Goliat is the first artificial satellite developed in Romania.

Mission typeScience, Experimental
OperatorRomanian Space Agency
COSPAR ID2012-006D
SATCAT no.38080
Spacecraft properties
ManufacturerRomanian Space Agency
Launch mass1.062 kilograms (2.34 lb)
Start of mission
Launch date13 February 2012, 10:00:00 UTC[1]
Launch siteKourou ELA-1
Orbital parameters
Reference systemGeocentric
RegimeLow Earth
Perigee302 kilometres (188 mi)
Apogee1,075 kilometres (668 mi)
Inclination69.46 degrees
Period98.40 minutes
Epoch31 October 2013, 20:12:28 UTC[2]


The nano satellite was developed and built by the Romanian Space Agency (ROSA). When the project began, the developers of this satellite were still in college.

The satellite is cube-shaped and has a mass of 1 kilogram, and its dimensions are 10 cm on each side. It is built on a Cubesat platform.[3] The satellite carries out three scientific tasks: micrometeorite flux measurements, cosmic radiation flux measurements at LEO and Earth surface imaging via a 3 megapixel camera.

The project was funded and supported by the Romanian Ministry of Education and the European Space Agency.


Although the initial launch was planned for 2008, the project had been postponed due to some issues with the carrier rocket, Vega.

The satellite was successfully launched on 13 February 2012 from the Guiana Space Centre, together with LARES and other CubeSat satellites from other European countries.[4]

As of 26 February 2012, it appeared that the satellite had not settled into the orbit properly. Due to a malfunction to its stabilizing system, it was expected that the satellite would spin uncontrollably and eventually get lost in space. However, the coordinator of the project, Mugurel Bălan stated that the situation was under control.[5]

The agency managed to make contact with the satellite on 18 February 2012 but only briefly to receive some basic parameters, however it was unable to get its systems running. Contact was lost permanently shortly afterwards. The satellite re-entered the atmosphere on 2 January 2015 and disintegrated.[6]


  1. ^ McDowell, Jonathan. "Launch Log". Jonathan's Space Page. Retrieved 31 October 2013.
  2. ^ "GOLIAT Satellite details 2012-006D NORAD 38080". N2YO. 31 October 2013. Retrieved 31 October 2013.
  3. ^ Historic moment: Goliat, first Romanian satellite in space, to be launched in February - Bucharest Herald (25 January 2012) - Retrieved 16 February 2012.
  4. ^ ESA Press Kit - Vega qualification flight VV01 (pdf) - Retrieved 16 February 2012.
  5. ^ "The first Romanian satellite hasn't stabilized on the orbit yet" (in Romanian). Archived from the original on 29 February 2012. Retrieved 4 March 2012.
  6. ^ "Cum şi-a omorât România primul satelit, construit la preţuri astronomice. Explicaţiile halucinante ale şefului Agenţiei Spaţiale Române (ROSA)" (in Romanian). Retrieved 6 March 2016.
1950 World Series

The 1950 World Series was the 47th World Series between the American and National Leagues for the championship of Major League Baseball. The Philadelphia Phillies as 1950 champions of the National League and the New York Yankees, as 1950 American League champions, competed to win a best-of-seven game series.

The Series began on Wednesday, October 4, and concluded Saturday, October 7. The Phillies had home field advantage for the Series, meaning no games would be played at the Yankees' home ballpark, Yankee Stadium, until game 3. The Yankees won their 13th championship in their 41-year history, taking the Series in a four-game sweep. The final game in the Series resulted in the New York Yankees winning, 5–2 over Philadelphia. It was the only game in the Series decided by more than one run. The 1950 World Series title would be the second of a record five straight titles for the New York Yankees (1949–1953). The two teams would not again meet in the Series for 59 years.

This was also the last all-white World Series as neither club had integrated in 1950. It was also the last World Series where television coverage was pooled between the four major networks of the day: that season, the Mutual Broadcasting System, who had long been the radio home for the World Series, purchased the TV rights despite not (and indeed, never) having a television network. They would eventually sell on the rights to NBC, beginning a long relationship with the sport.

Beer in Norway

Beer in Norway has a long history, going back at least 1000 years. Until around 200 years ago no farm was complete without a brewhouse. From the early 20th century brewing was industrialized and home brewing outlawed. Significant consolidation in the brewing sector has reduced the number of major breweries to just a handful. With the exception of the malty juleøl (Christmas beer), most beer styles brewed in Norway trace their ancestry to central Europe.

Claudio Descalzi

Claudio Descalzi (born 1955 in Milan, Italy) is an Italian businessman, CEO of Eni since May 9, 2014.

Crowded in the Ear

Crowded in the Ear (Hebrew: צפוף באוזן, Tzafuf BaOzen) is the third and final studio album by Israeli rock band, Kaveret, released in 1975.


