Gomphidae

The Gomphidae are a family in the Odonata commonly referred to as clubtail dragonflies; the family contains about 90 genera and 900 species; individual species may be found across North and South America, Europe, Asia, and Australia.[2] The name refers to the club-like widening of the end of the abdomen (abdominal segments 7 through 9). However, this club is usually less pronounced in females and is entirely absent in some species.

Gomphidae
Bladetail (Lindenia tetraphylla) male Macedonia
Bladetail, male, Lindenia tetraphylla
Republic of Macedonia
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Odonata
Infraorder: Anisoptera
Family: Gomphidae
Rambur, 1842[1]
Genera

See text

Etymology

The name may be derived from Latin gomphus or gond meaning "hinge".

Characteristics

Clubtails have small, widely separated compound eyes, a trait they share with the Petaluridae and with damselflies. The eyes are blue, turquoise, or green. The thorax in most species is pale with dark stripes, and the pattern of the stripes is often diagnostic. They lack the bright metallic colors of many dragonfly groups and are mostly cryptically colored to avoid detection and little difference between the sexes is seen.[3] Adults are usually from 40 to 70 mm (1.6 to 2.8 in) in length.

Clubtails are fast-flying dragonflies with short flight seasons. They spend much time at rest, perching in a suitable position to dart forth to prey on flying insects. They tend to perch on the ground or on leaves with the abdomen sloping up and its tip curling down a little. Larger species may perch with a drooping abdomen or lie flat on a leaf. Another stance adopted by clubtails perching in the open is "obelisking", standing with the abdomen raised vertically, a posture adopted otherwise only by the skimmers.[3]

Most clubtails breed in streams, rivers, or lakes. The nymphs are unusual in having a flat mentum, part of the mouthparts, and their antennae have only four segments. They burrow in the sediment at the bottom of the water body, with the nymphs of the dragonhunter (Hagenius brevistylus) living among damp bark and leaf litter at the edge of the water.[4]

Gallery

IC Gomphidae wing

Gomphidae wing structure: Note the similar-sized triangles of the front and hind wings and the widely separate eyes.

Yellow striped hunter mating

Pair of yellow-striped hunters mating

Common Clubtail (Ictinogomphus rapax) W IMG 0224

Common clubtail, Ictinogomphus rapax

XN Gomphus vulgatissimus 689

Gomphus vulgatissimus, showing the "clubbed" abdomen characteristic of the family

Gomphus vulgatissimus eyes 004b

The common clubtail Gomphus vulgatissimus head with widely separated eyes

Lined Hooktail Paragomphus lineatus Male

Paragomphus lineatus, male

Lined Hooktail Paragomphus lineatus Female

Paragomphus lineatus, female

Genera

These genera belong to the family Gomphidae.[5]

References

  1. ^ Rambur, Jules (1842). Histoire naturelle des insectes. Névroptères (in French). Paris: Librairie Encyclopédique de Roret. pp. 534 [24] – via Gallica.
  2. ^ "New Hampshire PBS web article"
  3. ^ a b Paulson, Dennis (2009). Dragonflies and Damselflies of the West. Princeton University Press. p. 237. ISBN 1-4008-3294-2.
  4. ^ John L. Capinera (2008). Encyclopedia of Entomology. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 1245. ISBN 978-1-4020-6242-1.
  5. ^ "Odonata Central, Dragonfly & Damselfly World Catalog, Family Gomphidae". odonatacentral.org. Retrieved 2018-05-13.

External links

Anisogomphus solitaris

Anisogomphus solitaris is a species of dragonfly in the family Gomphidae. It is endemic to Sri Lanka. Its natural habitat is rivers. It is threatened by habitat loss.

Antipodogomphus

Antipodogomphus is a genus of dragonflies in the family Gomphidae,

endemic to Australia.

The species are small to medium-sized with black with yellow markings. They are commonly known as dragons.

Austrogomphus

Austrogomphus is a genus of dragonflies in the family Gomphidae,

endemic to Australia.

Species of Austrogomphus are tiny to medium-sized dragonflies, black in colour with yellowish markings. They are commonly known as hunters.

Austrogomphus praeruptus

Austrogomphus praeruptus, also known as Austrogomphus (Austroepigomphus) praeruptus, is a species of dragonfly in the family Gomphidae,

It inhabits slow streams, rivers and ponds in eastern Australia.Austrogomphus praeruptus is a medium-sized, black and yellow dragonfly.

Ceratogomphus triceraticus

Ceratogomphus triceraticus is a species of dragonfly in the family Gomphidae. It is endemic to South Africa. Its natural habitat is rivers. It is threatened by habitat loss.

Crenigomphus abyssinicus

Crenigomphus abyssinicus is a species of dragonfly in the family Gomphidae. It is endemic to Ethiopia. Its natural habitat is rivers. It is threatened by habitat loss.

Crenigomphus denticulatus

Crenigomphus denticulatus is a species of dragonfly in the family Gomphidae. It is endemic to Ethiopia. It is threatened by habitat loss.

Cyclogomphus gynostylus

Cyclogomphus gynostylus is a species of dragonfly in the family Gomphidae. It is endemic to Sri Lanka. Its natural habitats are rivers, water storage areas, and canals and ditches. It is threatened by habitat loss.

