Gomburza

Gomburza, alternatively spelled GOMBURZA or GomBurZa, refers to three Filipino Catholic priests (Mariano Gomez, José Burgos, and Jacinto Zamora), who were executed on February 17, 1872 at Bagumbayan, Philippines by Spanish colonial authorities on charges of subversion arising from the 1872 Cavite mutiny. The name is a portmanteau of the priests' surnames.

Their execution had a profound effect on many late 19th-century Filipinos; José Rizal, later to become the country's national hero, would dedicate his novel El Filibusterismo to their memory.[1] Mutiny by workers in the Cavite Naval Yard was the pretext[2][3] needed by the authorities to redress a perceived humiliation from the principal objective, José Burgos, who threatened the established order.

During the Spanish colonial period, four social class distinctions were observed in the islands: Spaniards who were born in Spain, peninsulares; Spaniards born in the colonies of Spain (Latin America or the Philippines), insulares or Creoles; Spanish mestizos, Chinese or 'Indios' (natives) dwelling within or near the city (or town) and the church; and Chinese or Sangley and rural Indios.[4]

Burgos was a Doctor of Philosophy whose prominence extended even to Spain, such that when the new Governor and Captain-General Carlos María de la Torre arrived from Spain to assume his duties, he invited Burgos to sit beside him in his carriage during the inaugural procession, a place traditionally reserved for the archbishop and who was a peninsular Spaniard. The arrival of the liberal de la Torre was opposed by the ruling minority of friars, regular priests who belonged to an order (Dominicans, Augustinians, Recollects, and Franciscans) and their aliens in civil government but supported by the secular priests, most of whom were mestizos and darnas assigned to parishes and farflung communities and believed that the reforms and the equality that they wanted with peninsular Spaniards were finally coming. In less than two years, de la Torre was replaced by Rafael de Izquierdo.

Gomburza
Engraving featuring the three priests
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Execution site of the Gomburza in what is now Rizal Park, Manila.
GomburzaMarker01Jul2018
July 2018 picture of the execution site, with the Rizal monument in the background at left

Cavite Mutiny

The so-called Cavite Mutiny of workers in the arsenal of the naval shipyard over a pay reduction from increased circumduction produced a willing witness to implicate the three priests, who were summarily tried and sentenced to death by garrote on 17 February 1872. The bodies of the three priests were buried in a common, unmarked grave in the Paco Cemetery, in keeping with the practice of burying enemies of the state.[2] Significantly, in the archives of Spain, there is no record of how Izquierdo, a liberal, could have been influenced to authorize these executions. Gregorio Meliton Martinez, the Archbishop of Manila, refused to defrock the priests, as they did not break any canon law. He ordered the bells of every church to be rung in honor of the executed priests. The aftermath of the investigation produced scores of suspects, most of whom were exiled to Guam in the Marianas.

Recovery of remains

In 1998, the remains, believed to belong to the trio, were discovered at the Paco Park Cemetery by the Manila City Engineers Office.[5]

ParishoftheHolySacrificejf9407 01
Gomburza sculpture at Parish of the Holy Sacrifice

See also

Further reading

  • Zaide, Gregorio F. (1984). Philippine History and Government. National Bookstore Printing Press.

Footnotes

  1. ^ "Nationalista Party History". Archived from the original on 27 June 2007. Retrieved 30 July 2007.
  2. ^ a b "The Secularization Issue and the Execution of Gomburza". Archived from the original on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 30 July 2007.
  3. ^ "Padre Jose Ma. Burgos". Retrieved 30 July 2007.
  4. ^ "Hidalgo and Luna: Vexed Modernity". Archived from the original on 27 August 2003. Retrieved 30 July 2007.
  5. ^ Casipit, Jennifer R. "GOMBURZA. Reluctant martyrs started it all". Retrieved 30 July 2007.
1872 Cavite mutiny

The Cavite mutiny of 1872 was an uprising of Filipino military personnel of Fort San Felipe, the Spanish arsenal in Cavite, Philippine Islands (then also known as part of the Spanish East Indies) on January 20, 1872. Around 200 locally recruited colonial troops and laborers rose up in the belief that it would elevate to a national uprising. The mutiny was unsuccessful, and government soldiers executed many of the participants and began to crack down on a burgeoning Philippines nationalist movement. Many scholars believe that the Cavite Mutiny of 1872 was the beginning of Filipino nationalism that would eventually lead to the Philippine Revolution of 1896.

Asian Treasures

Asian Treasures is a 2007 Philippine television drama adventure series broadcast by GMA Network. The series marked as the first Philippine television drama series shot in multiple countries such as Mongolia, Thailand and China, and is one of the most expensive television series in the Philippine television costing more than 140 million pesos. Directed by Eric Quizon, it stars Angel Locsin and Robin Padilla. It premiered on January 15, 2007 on the network's Telebabad line up replacing Captain Barbell. The series concluded on June 29, 2007 with a total of 118 episodes. It was replaced by Mga Mata ni Anghelita in its timeslot.