The Ganz CSMG (Hungarian: [ˈɡɒnz ˈt͡ʃeːɛmɡeː]), known in official FVV/BKV records as GCSM, or sometimes known as ICS, is a series of tramcars which was manufactured by Hungarian companies Ganz-MÁVAG Mozdony-, Vagon- és Gépgyár ("Ganz-MÁVAG Locomotive, Carriage and Machine Factory") and Ganz Villamossági Gyár ("Ganz Electric Factory"). The CSMG tramcars have three main variants, which are all eight axle rail motor coaches with a Bo'2'2'Bo'tr axle arrangement, the last variant being capable of operating as electric multiple units. The cars were manufactured in Budapest between 1964 and 1978, and in overall 152 regular units and two prototypes were made.

The official CSMG designation resolves to Csuklós Motorkocsi, Ganz ("Articulated Motor Coach, Ganz"), this was changed to GCSM in FVV and BKV records, and the semi-official ICS resolves to Ipari Csuklós ("Industrial Articulated"), because it was the first articulated tram design in Hungary which was produced by a regular manufacturing company instead of an in-house workshop of a transit company. The final production variant of the series is capable of controlling another unit of its type through proprietary 50-wire cables, though traction current isn't shared between units. The trams are also capable of sensing the breakup of the tramset with a proprietary system implemented along the couplers. Two prototypes, sometimes referred to as CSMG-0, were made before mass production started, these cars originally had a single articulated joint instead of two, but later these were extended. The production variants CSMG-1, CSMG-2 and CSMG-3 were unified over the years and now they are referred to as CSMG-E. One damaged car was rebuilt with experimental features, and its type is referred to as KCSV-5. Partly based on the operating experiences of this car, in the 1990s 20 CSMG cars were refurbished, their type is referred to as KCSV-7. The CSMG was intended to replace the lower capacity Ganz UV and obsolete, in-house FVV CSM Bengáli trams.

CSMG tramcars are still in active service in Budapest, whereas – with the exception of the two prototypes – the first scrapping took place only in 2009, when the only KCSV-5 car was taken out of service owing to maintenance difficulties. The first tramcar entered passenger service in 1965, thus the series is now in continuous service for 53–54 years. The series also carries the distinction of having one of the cars take Diana, Princess of Wales on a ride along the city's scenic Line 2 on the Danube's bank. CSMG tramcars are nicknamed as ICS or ipari csuklós ("industrial articulated"), Ganz csuklós ("Ganz articulated"), or when running in multiple unit pairs, Góliát ("Goliath").

Goliat field

Goliat field is an offshore oil field in the Norwegian sector of the Barents Sea. It is located 85 kilometres (53 mi) northwest of Hammerfest. The license is owned by Eni Norge AS (operator, 65%) and Statoil Petroleum AS (35%). It was awarded in 1997. Oil was discovered in 2000. The field development concept was approved by the Government of Norway on 8 May 2009. The field will be developed by using Goliat FPSO, a floating production storage and offloading unit.Goliat field has two main formations (Kobbe and Realgrunnen) and two minor formations (Snadd and Klappmyss). Recoverable reserves are 174 million barrels (27.7×10^6 m3). The production was expected to start in summer 2015 on Goliat oil platform, but this was delayed. Production started in April 2016. Goliat is the northernmost sea oil platform at the moment. Production is estimated to continue for 10–15 years. The associated gas will be reinjected to increase oil recovery or will be transported to the processing plant at Melkøya.. Production takes place through a subsea system consisting of 22 wells, and of which 12 are oil producers, 7 water injectors and 3 gas injectors.

The platforms operation has been halted temporarily in October 2017 due to some of the electrical equipment not being suitable for hazardous areas.

Heilo prospect

Heilo prospect is an oil exploration area in the Barents Sea off Norway. It is located east of the Goliat field and northwest of the Nucula oil and gas field.The licence is owned by GDF Suez E&P Norway AS (30%), North Energy ASA (20%), Rocksource (20%), Front Exploration AS (20%), and Repsol Exploration Norway AS (10%). Operator is GDF Suez E&P Norway AS.Drilling started in September 2011 by using semi-submersible Aker Barents. The prospect is expected to hold about 308 million barrels (49.0×10^6 m3) of oil equivalent.

Héctor Rodríguez (baseball)

Héctor Antonio Rodríguez Ordeñana (June 13, 1920 – September 1, 2003) was a Major League Baseball third baseman for one season (1952) with the Chicago White Sox. His natural position was shortstop, but he had the misfortune to be with the White Sox while Chico Carrasquel played the position, followed by all-time great Luis Aparicio.

