Gonçalves Dias

Antônio Gonçalves Dias (Portuguese pronunciation: [ɐ̃ˈtonju ɡõˈsawvis ˈdʒiɐs]; August 10, 1823 – November 3, 1864) was a Brazilian Romantic poet, playwright, ethnographer, lawyer and linguist. A major exponent of Brazilian Romanticism and of the literary tradition known as "Indianism", he is famous for writing "Canção do exílio" (arguably the most well-known poem of Brazilian literature), the short narrative poem I-Juca-Pirama, the unfinished epic Os Timbiras, and many other nationalist and patriotic poems that would award him posthumously with the title of national poet of Brazil. He was also an avid researcher of Native Brazilian languages and folklore.

He is the patron of the 15th chair of the Brazilian Academy of Letters.

Gonçalves Dias
Gonçalves Dias
BornAntônio Gonçalves Dias
August 10, 1823
Caxias, Empire of Brazil
DiedNovember 3, 1864 (aged 41)
Guimarães, Empire of Brazil
OccupationPoet, playwright, folklorist, linguist, ethnographer, lawyer
Alma materUniversity of Coimbra
GenrePoetry, theater play
Literary movementRomanticism
Notable worksI-Juca-Pirama
Os Timbiras
"Canção do exílio"
  • Olímpia Carolina da Costa
    (m. 1852; div. 1856)
Children1 (stillborn)
RelativesJoão Manuel Gonçalves Dias (father)
Vicência Ferreira (mother)
Teófilo Dias (nephew)


Se te amo, não sei!.djvu
Manuscript of Dias' poem "Se te amo, não sei!", in his own handwriting. From the archives of the National Library of Brazil

Antônio Gonçalves Dias was born in Caxias on August 10, 1823, to a Portuguese father, João Manuel Gonçalves Dias and a cafuza mother, Vicência Ferreira. After completing his studies in Latin, French and Philosophy, he went in 1838 to Portugal to earn a degree in Law at the University of Coimbra. There he wrote his most remembered poem, "Canção do exílio". He graduated in 1845 and returned to Brazil in the same year. He went to Rio de Janeiro, living there until 1854. There he wrote for newspapers[1], and began to write the drama Leonor de Mendonça in 1846 and his first poetry book, Primeiros Cantos, in 1847. It was very well-received, and Alexandre Herculano wrote an article praising it. Dias finished his play Leonor de Mendonça also in 1847, and tried to have it performed at the Conservatório de Música do Rio de Janeiro, but the play was not accepted.

In 1848, he wrote two more poetry books: Segundos Cantos and Sextilhas de Frei Antão. In 1849 he became professor of Latin and History at the Colégio Pedro II. In 1851, he published his last poetry book, Últimos Cantos. In the same year, he travelled to Northern Brazil, planning to marry 14-year-old Ana Amélia Ferreira do Vale, to whom he dedicated many of his most famous and beautiful love poems, such as "Seus olhos", "Leviana", "Palinódia" and "Retratação". Ana Amélia was the cousin of Alexandre Teófilo de Carvalho Leal, who in his turn was the brother of Antônio Henriques Leal, a famous Brazilian journalist, writer, medician, biographer and historian known as the "Plutarch of Cantanhede". (Both Alexandre and Antônio were very close friends with Dias, and Antônio would edit Dias' posthumous works in 1875, in 6 volumes.) However, the girl's mother did not allow the marriage, quoting Dias' mestizo origins as a pretext. (This inspired his famous poem "Ainda uma vez – adeus!".) Returning to Rio, he married Olímpia Carolina da Costa later on, having with her a stillborn daughter. Dias divorced Olímpia in 1856.

From 1854 to 1858, he went to Europe on special missions for the Secretary of Foreign Affairs, where he studied the state of public instruction in the educational institutions there.[1] In 1856, in Leipzig, he published his three poetry books in a single volume entitled Cantos, wrote the first four cantos of the epic poem Os Timbiras (that he would leave unfinished) and also published a dictionary of Old Tupi. Returning to Brazil in 1860, he founded the magazine Guanabara alongside Joaquim Manuel de Macedo and Manuel de Araújo Porto-Alegre in 1849, and went on expeditions to Negro and Madeira Rivers, as a member of the Scientific Commission of Exploration. In 1862 he returned to Rio de Janeiro, but shortly after went to Europe again. In October 1863 he went to Lisbon, where he translated Friedrich Schiller's The Bride of Messina and some poems by Heinrich Heine.

