Domingos José Gonçalves de Magalhães, Viscount of Araguaia (August 13, 1811 – July 10, 1882), was a Brazilian poet, playwright, physician and diplomat. He is considered the founder of Romanticism in Brazilian literature, and was a pioneer of the Brazilian theatre.
He is the patron of the 9th chair of the Brazilian Academy of Letters.
Gonçalves de Magalhães
A drawing of Gonçalves de Magalhães
|Born||Domingos José Gonçalves de Magalhães|
August 13, 1811
Rio de Janeiro, Colonial Brazil
|Died||July 10, 1882 (aged 70)|
Rome, Kingdom of Italy
|Occupation||Poet, playwright, medician, diplomat|
|Notable works||A Confederação dos Tamoios, Suspiros Poéticos e Saudades, António José, ou O Poeta e a Inquisição|
|Children||Antônio José Gonçalves de Magalhães de Araguaia|
Domingos José Gonçalves de Magalhães was born in Rio de Janeiro, to Pedro Gonçalves de Magalhães Chaves. His mother's name is unknown. He entered in a Medicine course in 1828, graduating in 1832. In the following year, he travelled to Europe, where he met and befriended Manuel de Araújo Porto-Alegre and was exposed to the Romantic ideals. He wrote in 1836 a Romantic manifesto, Discurso Sobre a História da Literatura no Brasil, and, in the same year, he published the poetry book Suspiros Poéticos e Saudades, the first Romantic work to be written by a Brazilian.
Returning to Brazil in 1837, he wrote two tragic plays: António José, ou O Poeta e a Inquisição in 1838 and Olgiato in 1839. Also in 1838 he becomes a Philosophy teacher in the Colégio Pedro II. He also founded with Porto-Alegre and Francisco de Sales Torres Homem the short-lived magazine Niterói; only two issues of it were published.
He entered the diplomatic career in 1847, becoming minister in the United States, Argentina, Austria and in the Holy See. He was also a chargé d'affaires in the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, the Piedmont, Russia and Spain. Very esteemed by Emperor Pedro II, he was decorated with the Order of the Rose, the Order of Christ and the Order of the Southern Cross, and with the title of Baron of Araguaia in 1872, being elevated to Viscount two years later.
Gonçalves de Magalhães died in Rome, on July 10, 1882.
| Baron of Araguaia
1872 — 1874
None (title abolished)
| Viscount of Araguaia
1874 — 1882
Brazilian Academy of Letters - Patron of the 9th chair
Carlos Magalhães de Azeredo (founder)
Brazilian literature is the literature written in the Portuguese language by Brazilians or in Brazil, including works written prior to the country's independence in 1822. Throughout its early years, literature from Brazil followed the literary trends of Portugal, whereas gradually shifting to a different and authentic writing style in the course of the 19th and 20th centuries, in the search for truly Brazilian themes and use of the Portuguese language.
Portuguese is a Romance dialect and the sole official language of Brazil. Lyrically, the poet Olavo Bilac, named it " (...) desconhecida e obscura./ Tuba de alto clangor, lira singela,/ Que tens o trom e o silvo da procela,/ E o arrolo da saudade e da ternura! ", which roughly translates as "(...) unknown and obscure,/ Tuba of high blare, delicate lyre,/ That holds the frill and the hiss of the tempest/ And the singing of the saudade and of the tenderness!"
Brazil's most significant literary award is the Camões Prize, which it shares with the entire Portuguese sprachraum. As of 2016, Brazil has eleven recipients of the prize. Brazil also holds its own literary academy, the Brazilian Academy of Letters, a non-profit cultural organization pointed in perpetuating the care of the national language and literature.Brazilian literature has been very prolific. Having as birth the letter of Pero Vaz de Caminha, the document that marks the discovery of Brazil, the country's literature has encompassed several significant writers. Major figures include novelists Machado de Assis, Guimarães Rosa, Jorge Amado, Clarice Lispector and Graciliano Ramos; poets such as João Cabral de Melo Neto, Mario de Andrade, Carlos Drummond de Andrade, Vinicius de Moraes, Ferreira Gullar and Manuel Bandeira; dramatists like Nelson Rodrigues and Augusto Boal, and literary critics and theorists as Antonio Candido and Otto Maria Carpeaux, among others.
Patrons and members of the Brazilian Academy of Letters
1 to 10
1 (Adelino Fontoura): Luís Murat ►
Afonso d'Escragnolle Taunay ►
Ivan Monteiro de Barros Lins ►
Bernardo Élis ►
Evandro Lins e Silva ►
Ana Maria Machado
11 to 20
11 (Fagundes Varela): Lúcio de Mendonça ►
Pedro Augusto Carneiro Lessa ►
Eduardo Ramos ►
João Luís Alves ►
Adelmar Tavares ►
Deolindo Couto ►
Darcy Ribeiro ►
Celso Furtado ►
Hélio Jaguaribe ►
Ignácio de Loyola Brandão
21 to 30
21 (Joaquim Serra): José do Patrocínio ►
Mário de Alencar ►
Olegário Mariano ►
Álvaro Moreira ►
Adonias Filho ►
Dias Gomes ►
Roberto Campos ►
31 to 40
31 (Pedro Luís Pereira de Sousa): Luís Caetano Pereira Guimarães Júnior ►
João Batista Ribeiro de Andrade Fernandes ►
Paulo Setúbal ►
Cassiano Ricardo ►
José Cândido de Carvalho ►
Geraldo França de Lima ►
Moacyr Scliar ►