The series was released in DVD by GMA Records.

Bacoor

Bacoor [bakoʔˈoɾ], officially the City of Bacoor, (Tagalog: Lungsod ng Bacoor), or simply known as Bacoor City, is a 1st class city in the province of Cavite, Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 600,609 people.

Burgos Circle

Burgos Circle, also known as Padre Burgos Circle, is a traffic circle within the Bonifacio Global City in Taguig, Metro Manila in the Philippines. Developed as part of the Forbes Town Center mixed-use development developed by the Megaworld Corporation and named after martyr José Burgos of Gomburza, it serves as the intersection between Forbestown Road, 1st Avenue, 2nd Avenue and 29th Street.

Dominador Gómez

Dominador Gómez (1868 – 1929) was a Filipino ilustrado nationalist, physician, and a labor leader. He was born in Intramuros, Manila in 1868. He was a nephew of Padre Mariano Gómez, one of the three secular priests (collectively known in history as the Gomburza) who were executed in 1872 after being falsely accused of orchestrating the Cavite mutiny. In 1881 he obtained his bachelor's degree from Ateneo Municipal. He then took medicine in the University of Santo Tomas, but left for Spain in 1887 to continue his studies. In Spain he got his license to practice medicine from the University of Barcelona in 1889 and then went to Madrid to get his doctorate. During this time, he was an active member of the propaganda movement. He was a leading member of the Asociacion Hispano-Filipina and a contributor to La Solidaridad. He used the pen name Ramiro Franco.After being based in Spain, the "flamboyant Spanish mestizo and propagandist" returned to the Philippines six months after the return of fellow ilustrado Isabelo de los Reyes. He succeeded de los Reyes as the head of the Union Obrera Democratica in February 1903. Under his leadership, the UOD launched strikes against American companies in Manila. He was known for delivering fiery speeches against capitalism and imperialism. However, his leadership came to an abrupt halt when he was arrested on May 1, 1903, under charges of sedition and illegal association. The UOD was also accused of aiding the anti-US resistance of Filipino revolutionary Macario Sakay. Following the arrest, Gómez resigned from his position in the UOD. He was sentenced for four years of imprisonment and a year of hard labor, but he was able to gain early freedom by agreeing to help in the negotiations for Sakay's surrender to the American Insular Government in 1906. After Sakay's surrender, he engaged in the parliamentary arena and was elected in the Philippine Assembly in 1909.

History of the Philippines (1521–1898)

The history of the Philippines from 1521 to 1898, also known as the Spanish colonial period from 1565, was the period following the arrival of Magellan in the Philippines and during which Spain financed expeditions to the Philippine islands and then ruled them as the Captaincy General of the Philippines within the Spanish East Indies, initially under New Spain until Mexican independence in 1821, which gave Madrid direct control over the area. It started with the arrival in 1521 of European explorer Ferdinand Magellan sailing for Spain, which heralded the period when the Philippines was a colony of the Spanish Empire, and ended with the outbreak of the Philippine Revolution in 1898, which marked the beginning of the American colonial era of Philippine history.

Iglesia Watawat ng Lahi

The Iglesia Watawat Ng Lahi, Inc. (lit. Church of the Banner of the Race; abbreviated as IWLI) is a socio-folk religious group based on Lecheria Hill in Calamba, Laguna, Philippines which believes in the divinity of José Rizal, a historic figure of the Philippine Revolution. It is often considered as the original Rizalist group among the many other Rizalista religious movements.

Jacinto Zamora

Jacinto Zamora y del Rosario (14 August 1835 - 17 February 1872) was a Filipino secular priest, part of the Gomburza trio who were falsely accused of mutiny by the Spanish colonial authorities in the Philippines in the 19th century. He was placed in a mock trial and summarily executed in Manila along with two other clergymen.

José Rizal (film)

José Rizal is a 1998 Filipino biographical film of the Filipino patriot José Rizal directed by Marilou Diaz-Abaya and starring Cesar Montano as José Rizal.

At the time of its release, it was the most expensive film in the history of Filipino cinema with a budget of over ₱ 80 million. The film was an official entry to the 1998 Metro Manila Film Festival. Upon release, the film met universal critical acclaim.

List of public art in Metro Manila

This is a list of public art in Metro Manila organized by city and municipality.

This list applies only to works of public art accessible in an outdoor public space. For example, this does not include artwork visible inside a museum.

Mariano Gómez

Mariano Gómez de los Ángeles (Spanish: [ˈmaˈɾjano ˈɣomes]) was a Filipino Catholic priest, part of the Gomburza trio who were falsely accused of mutiny by the Spanish colonial authorities in the Philippines in the 19th century. He was placed in a mock trial and summarily executed in Manila along with two other clergymen.