Three brazilian writers 1858
From left to right: Dias, Manuel de Araújo Porto-Alegre and Gonçalves de Magalhães, on a picture dating from circa 1858

After a short stay in France, he decided to return to Brazil in 1864, in the ship Ville de Boulogne. However, the ship was wrecked on the Bay of Cumã,[2] near the shores of Guimarães, Maranhão. All the passengers but Dias survived the tragedy; he was sleeping in his cabin belowdecks and did not wake up in time to see what was happening; thus he drowned.

Dias had a nephew who was also a poet, Teófilo Dias.



  • Primeiros Cantos (First Chants1847)
  • Segundos Cantos (Second Chants1848)
  • Sextilhas de Frei Antão (Friar Anton's Sextilles1848)
  • Últimos Cantos (Last Chants1851)
  • Cantos (Chants — compilation of Primeiros, Segundos and Últimos Cantos, 1856)


Epic and narrative poems


A lithograph depicting Gonçalves Dias' best friend and confidant, Alexandre Teófilo de Carvalho Leal, taken from the third volume of the Panteão Maranhense


The city of Gonçalves Dias, founded in 1958, has this name because its territory formerly belonged to the city of Caxias, Dias' hometown. A river in Paraná is named after him, as well as many public squares and streets all over Brazil.


  1. ^ a b Wikisource Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Gonçalves Dias, Antonio" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 12 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 230.
  2. ^ "Gonçalves Dias morreu em naufrágio no baixo de Atins" (in Portuguese). 15 March 2004. Retrieved 22 April 2013.

Further reading

External links

Preceded by
New creation
Brazilian Academy of Letters - Patron of the 15th chair
Succeeded by
Olavo Bilac (founder)
André Dias

For Al Ain's Brazilian striker André Dias, see André Felippe Seixas Dias.

André Gonçalves Dias, or simply André Dias (born 15 May 1979) is a retired Brazilian football central defender.

Canção do exílio

"Canção do exílio" (Portuguese pronunciation: [kɐ̃ˈsɐ̃w dw eˈzilju], Exile song) is a poem written by the Brazilian Romantic author Gonçalves Dias in 1843, when he was in Portugal studying Law at the University of Coimbra. The poem is a famous example of the first phase of Brazilian Romanticism, that was characterized by heavy nationalism and patriotism.

The poem first appeared in Dias' book Primeiros Cantos (First Chants), that was published in 1846. It was influenced by and loosely based on Johann Wolfgang von Goethe's ballad Mignon, and some verses of the ballad are used as the poem's epigraph.

"Canção do exílio" is one of the most famous poems of Brazilian literature, being referenced and/or parodied by many other Brazilian authors. The lines "Nossos bosques têm mais vida,/Nossa vida mais amores" are even used in the national anthem of Brazil.

Caxias, Maranhão

Caxias is a municipality in the state of Maranhão in the Northeast region of Brazil.It is the fifth largest city in the state, with a population of 155,129 inhabitants and an area of about 5,150 km2.

The Brazilian poet Gonçalves Dias was born in Caxias.

Gabriela Dias Moreschi

Gabriela Gonçalves Dias Moreschi (born 8 July 1994) is a Brazilian handballer who plays for Măgura Cisnădie and the Brazilian national team.

Gonçalves Dias, Maranhão

Gonçalves Dias is a municipality in the state of Maranhão in the Northeast region of Brazil.

Gonçalves Dias River

The Gonçalves Dias River is a river of Paraná state in southern Brazil.


I-Juca-Pirama is a short narrative poem by Brazilian author Gonçalves Dias. It first appeared in his 1851 poetry book Últimos Cantos, but is usually published independently of its parent tome. Written under decasyllabic and alexandrine verses, and divided in ten cantos, it is one of the most famous Indianist poems of Brazilian Romanticism.

I-Juca-Pirama means, in Old Tupi, "He who must be killed".

Indianism (arts)

Indianism (in Portuguese: Indianismo) is a Brazilian literary and artistic movement that reached its peak during the first stages of Romanticism, though it had been present in Brazilian literature since the Baroque period.

In Romantic contexts, it is called "the first generation of Brazilian Romanticism", being succeeded by the "Ultra-Romanticism" and the "Condorism".

List of Brazilian poets

This is a list of notable Brazilian poets.

