirize wars and conflicts. An anti-war film's goal is to show the physical and psychological destruction warfare causes to the soldiers and to innocent civilians.

List of breakfast foods

This is a list of notable breakfast foods, consisting of foods that are commonly consumed at breakfast. Breakfast is the first meal taken after rising from a night's sleep, most often eaten in the early morning before undertaking the day's work. Among English speakers, "breakfast" can be used to refer to this meal or to refer to a meal composed of traditional breakfast foods (such as eggs, oatmeal, and sausage) served at any time of day. Breakfast foods are prepared with a multitude of ingredients, including oats, wheat, maize, barley, noodles, starches, eggs, meats, and other foodstuffs.

List of sandwiches

This is a list of notable sandwiches. A sandwich is a dish consisting of two or more slices of bread with one or more fillings between them, or one slice in the case of an open sandwich. Sandwiches are a common type of lunch food often eaten as part of a packed lunch. There are many types of sandwiches, made from a diverse variety of ingredients. The sandwich is the namesake of John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich, a British statesman.

Major types of sandwich include:

Two slices of bread with other ingredients between

Two halves of a baguette with other ingredients between

Pocket sandwich

Open-faced sandwichSandwich cookies and ice cream sandwiches are generally not considered sandwiches in the sense of a bread-containing food item, but are named by analogy.

Mammal Species of the World

Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference is a standard reference work in mammalogy giving descriptions and bibliographic data for the known species of mammals. It is now in its third edition, published in late 2005, which was edited by Don E. Wilson and DeeAnn M. Reeder.An online version is hosted by Bucknell University, from which the names of the species can be downloaded as a custom dictionary. A partial online version is available at Google Books (see "External links" below).

The Checklist Committee is charged with compiling and updating MSW. In its Annual Report for 2015, the Committee noted that it is under contract with Johns Hopkins Press for the 4th edition of MSW, which will be edited by DeeAnn M. Reeder and Kristofer M. Helgen. The database has been made editable for the authors, leading to more frequent website updates. The publication was due in 2017.

Produce

Produce is a generalized term for a group of farm-produced crops and goods, including fruits and vegetables – meats, grains, oats etc. are also sometimes considered produce. More specifically, the term "produce" often implies that the products are fresh and generally in the same state as where they were harvested. In supermarkets, the term is also used to refer to the section where fruit and vegetables are kept. Produce is the main product sold by greengrocers and farmers' markets. The term "produce" is commonly used in the U.S. but is not typically used outside the agricultural sector in other English-speaking countries.

In parts of the world including the U.S., produce is marked with small stickers bearing price look-up codes. These four- or five-digit codes are a standardized system intended to aid checkout and inventory control in produce markets.

Shalwar kameez

Shalwar kameez, also spelled salwar kameez or shalwar qameez, is a traditional outfit originating in the Indian subcontinent. The apparel comprises a head scarf, kameez (long shirt) and shalwar (baggy trousers) when worn by women and kameez and shalwar when worn by men. The term shalwar kameez covers different styles according to the region where the outfit is worn. Styles include Anarkali, Punjabi, Afghani and Balochi. In origin, the shalwar and kameez are two separate garments which have been combined to form the shalwar kameez outfit.It is the national dress of Pakistan, and commonly worn throughout the Indian subcontinent.

Stu Hart

Stewart Edward Hart, (May 3, 1915 – October 16, 2003) was a Canadian professional wrestler, wrestling booker, promoter, coach and trainer, football player, amateur wrestler, and sailor. He is best known for founding and handling Stampede Wrestling, a professional wrestling promotion based in Calgary, Alberta, teaching many individuals at its associated wrestling school "The Dungeon" and establishing a professional wrestling dynasty consisting of his relatives and close trainees. As the patriarch of the Hart wrestling family, Hart is the ancestor of many wrestlers, most notably being the father of Bret and Owen Hart as well as the grandfather of Natalya Neidhart and David Hart Smith.