A native of Alquízar, Cuba, Rodríguez played in the Negro Leagues with the New York Cubans, 1939 and 1944, and in the Mexican League, 1945–46 (Riley, 676) prior to the integration of organized baseball,

Before the 1951 season, Rodríguez was acquired by the Brooklyn Dodgers from the Tuneros de San Luis Potosí of the Mexican League. He was assigned to Brooklyn's farm club, the Montreal Royals, where he batted .302. On December 6 of that same year he was traded by the Dodgers to the Chicago White Sox for first baseman Rocky Nelson.

Rodríguez was Chicago's regular third baseman during the 1952 season. He appeared in 124 games for the 81–73 White Sox and hit .265 with 1 home run and 40 runs batted in. He drew 47 walks and was hit by pitches 3 times, raising his on-base percentage to .346. He stole 7 bases, scored 55 runs, and struck out just 22 times in 407 at bats, making him the seventh-toughest to strike out in the American League. (once per every 18.5 at bats)

Defensively, his .959 fielding percentage was just above the league average for third basemen. Rodríguez went back to the minor leagues in 1953, and on October 8 of that year was traded to the Toronto Maple Leafs of the International League for pitcher Don Johnson.

While Rodríguez never again made it back to the big league level, he had an outstanding career with the Toronto Maple Leafs when they were the top-drawing team in the International League during the 1950s. He teamed with second baseman Mike Goliat to turn spectacular double plays. Rodríguez was so good at the position, the White Sox sent a film crew to Toronto to record his skill at turning double plays to be used in training their minor league shortstops. He was renowned for his underhand flip throws from deep in the hole between shortstop and third base, a throw not seen in Toronto until Tony Fernandez played shortstop for the American League Toronto Blue Jays in the 1990s.

Rodríguez died at the age of 83 in Cancún, Quintana Roo, Mexico.

Karolina Goliat

Karolina Goliat (born (1996-10-25)25 October 1996) is a Belgian female volleyball player. She is a member of the Belgium women's national volleyball team.

She was part of the Belgian national team at the 2015 FIVB World Grand Prix,

Kumurdo Cathedral

Kumurdo Cathedral (Georgian: კუმურდო) is a Georgian Orthodox Cathedral. It is situated on Javakheti Plateau, 12 km (7.5 mi) southwest from Akhalkalaki. According to the inscriptions on the walls, written with the ancient Georgian writing of Asomtavruli, the Kumurdo Cathedral was built by Ioane the Bishop during the reign of king of the Abkhazians Leon III in 964. During the Middle Ages, Kumurdo was an important cultural, educational and religious center. The cathedral was restored twice (1930; 1970–1980), but it stands without a dome. In 2015, a project for full reconstruction of the cathedral was developed.

Licoreros de Pampero

The Licoreros de Pampero was a baseball club who played from 1955 through 1962 in the Venezuelan Professional Baseball League. The team joined the league as a replacement for the Patriotas de Venezuela and played its home games at the Estadio Universitario in Caracas.

Mike Goliat

Mike Mitchell Goliat (November 5, 1921 – January 13, 2004) was an American second baseman in Major League Baseball who played for the Philadelphia Phillies (1949–51) and St. Louis Browns (1951–52). He batted and threw right-handed, and was listed at 6 feet (1.8 m) tall and 180 pounds (82 kg).A native of Yatesboro, Pennsylvania, Goliat was the starting second baseman for the Phillies "Whiz Kids" team which won the 1950 National League pennant. In that season, Goliat batted .234, with 13 home runs, 64 runs batted in, 49 runs scored, 113 hits, 13 doubles and 6 triples in 145 games played; it was his only season as a regular starting player. In the World Series loss to the New York Yankees, he hit .214 with one RBI in 14 at-bats. Goliat finished his major league career with a batting average of .225, 20 HRs and 99 RBI.He played in the minor leagues for the Toronto Maple Leafs (1949; 1952–59), and was the International League MVP in 1956. Goliat holds the franchise career records for games played (1,077), home runs (138), doubles (186), and RBIs (556).

Nop Goliat Dekai Airport

Nop Goliat Dekai Airport (IATA: DEX, ICAO: WAVD) is an airport serving the town of Dekai, the capital of Yahukimo Regency, Papua, Indonesia. Nop Goliat Airport is one of the seven pioneer airports that connects 517 villages in Yahukimo. Construction of the airport Nop Goliath is built on an area of 230 hectares, there have been initiated in the period 2004-2010 by using a budget of Rp 321 billion The airport was built to be a logistics distribution center in the highland region of Papua, as well as supporting the mobility of people and goods. Construction of airports is intended as a logistics distribution center for central highland region of Papua Province, which previously concentrated through Wamena Airport.After extensive delays, the airport was finally inaugurated by President Joko Widodo (Jokowi) on 18 October 2016. Jokowi personally wants this airports continue to be developed and requested Minister of Transportation Budi Karya Sumadi to extend the runway from 1,950 m to 2,500 meters for the next 2 years. Then, the Ministry of Transportation has allocated Rp 350 billion ($26.8 million) for the expansion, so the expansion runway can serves Boeing 737-200 and Boeing 737-300. It is predicted that the expansion will be finished in 2017.Currently Nop Goliath airport runway equipped with measuring 1.950 m x 30 m, 2 exit taxiway with a size of 75 m x 23 m each, an apron measuring 320 m x 60 m and equipments as well as other supporting facilities. In the meantime the airport terminal building itself has a n area of 1,900 m2 and can accommodate 300 passengers at peak hours.