List of places in Brazil named after people

This is a list of places in Brazil which are named after people :

Anchieta, Brazil - Father José de Anchieta

Benjamin Constant, Amazonas, Brazil - Benjamin Constant (Brazilian politician, writer and journalist)

Blumenau, Brazil, - Hermann Blumenau (German founder of colony)

Campos Sales, Brazil - Manuel Ferraz de Campos Sales (a president of Brazil)

Carlos Chagas, Minas Gerais, Brazil - Carlos Chagas (discoverer of Chagas disease)

Duque de Caxias, Brazil - Luís Alves de Lima e Silva, Duke of Caxias, Brazilian general and politician

Epitaciolândia, Acre, Brazil - Epitácio da Silva Pessoa (a Brazilian president)

Euclides da Cunha, Bahia - Euclides da Cunha (Brazilian writer)

Florianópolis, Brazil - Floriano Peixoto (a president of Brazil)

Francisco Alves - Brazilian singer Francisco Alves

Gonçalves Dias, Maranhão, Brazil - Antônio Gonçalves Dias (a Brazilian poet)

João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil - João Pessoa Cavalcanti de Albuquerque, governor of the state of Paraíba

Marechal Deodoro, Amazonas, Brazil - Manuel Deodoro da Fonseca (a president of Brazil)

Marechal Floriano, Espírito Santo, Brazil - Floriano Peixoto (a president of Brazil)

Nilo Peçanha, Brazil, Bahia - Nilo Peçanha (a Brazilian president)

Nilópolis, Brazil - Nilo Peçanha (a Brazilian president)

Peçanha, Brazil - Nilo Peçanha

Petrópolis, Brazil - Pedro I, emperor of Brazil

Presidente Bernardes, Brazil - Artur da Silva Bernardes (a Brazilian president)

Presidente Dutra, Brazil - Eurico Gaspar Dutra (a Brazilian president)

Presidente Epitácio, Brazil - Epitâcio da Silva Pessoa (a Brazilian president)

Presidente Figueiredo, Brazil - João Baptista de Oliveira Figueiredo (a Brazilian president)

Presidente Getúlio, Brazil - Getúlio Vargas (a Brazilian president)

Presidente Jânio Quadros, Brazil Jânio Quadros (a Brazilian president)

Presidente Juscelino, Brazil - Juscelino Kubitschek (a Brazilian president)

Presidente Kennedy, Espírito Santo, Brazil - John Fitzgerald Kennedy (American president)

Presidente Médici, Brazil - Emílio Garrastazú Médici (a Brazilian president)

Presidente Prudente and Prudente de Morais, Brazil - Prudente José de Morais Barros (a Brazilian president)

Presidente Tancredo Neves - Tancredo Neves (a Brazilian President who died in 1985)

Presidente Sarney, Maranhão, Brazil - José Sarney (a Brazilian president)

Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil - Barão do Rio Branco (Brazilian politician and diplomat)

Rondonópolis and Rondolândia, Brazil - Cândido Rondon (Brazilian military officer and explorer)

Ruy Barbosa, Brazil - Ruy Barbosa (Brazilian jurist, politician and diplomat)

Salesópolis, Brazil - Manuel Ferraz de Campos Sales (a president of Brazil)

Salvador, Brazil - Jesus (the Christian Savior)

Santos Dumont, Brazil - Alberto Santos Dumont, inventor of aircraft

Santos Dumont, Minas Gerais - Alberto Santos Dumont

São Paulo - Saint Paul

São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil - Louis IX of France (Saint Louis)

São Vicente, Brazil - Saint Vincent

São Sebastião, São Paulo, Brazil - Saint Sebastian

Sud Mennucci, São Paulo, Brazil - journalist and educator Sud Mennucci

Teresina, Piauí, Brazil - Empress Tereza Christina of Brazil, wife of Pedro II

Teresópolis - Empress Tereza Christina of Brazil, wife of Pedro II

Mcadamos, Brazil - Jack McAdams, a wealthy Confederado

List of rivers of Paraná

List of rivers in Paraná (Brazilian State).

The list is arranged by drainage basin from north to south, with respective tributaries indented under each larger stream's name and ordered from downstream to upstream. All rivers in Paraná drain to the Atlantic Ocean, primarily via the Paraná River.

Londrina Esporte Clube

Londrina Esporte Clube, usually shortened to Londrina, is a Brazilian football team from Londrina in the southern state of Paraná. The club was founded on April 5, 1956 and originally played at the Vitorino Gonçalves Dias stadium. Their current stadium, the Estádio do Café was built for Londrina's participation in the 1976 Brazilian league championship.

The most successful period for Londrina came between 1976 and 1982 when Londrina competed in Brazil's top league for 6 seasons. They were relegated for the 1980 season but claimed their only national league title by becoming champions of the second division. They have also won the state championship four times, as well as claiming 12 Campeonato do Interior Paranaense titles.

