|Discipline||Geology, Earth sciences|
|Edited by||M. Santosh|
|ISO 4||Gondwana Res.|
Adratiklit is an extinct genus of herbivorous stegosaurian dinosaur that lived in the supercontinent Gondwana during the Middle Jurassic Period. The type and only known species is Adratiklit boulahfa. Its remains were found in the El Mers Group, probably in the El Mers II Formation (Bathonian), near Boulahfa, south of Boulemane, Fès-Meknes, Morocco.
Eurypodan dinosaurs, in particular stegosaurs, were during the Jurassic diverse and abundant in Laurasia (nowadays the northern continents), but their remains are extremely rare in deposits of Gondwana, nowadays the southern continents. Nevertheless the existence of fragmentary remains and trackways in the deposits of Gondwana indicates the presence of eurypodan taxa there. Adratiklit is the first described eurypodan taxon from North Africa and the oldest known stegosaur from anywhere in the world, with the possible exception of Isaberrysaura.Central Asian Orogenic Belt
The Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB, also known as Altaids) is one of the largest accretionary orogens on Earth and evolved over some 800 million years from the latest Mesoproterozoic to the early Triassic. It contains a record of geodynamic processes during one of the most important episodes of continental growth in Phanerozoic time.Chubutemys
Chubutemys was an extinct genus of meiolaniform turtle. It lived during the Early Cretaceous of Argentina, around the Albian-Aptian border, within the Puesto La Paloma Member of the Cerro Barcino Formation. It is known from most of the skeleton and carapace, and part of the skull.Columbia (supercontinent)
Columbia, also known as Nuna and Hudsonland, was one of Earth's ancient supercontinents. It was first proposed by Rogers & Santosh 2002 and is thought to have existed approximately 2,500 to 1,500 million years ago in the Paleoproterozoic Era. Zhao et al. 2002 proposed that the assembly of the supercontinent Columbia was completed by global-scale collisional events during 2.1–1.8 Ga.
Columbia consisted of proto-cratons that made up the cores of the continents of Laurentia, Baltica, Ukrainian Shield, Amazonian Shield, Australia, and possibly Siberia, North China, and Kalaharia as well.
The evidence of Columbia's existence is based upon geological and paleomagnetic data.Diamantinasaurus
Diamantinasaurus is an extinct genus of non-lithostrotian titanosaurian sauropod from Australia that lived during the early Late Cretaceous, about 94 million years ago. The type species of the genus is D. matildae, first described and named in 2009 by Scott Hocknull and colleagues. Meaning "Diamantina lizard", the name is derived from the location of the nearby Diamantina River and the Greek word sauros, "lizard". The specific epithet is from the Australian song Waltzing Matilda, also the locality of the holotype and paratype. The known skeleton includes most of the forelimb, shoulder girdle, pelvis, hindlimb and ribs of the holotype, and one shoulder bone, a radius and some vertebrae of the paratype.East African Orogeny
The East African Orogeny (EAO) is the main stage in the Neoproterozoic assembly of East and West Gondwana (Australia–India–Antarctica and Africa–South America) along the Mozambique Belt.Eurypteridae
Eurypteridae is an extinct family of eurypterids that lived in the Silurian and Devonian periods. The family is one of three families contained in the superfamily Eurypteroidea (along with Dolichopteridae and Strobilopteridae), which in turn is one of the superfamilies classified as part of the suborder Eurypterina. The family contains two genera, Erieopterus and Eurypterus.Famatinian orogeny
The Famatinian orogeny (Spanish: Orogenia de Famatina) is an orogeny that predates the rise of the Andes and that took place in what is now western South America during the Paleozoic, leading to the formation of the Famatinian orogen also known as the Famatinian belt. The Famatinian orogeny lasted from the Late Cambrian to at least the Late Devonian and possibly the Early Carboniferous, with orogenic activity peaking about 490 to 460 million years ago. The orogeny involved metamorphism and deformation in the crust and the eruption and intrusion of magma along a Famatinian magmatic arc that formed a chain of volcanoes. The igneous rocks of the Famatinian magmatic arc are of calc-alkaline character and include gabbros, tonalites and granodiorites. The youngest igneous rocks of the arc are granites.The relationship of the orogeny with the Achala and Cerro Aspero batholiths of central Argentina is not fully understood. These Devonian batholiths are possibly of post-orogenic character.Moa Plate
The Moa Plate was an ancient oceanic plate that formed in the Early Cretaceous south of the Pacific–Phoenix Ridge. The Moa Plate was obliquely subducted beneath the Gondwana margin, and material accreted from it is now part of the Eastern Province of New Zealand. The plate was named in 2001 by Rupert Sutherland and Chris Hollis.Nopcsaspondylus
Nopcsaspondylus (meaning "Nopsca's vertebra", in reference to the original describer) is a genus of rebbachisaurid sauropod dinosaur (a type of large, long-necked quadrupedal herbivorous dinosaur) from the Cenomanian-age (Upper Cretaceous) Candeleros Formation of Neuquén, Argentina. It is based on a now-lost back vertebra described by Nopcsa in 1902 but not named at the time. The specimen had a small vertebral body and large hollows, now known to be typical of rebbachisaurids.North China Craton