Paco, Manila

Paco, formerly known as Dilao, is a district of Manila, Philippines located south of Pasig River, and San Miguel, west of Santa Ana, southwest of Pandacan, north of Malate, northwest of San Andres Bukid, and east of Ermita. According to the 2000 census, it has a population of 64,184 people in 13,438 households.

Padre Burgos, Southern Leyte

Padre Burgos, officially the Municipality of Padre Burgos, is a 5th class municipality in the province of Southern Leyte, Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 11,091 people.Padre Burgos is named after the priest Padre Jose Burgos of the Gomburza priest martyrs. The town being surrounded by Sogod Bay in the East, Padre Burgos was once called "Tamulayag", a vernacular slang which means "Let's go fishing". Thus, the town's main livelihood is fishing.

The town is famous for its white sand beaches like the Tangkaan Beach, from where you can see the island of Limasawa; the Likay-Likay Beach, where you can go fishing and snorkeling; the Bukana which is like a small swam of water and serve as a home of many fishes in Buenavista, the floating Balsa of Bas. And the beaches in Brgy. Lungsodaan. Padre Burgos is also famous to diving enthusiasts, the underwater beauty boasts of many colorful clusters of corals. With the Local Government's cooperation, Coral Cay, a foreign non-profit organization established its offices in Brgy. Tangkaan whose main purpose is to provide help among local people to maintain fish sanctuaries, awareness programs on ocean-life preservation, and clean-up activities on the shorelines of Padre Burgos.

Padre Burgos is also known for its "budbod" (suman), a sticky rice which is very sweet.

Philippine ten peso note

The Philippine ten-peso note (Filipino: Sampung Piso) (₱10) was a denomination of Philippine currency. In its latest incarnation, Apolinario Mabini and Andrés Bonifacio are featured on the front side of the notes, while the Barasoain Church and a Blood Compact scene of the Katipuneros are featured on the reverse side. This banknote was circulated until the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas stopped printing this denomination in 2002 (the last production year is 2001) and was replaced by coins.

Places of interest in Pandacan

Pandacan being established as a community in 1574 is considered as one of the oldest districts in Manila and contains several notable places rich in heritage. It is home to a few well-known historical figures, historical landmarks and hosts a number of ancestral houses.

Plaza de Roma

Plaza de Roma, also known as Plaza Roma, is one of two major public squares in Intramuros, Manila. It is bounded by Andres Soriano Avenue (formerly Calle Aduana) to the north, Cabildo Street to the east, Santo Tomas Street to the south, and General Antonio Luna Street (formerly Calle Real del Palacio) to the west. The plaza is considered to be the center of Intramuros.

Rafael Izquierdo y Gutiérrez

Rafael Gerónimo Cayetano Izquierdo y Gutiérrez (September 30, 1820[Note 1] – November 9, 1883) was a Spanish Military Officer, politician, and statesman. He served as Governor-General of the Philippines from April 4, 1871 to January 8, 1873. He was famous for his use of "Iron Fist" type of government, contradicting the liberal government of his predecessor, Carlos María de la Torre y Navacerrada. He was the Governor-General during the 1872 Cavite mutiny which led to execution of 41 of the mutineers, including the Gomburza martyrs. Izquierdo also acted as Governor-General of Puerto Rico from March 1862 to April 1862.

Rizal Park

Rizal Park (Filipino: Liwasang Rizal, Spanish: Parque Rizal), also known as Luneta Park or simply Luneta , is a historical urban park in the Philippines. Formerly known as Bagumbayan in the era of colonialism under the Spaniards. Rizal Park is located along Roxas Boulevard, Manila, adjacent to the old walled city of Intramuros, it is one of the largest urban parks in Asia. It has been a favorite leisure spot, and is frequented on Sundays and national holidays. Rizal Park is one of the major tourist attractions of Manila.

Situated by the Manila Bay, it is an important site in Philippine history. The execution of Filipino patriot José Rizal on December 30, 1896 fanned the flames of the 1896 Philippine Revolution against the Kingdom of Spain. The area was officially renamed Rizal Park in his honor, and the monument enshrining his remains serves as the park's symbolic focal point. The Declaration of Philippine Independence from the United States was held here on July 4, 1946 as were later political rallies including those of Ferdinand Marcos and Corazon Aquino in 1986 that culminated in the EDSA Revolution.

Secular clergy

The term secular clergy refers to deacons and priests who are not monastics or members of a religious institute. A diocesan priest is a Catholic, Anglican, or Eastern Orthodox priest who commits himself or herself to a certain geographical area and is ordained into the service of the citizens of a diocese, a church administrative region. That includes serving the everyday needs of the people in parishes, but their activities are not limited to that of their parish.

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