In 2013, Londrina finished in top place in the general classification of the Campeonato Paranaense. Although they did not qualify for the state championship final they won the Interior final and thereby qualified for a place in the Campeonato Brasileiro Série D, the fourth tier of the Brazilian league system and will also be placed in the draw for the First Round of the Copa do Brasil.


Maranhão (Portuguese pronunciation: [mɐɾɐˈɲɐ̃w]) is a northeastern state of Brazil. To the north lies the Atlantic Ocean. Maranhão is neighboured by the (clockwise from east) states of Piauí, Tocantins and Pará. The people of Maranhão have a distinctive accent inside the common Northeastern Brazilian dialect. Maranhão is described in books such as The Land of the Palm Trees by Gonçalves Dias and Casa de Pensão by Aluísio Azevedo.

The dunes of Lençóis are an important area of environmental preservation. Also of interest is the state capital of São Luís, designated a Unesco World Heritage Site. Another important conservation area is the Parnaíba River delta, between the states of Maranhão and Piauí, with its lagoons, desert dunes and deserted beaches or islands, such as the Caju island, which shelters rare birds.

Meditação (prose)

Meditação (English: Meditation) is a discontinued series of prose poems written by Brazilian poet Gonçalves Dias. Written c. 1850, it was published serially in the magazine Guanabara, who was founded by him, alongside other Brazilian writers, Joaquim Manuel de Macedo and Manuel de Araújo Porto-Alegre.

The work criticizes the situation of Brazil during the 19th century, under the form of a dialogue between an old man and a young man, who represent, respectively, the critic and the exaltation.


Patkull is the first theatre play by Brazilian Romantic author Gonçalves Dias. It was written in 1843, and loosely based on the life of Livonian nobleman and politician Johann Patkul (1660–1707).

Sabiá (song)

"Sabiá" (aka "The Song of the Sabiá") is a Brazilian song composed in 1968 by Antônio Carlos Jobim, with lyrics by Chico Buarque. English-language lyrics were written later by Norman Gimbel.

In 1968, “Sabiá” won first place at Brazil’s III Festival Internacional da Canção (International Festival of Song), where it was performed by Cynara and Cybele. After Buarque wrote the original lyrics, he traveled to Italy, and, while he was away, Jobim added a last verse, which was included in the performance at the Festival but was not well received. Buarque convinced Jobim to drop the verse, and it has not been used since.The sabiá is a songbird (Rufous-bellied thrush in English) and the national bird of Brazil. Buarque's lyrics allude to the sabiá in the famous Brazilian poem "Canção do exílio," written in 1843 by Gonçalves Dias.


Teófilo is a given name that may refer to:

Teófilo Barrios (born 1964), Paraguayan football (soccer) defender

Teófilo Benito (1966–2004), Spanish middle distance runner

Teófilo Borunda (born 1912), Mexican politician

Teófilo Braga (1843–1924), Portuguese politician, writer and playwright

Teófilo Carvalho dos Santos (1906–1986), Portuguese politician

Teófilo Chantre (born 1964), Cape Verdean musician

Teófilo Cruz (1942–2005), Puerto Rican professional basketball player

Teófilo Cubillas (born 1949), Peruvian former footballer

Teófilo Dias (1854–1889), Brazilian poet, journalist and lawyer, nephew of Gonçalves Dias

Teófilo Ferreira (born 1973), Brazilian international freestyle swimmer

Teófilo Forero (died 1989), Colombian politician and trade unionist

Teófilo Gutiérrez (born 1985), Colombian football player

Teófilo José Jaime María Le Guillou, the founder in 1823 of Vieques, Puerto Rico

Teófilo Marxuach, (1877–1939), ordered the first U.S. shot fired in World War I

Teófilo Stevenson (born 1952), Cuban boxer

Teofilo Vargas Sein, the leader of the Mita Congregation, a Christian church in Puerto Rico

Teófilo Villavicencio Marxuach (1912–1992), pioneer in Puerto Rican radio broadcasting

Teófilo Yldefonso (1903–1943), Filipino swimmer in the breaststroke

Teófilo Dias

Teófilo Odorico Dias de Mesquita (November 8, 1854 – March 29, 1889) was a Brazilian poet, journalist and lawyer, nephew of the famous Romantic author Gonçalves Dias.

He is the patron of the 36th chair of the Brazilian Academy of Letters.

The literary critic Alfredo Bosi considers his 1882 work Fanfarras to have launched the Parnassian movement in Brazilian literature.

Theologians and
Visual artists
Patrons and members of the Brazilian Academy of Letters
1 to 10
11 to 20
21 to 30
31 to 40

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.