Hart was born to a poor Saskatchewan family but became a successful amateur wrestler during the 1930s and early 1940s, holding many national championships, as well as engaging in many other sports. He began wrestling for show in 1943 with the Royal Canadian Navy while serving in World War II as he could not go to the 1940 Summer Olympics due to the war. After leaving the service he traveled to America and debuted professionally for the New York wrestling territory in 1946. Hart was considered very handsome and a good in-ring performer, focusing on a submission-like and technical style of wrestling, but despite this and being popular in general he was not given a major spotlight by the writers, and soon after marrying Helen Smith, whom he met in New York City, he created his own promotion in Edmonton, Alberta which would be known as Stampede Wrestling and took over the surrounding wrestling territory which covered most of western Canada and the US state of Montana. The territory would go on to become known as the Stampede territory thenceforth. In 1949, Stu and Helen moved to Great Falls, Montana. Hart's promotion featured a large variety of outside stars from the wrestling industry as well as homegrown talent for whom he booked storylines. Beginning from the 1950s Hart helped train a large number of people for his company and gained a reputation as one of the best teachers in the wrestling business. In October 1951, Stu and Helen moved to Calgary, Alberta, into what would become the famous Hart House.

Hart remained an active full-time wrestler until the 1960s when he entered semi-in-ring retirement, thereafter he would focus mostly on promoting, booking and teaching, as well as raising his twelve children with Helen while still appearing in the ring sporadically until the 1980s. Throughout his career, Hart almost exclusively portrayed a heroic character, a so-called "babyface" role and only held one professional title, the NWA Northwest Tag Team Championship. After selling his territory to Titan Sports, Inc. in 1984, Hart would make several appearances on WWF television and Pay-Per-View with his wife, often involved in storylines surrounding his sons Bret and Owen and several of his sons-in-law who were signed to the company. He continued to teach wrestling at his home in Calgary until the 1990s when he suffered a severe leg injury and had to stop engaging excessively with students, leaving most of the work for his sons Bruce and Keith. He died at age 88 in October 2003 after suffering from multiple medical issues.

Hart has been referred to by multiple writers, including the major wrestling historian and sports journalist Dave Meltzer, as one of the most influential and important figures in pro wrestling history. His greatest contribution to the art was as a promoter and trainer. Along with Bret and Owen, Hart's trainees included future world champions Fritz Von Erich, Superstar Billy Graham, Chris Jericho, Edge, Christian, Mark Henry, Chris Benoit, and Jushin Thunder Liger. Hart was a member of the inaugural Wrestling Observer Newsletter Hall of Fame class in 1996 and was inducted into the WWE Hall of Fame in 2010 by his son Bret. Hart was also well known for his involvement in over thirty charities, for which he was named a Member of the Order of Canada, the second highest honour for merit which can be given in Canada and the highest civilian honour.

The Merchant of Venice

The Merchant of Venice is a 16th-century play written by William Shakespeare in which a merchant in Venice (Antonio) must default on a large loan provided by a Jewish moneylender, Shylock. It is believed to have been written between 1596 and 1599. Though classified as a comedy in the First Folio and sharing certain aspects with Shakespeare's other romantic comedies, the play is most remembered for its dramatic scenes, and it is best known for Shylock and the famous "Hath not a Jew eyes?" speech on humanity. Also notable is Portia's speech about "the quality of mercy". Critic Harold Bloom listed it among Shakespeare's great comedies.

Unequal treaty

Unequal treaty is the name given by the Chinese to a series of treaties signed with Western powers during the 19th and early 20th centuries by Qing dynasty China after military attacks or military threats by foreign powers.

Starting with the rise of Chinese nationalism and anti-imperialism in the 1920s, the Kuomintang and Communist Party used these concepts to characterize the Chinese experience in losses of sovereignty between roughly 1839 to 1949. The term "unequal treaty" became associated with the concept of China's "century of humiliation", especially the concessions to foreign powers and loss of tariff autonomy through the treaty ports.

Victoria Memorial, Kolkata

The Victoria Memorial is a large marble building in Kolkata, West Bengal, India, which was built between 1906 and 1921. It is dedicated to the memory of Queen Victoria (1809–1901) and is now a museum and tourist destination under the auspices of the Ministry of Culture. The memorial lies on the Maidan (grounds) by the bank of the Hooghly River, near Jawaharlal Nehru Road (better known as Chowringhee Road). Every year thousands of people come to visit this museum.

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