Romanian Space Agency

The Romanian Space Agency (ROSA) is a public institution with extrabudgetary funding which coordinates the national space technology research programs and the space research related activities since 1991. ROSA is subordinated to the Ministry of Education.As representative of the Romanian Government, the Romanian Space Agency establishes cooperative agreements with international organizations such as the European Space Agency and the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) and also bilateral agreements. Together with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, ROSA represents Romania at the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Use of Outer Space - COPUOS and at its subcommittees.

The Romanian Space Agency also conducts research projects through the ROSA Research Center.


Setskog is a village and a former municipality in Akershus county, Norway. It bordered Østfold county to the south, Hedmark county to the north and Sweden to the east.


Snøhvit (English: Snow White) is the name of a natural gas field in the Norwegian Sea, situated 140 kilometres (87 mi) northwest of Hammerfest, Norway. The northern part of the Norwegian Sea is often described as the Barents Sea by offshore petroleum companies. Snøhvit is also the name of a development of Snøhvit and the two neighbouring natural gas fields Albatross and Askeladden. Estimated recoverable reserves are 193 billion cubic metres of natural gas, 113 million barrels (18.0×10^6 m3) of condensate (light oil), and 5.1 million tonnes of natural gas liquids (NGL). The development comprises 21 wells. The Snøhvit development is operated by Statoil on behalf of six gas companies owning licenses:



GDF Suez



RWE DeaThe fields were discovered in 1984. The development plan was presented by Statoil in 2001. A subsea production system is planned to feed a land-based plant on the island of Melkøya via 160 kilometres (99 mi) long submarine gas pipeline with diameter of 680 millimetres (27 in). The gas from Snøhvit will be used for liquefied natural gas (LNG) production. The total costs of field development will be around NOK 34.2 billion. The LNG plant will emit 920 thousand tonnes of CO2 each year, an increase of Norway's total CO2 emissions by almost 2%.The annual export capacity is 5.75 billion cubic metres of LNG, 747 thousand tonnes of condensate and 247 thousand tonnes of liquified petroleum gas. Long-term export contracts have been signed with Iberdrola in Spain and El Paso in the USA.

There are also limited amounts of crude oil in this field. The recent discovery of the nearby Goliat oil field has made the oil reserves at Snøhvit more exploitable.

The development of Snøhvit sparked political controversy in Norway, as it was the first discovery in the Barents Sea to be developed. Environmental groups like Natur og Ungdom and Bellona argued that the Barents Sea is too sensitive for oil and gas production, and that the Melkøya LNG plant would drastically increase Norway's CO2 emissions. In the summer of 2002 protesters from Natur og Ungdom were arrested by the police after blocking the construction of the LNG plant at Melkøya for 10 days.

Toronto Maple Leafs (International League)

The Toronto Maple Leafs were a high-level minor league baseball club located in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, that played from 1896 to 1967. While the Maple Leafs had working agreements with numerous Major League Baseball clubs after the introduction of farm systems in the 1930s, they achieved great success as an unaffiliated club during the 1950s, when they were the strongest team on the field and in attendance in the Triple-A International League. The 1902, 1918, 1920, 1926, and 1960 teams were recognized as being among the 100 greatest minor league teams of all time.Toronto was without professional baseball from 1968 to 1976, when the American League added the Toronto Blue Jays via the 1977 Major League Baseball expansion.


UniCubeSat-GG is a Miniaturized satellite built by the Sapienza University of Rome. It was launched into Low Earth Orbit on the maiden flight of Arianespace's Vega rocket on 13 February 2012. The launch was a multi-payload mission shared with LARES, ALMASat-1, Goliat, MaSat-1, PW-Sat, ROBUSTA, e-st@r and Xatcobeo.

UniCubeSat-GG is a 1-U cubesat design with a mass of 1 kg. Its primary mission is to study the effects of orbital eccentricity through the Earth's gravity gradient.

Vega flight VV01

Vega flight VV01 (called officially Vega qualification flight VV01) is the maiden flight of the Vega launcher. It occurred from the Guiana Space Centre on 13 February 2012 at 10:00:00 UTC.

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