The North China Craton is a continental crustal block with one of Earth's most complete and complex records of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic processes. It is located in northeast China, Inner Mongolia, the Yellow Sea, and North Korea. The term craton designates this as a piece of continent that is stable, buoyant and rigid. Basic properties of the cratonic crust include being thick (around 200 km), relatively cold when compared to other regions, and low density. The North China Craton is an ancient craton, which experienced a long period of stability and fitted the definition of a craton well. However, the North China Craton later experienced destruction of some of its deeper parts (decratonization), which means that this piece of continent is no longer as stable.The North China Craton was at first some discrete, separate blocks of continents with independent tectonic activities. In the Paleoproterozoic (2.5-1.8 billion years ago) the continents collided and amalgamated and interacted with the supercontinent, creating belts of metamorphic rocks between the formerly separate parts. The exact process of how the craton was formed is still under debate. After the craton was formed, it stayed stable until the middle of the Ordovician period (480 million years ago). The roots of the craton were then destabilised in the Eastern Block and entered a period of instability. The rocks formed in the Archean and Paleoproterozoic eons (4.6-1.6 billion years ago) were significantly overprinted during the root destruction. Apart from the records of tectonic activities, the craton also contains important mineral resources, such as iron ores and rare earth elements, and fossils records of evolutionary development.Panthalassa
Panthalassa, also known as the Panthalassic Ocean or Panthalassan Ocean (from Greek πᾶν "all" and θάλασσα "sea"), was the superocean that surrounded the supercontinent Pangaea. During the Paleozoic–Mesozoic transition c. 250 Ma it occupied almost 70% of Earth's surface. Its ocean floor has completely disappeared because of the continuous subduction along the continental margins on its circumference. Panthalassa is also referred to as the Paleo-Pacific ("old Pacific") or Proto-Pacific because the Pacific Ocean developed from its centre in the Mesozoic to the present.Polar 3
Polar 3 was a Dornier Do 228 owned and operated by the Alfred Wegener Institute that was shot down south of Dakhla, Western Sahara by guerrillas of the Polisario Front on 24 February 1985.
Polar 2 and Polar 3 were the first German airplanes to reach the South Pole when they landed there in December 1984 and were returning from a five-month mission to the Antarctic, having been based at the Gondwana Research Station. While in Antarctica, Polar 2 was damaged and the bulk of the survey work had to be carried out by Polar 3.Sierra Ballena Shear Zone
Sierra Ballena Shear Zone or SBSZ is a sinistral strike-slip shear zone running across the Uruguayan Shield in eastern Uruguay and the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul. The system was last active in the Precambrian.Sospeter Muhongo
Sospeter Mwijarubi Muhongo, FGSAf, FTWAS, FAAS, CGeol, EurGeol, MASSAf, FGIGE, MP (born 25 June 1954) is a Tanzanian geologist and a nominated member of the Tanzanian Parliament.He served as the Minister of Energy and Minerals from May 2012 until his resignation in January 2015 following the Tegeta escrow scandal. He was succeeded by his deputy George Simbachawene. He won the parliamentary constituency of Musoma Rural in the general election and was thereafter appointed to his former portfolio by President John Magufuli.Terra Australis Orogen
The Terra Australis Orogen (TAO) was the oceanic southern margin of Gondwana which stretched from South America to Eastern Australia and encompassed South Africa, West Antarctica, New Zealand and Victoria Land in East Antarctica.Ultra-high-temperature metamorphism
In geology ultrahigh-temperature metamorphism (UHT) is extreme crustal metamorphism with metamorphic temperatures exceeding 900 °C. Granulite-facies rocks metamorphosed at very high temperatures were identified in the early 1980s, although it took another decade for the geoscience community to recognize UHT metamorphism as a common regional phenomenon. Petrological evidence based on characteristic mineral assemblages backed by experimental and thermodynamic relations demonstrated that Earth's crust can attain and withstand very high temperatures (900–1000 °C) with or without partial melting.Ur (continent)
Ur is a proposed supercontinent that formed in the Archean 3,100 million years ago (3.1 billion).
In Roger's reconstruction Ur is half a billion years older than Arctica and, in the early period of its existence, it was probably the only continent on Earth, and as such can be considered a supercontinent, though it was probably smaller than present-day Australia. In more recent works geologists often refer to both Ur and other proposed Archaean continental assemblages as supercratons. Ur can, nevertheless, be half a billion years younger than Vaalbara, but the concepts of these two early cratonic assemblages are incompatible.Ziphosuchia
Ziphosuchia is a clade of mesoeucrocodylian crocodyliforms that includes notosuchians and sebecosuchia