Gomphurus

Gomphurus is a genus of clubtails in the family of dragonflies known as Gomphidae. There are about 13 described species in Gomphurus.Gomphurus was formerly considered a subgenus of Gomphus, but has recently been promoted to genus rank along with Phanogomphus, Stenogomphurus and Hylogomphus.

Gomphus (dragonfly)

Gomphus is a genus of clubtail dragonflies in the family Gomphidae.

As a result of phylogenetic studies, Gomphus subgenera Gomphurus, Hylogomphus, Phanogomphus, and Stenogomphurus were elevated in rank to genus in 2017. With the removal of their member species, Gomphus ended up with 11 of its original 54 species, none of which are found in the Western Hemisphere.

Gomphus flavipes

The river clubtail or yellow-legged dragonfly (Gomphus flavipes) is a species of dragonfly in the family Gomphidae. It is found in Europe. Its natural habitat are rivers and large streams.

The dragonfly flies from June to September depending on the location.

Gomphus vulgatissimus

Gomphus vulgatissimus, the common clubtail, is a medium-sized (wingspan 6 –7 cm.) species of dragonfly in the family Gomphidae. It is found in most of Europe, and is present now in the south of France. Its natural habitats are clean, slow moving streaming rivers and creeks with sandy soil. It can be seen from mid-April in the south to August. Once they hatched out of water, they live shortly. As the common name suggests, this medium-sized species has a distinctive club-shaped abdomen.The males are black with extensive yellow markings on the thorax and abdomen which turn green as the insect ages.The females are black with extensive yellow markings. In the British Isles the adult flight period extends from mid May to early July.

Heliogomphus nietneri

Heliogomphus nietneri is a species of dragonfly in the family Gomphidae. It is endemic to Sri Lanka. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests and rivers. It is threatened by habitat loss.

Ictinogomphus

Ictinogomphus is a genus of dragonflies in either the family Gomphidae or Lindeniidae.

They are medium to large, yellow and black with clear wings. Species occur in Africa, Asia and Australia.

Ictinogomphus ferox

Ictinogomphus ferox, commonly called the common tiger or the common tigertail, is a species of dragonfly in the family Gomphidae. It is found in Angola, Botswana, Central African Republic, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Guinea, Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Senegal, Somalia, South Africa, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe, possibly Burundi, and possibly Ethiopia. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests, dry savanna, moist savanna, subtropical or tropical dry shrubland, subtropical or tropical moist shrubland, rivers, intermittent rivers, shrub-dominated wetlands, swamps, freshwater lakes, intermittent freshwater lakes, freshwater marshes, intermittent freshwater marshes, and freshwater springs.

Onychogomphus

Onychogomphus is a genus of dragonflies in the family Gomphidae. They are commonly known as Pincertails.

Ophiogomphus

Ophiogomphus is a genus of dragonfly in the family Gomphidae. The species mostly have beautifully marked green club-shaped abdomens, more noticeable in the males.The genus contains the following species:

Ophiogomphus acuminatus Carle, 1981 – acuminate snaketail

Ophiogomphus anomalus Harvey, 1898 – extra-striped snaketail

Ophiogomphus arizonicus Kennedy, 1917 – Arizona snaketail

Ophiogomphus aspersus Morse, 1895 – brook snaketail

Ophiogomphus australis Carle, 1992 – southern snaketail

Ophiogomphus bellicosus Voronocovsky, 1909

Ophiogomphus bison Selys, 1873 – bison snaketail

Ophiogomphus carolus Needham, 1897 – riffle snaketail

Ophiogomphus caudoforcipus Yousuf & Yunus, 1977

Ophiogomphus cecilia (Geoffroy in Fourcroy, 1785) – green snaketail, green gomphid

Ophiogomphus cerastis Selys, 1854

Ophiogomphus colubrinus Selys, 1854 – boreal snaketail

Ophiogomphus edmundo Needham, 1951 – Edmund's snaketail

Ophiogomphus howei Bromley, 1924 – pygmy snaketail

Ophiogomphus incurvatus Carle, 1982 – Appalachian snaketail

Ophiogomphus mainensis Packard, 1863 – Maine snaketail

Ophiogomphus morrisoni Selys, 1879 – Great Basin snaketail

Ophiogomphus obscurus Bartenev, 1909

Ophiogomphus occidentis (Hagen, 1885) – Sinuous snaketail

Ophiogomphus purepecha González & Villeda-Callejas, 2000

Ophiogomphus reductus Calvert, 1898

Ophiogomphus rupinsulensis (Walsh, 1862) – rusty snaketail

Ophiogomphus severus Hagen, 1874 – pale snaketail

Ophiogomphus sinicus (Chao, 1954)

Ophiogomphus smithi Tennessen & Vogt, 2004 – Sioux snaketail

Ophiogomphus spinicornis Selys, 1878

Ophiogomphus susbehcha Vogt & Smith, 1993 – St. Croix snaketail

Ophiogomphus westfalli Cook & Daigle, 1985 – Westfall's snaketail

Phanogomphus

Phanogomphus is a genus of clubtails in the family Gomphidae found in North America. There are about 17 described species in Phanogomphus.Phanogomphus was formerly considered a subgenus of Gomphus, but has recently been promoted to genus rank along with Stenogomphurus, Gomphurus and Hylogomphus.

Extant Odonata families

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