Gonçalves de Magalhães, Viscount of Araguaia

Domingos José Gonçalves de Magalhães, Viscount of Araguaia (August 13, 1811 – July 10, 1882), was a Brazilian poet, playwright, physician and diplomat. He is considered the founder of Romanticism in Brazilian literature, and was a pioneer of the Brazilian theatre.

He is the patron of the 9th chair of the Brazilian Academy of Letters.

Gonçalves de Magalhães
A drawing of Gonçalves de Magalhães
A drawing of Gonçalves de Magalhães
BornDomingos José Gonçalves de Magalhães
August 13, 1811
Rio de Janeiro, Colonial Brazil
DiedJuly 10, 1882 (aged 70)
Rome, Kingdom of Italy
OccupationPoet, playwright, medician, diplomat
Literary movementRomanticism
Notable worksA Confederação dos Tamoios, Suspiros Poéticos e Saudades, António José, ou O Poeta e a Inquisição
ChildrenAntônio José Gonçalves de Magalhães de Araguaia


Domingos José Gonçalves de Magalhães was born in Rio de Janeiro, to Pedro Gonçalves de Magalhães Chaves. His mother's name is unknown. He entered in a Medicine course in 1828, graduating in 1832. In the following year, he travelled to Europe, where he met and befriended Manuel de Araújo Porto-Alegre and was exposed to the Romantic ideals. He wrote in 1836 a Romantic manifesto, Discurso Sobre a História da Literatura no Brasil, and, in the same year, he published the poetry book Suspiros Poéticos e Saudades, the first Romantic work to be written by a Brazilian.

Returning to Brazil in 1837, he wrote two tragic plays: António José, ou O Poeta e a Inquisição in 1838 and Olgiato in 1839. Also in 1838 he becomes a Philosophy teacher in the Colégio Pedro II. He also founded with Porto-Alegre and Francisco de Sales Torres Homem the short-lived magazine Niterói; only two issues of it were published.

He entered the diplomatic career in 1847, becoming minister in the United States, Argentina, Austria and in the Holy See. He was also a chargé d'affaires in the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, the Piedmont, Russia and Spain. Very esteemed by Emperor Pedro II, he was decorated with the Order of the Rose, the Order of Christ and the Order of the Southern Cross, and with the title of Baron of Araguaia in 1872, being elevated to Viscount two years later.

Magalhães had a son, Antônio José Gonçalves de Magalhães de Araguaia (born c. 1858), who was proclaimed Count of Araguaia by the Holy See.

Gonçalves de Magalhães died in Rome, on July 10, 1882.

Three brazilian writers 1858
From left to right: Gonçalves Dias, Manuel de Araújo Porto-Alegre and Magalhães, on a picture dating from c. 1858


  • Discurso Sobre a História da Literatura no Brasil (1836)
  • Suspiros Poéticos e Saudades (1836)
  • António José, ou O Poeta e a Inquisição (1838)
  • Olgiato (1839)
  • A Confederação dos Tamoios (1856)
  • Os Mistérios (1857)
  • Urânia (1862)
  • Cânticos Fúnebres (1864)
  • Fatos do Espírito Humano (1865)
  • A Alma e o Cérebro (1876)
  • Comentários e Pensamentos (1880)

External links

Preceded by
New creation
Baron of Araguaia
1872 — 1874
Succeeded by
None (title abolished)
Preceded by
New creation
Viscount of Araguaia
1874 — 1882
Succeeded by
Preceded by
New creation
Brazilian Academy of Letters - Patron of the 9th chair
Succeeded by
Carlos Magalhães de Azeredo (founder)
Brazilian literature

Brazilian literature is the literature written in the Portuguese language by Brazilians or in Brazil, including works written prior to the country's independence in 1822. Throughout its early years, literature from Brazil followed the literary trends of Portugal, whereas gradually shifting to a different and authentic writing style in the course of the 19th and 20th centuries, in the search for truly Brazilian themes and use of the Portuguese language.

Portuguese is a Romance dialect and the sole official language of Brazil. Lyrically, the poet Olavo Bilac, named it " (...) desconhecida e obscura./ Tuba de alto clangor, lira singela,/ Que tens o trom e o silvo da procela,/ E o arrolo da saudade e da ternura! ", which roughly translates as "(...) unknown and obscure,/ Tuba of high blare, delicate lyre,/ That holds the frill and the hiss of the tempest/ And the singing of the saudade and of the tenderness!"

Brazil's most significant literary award is the Camões Prize, which it shares with the entire Portuguese sprachraum. As of 2016, Brazil has eleven recipients of the prize. Brazil also holds its own literary academy, the Brazilian Academy of Letters, a non-profit cultural organization pointed in perpetuating the care of the national language and literature.Brazilian literature has been very prolific. Having as birth the letter of Pero Vaz de Caminha, the document that marks the discovery of Brazil, the country's literature has encompassed several significant writers. Major figures include novelists Machado de Assis, Guimarães Rosa, Jorge Amado, Clarice Lispector and Graciliano Ramos; poets such as João Cabral de Melo Neto, Mario de Andrade, Carlos Drummond de Andrade, Vinicius de Moraes, Ferreira Gullar and Manuel Bandeira; dramatists like Nelson Rodrigues and Augusto Boal, and literary critics and theorists as Antonio Candido and Otto Maria Carpeaux, among others.

Theologians and
Visual artists
Related topics
Patrons and members of the Brazilian Academy of Letters
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21 to 30
31 to 40

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