A relatively small member of the carp family (which also includes the Prussian carp and the crucian carp), the goldfish is native to East Asia. It was first selectively bred in Ancient China more than a thousand years ago, and several distinct breeds have since been developed. Goldfish breeds vary greatly in size, body shape, fin configuration and colouration (various combinations of white, yellow, orange, red, brown, and black are known).
List of synonyms
Starting in ancient China, various species of carp (collectively known as Asian carp) have been bred and reared as food fish for thousands of years. Some of these normally gray or silver species have a tendency to produce red, orange or yellow colour mutations; this was first recorded during the Jin dynasty (265–420).
During the Tang dynasty (618–907), it was popular to raise carp in ornamental ponds and watergardens. A natural genetic mutation produced gold (actually yellowish orange) rather than silver colouration. People began to breed the gold variety instead of the silver variety, keeping them in ponds or other bodies of water. On special occasions at which guests were expected, they would be moved to a much smaller container for display.
By the Song dynasty (960–1279), the selective domestic breeding of goldfish was firmly established. In 1162, the empress of the Song Dynasty ordered the construction of a pond to collect the red and gold variety. By this time, people outside the imperial family were forbidden to keep goldfish of the gold (yellow) variety, yellow being the imperial colour. This is probably the reason why there are more orange goldfish than yellow goldfish, even though the latter are genetically easier to breed. The occurrence of other colours (apart from red and gold) was first recorded in 1276.
During the Ming dynasty (1368–1644), goldfish also began to be raised indoors, which permitted selection for mutations that would not be able to survive in ponds. The first occurrence of fancy-tailed goldfish was recorded in the Ming Dynasty. In 1603, goldfish were introduced to Japan. In 1611, goldfish were introduced to Portugal and from there to other parts of Europe.
During the 1620s, goldfish were highly regarded in southern Europe because of their metallic scales, and symbolised good luck and fortune. It became tradition for married men to give their wives a goldfish on their first anniversary, as a symbol for the prosperous years to come. This tradition quickly died, as goldfish became more available, losing their status. Goldfish were first introduced to North America around 1850 and quickly became popular in the United States.
As of April 2008, the largest goldfish in the world was believed by the BBC to measure 19 inches (48 cm), and be living in the Netherlands. At the time, a goldfish named "Goldie", kept as a pet in a tank in Folkestone, England, was measured as 15 inches (38 cm) and over 2 pounds (0.91 kg), and named as the second largest in the world behind the Netherlands fish. The secretary of the Federation of British Aquatic Societies (FBAS) stated of Goldie's size that "I would think there are probably a few bigger goldfish that people don't think of as record holders, perhaps in ornamental lakes". In July 2010, a goldfish measuring 16 inches (41 cm) and 5 pounds (2.3 kg) was caught in a pond in Poole, England, thought to have been abandoned there after outgrowing a tank.
Goldfish have one of the most studied senses of vision in fish. Goldfish have four kinds of cone cells, which are respectively sensitive to different colours: red, green, blue and ultraviolet. The ability to distinguish between four different primary colours classifies them as tetrachromats.
Goldfish have strong associative learning abilities, as well as social learning skills. In addition, their visual acuity allows them to distinguish between individual humans. Owners may notice that fish react favorably to them (swimming to the front of the glass, swimming rapidly around the tank, and going to the surface mouthing for food) while hiding when other people approach the tank. Over time, goldfish learn to associate their owners and other humans with food, often "begging" for food whenever their owners approach.
Goldfish that have constant visual contact with humans also stop considering them to be a threat. After being kept in a tank for several weeks, sometimes months, it becomes possible to feed a goldfish by hand without it shying away.
Goldfish have a memory-span of at least three months and can distinguish between different shapes, colours and sounds. By using positive reinforcement, goldfish can be trained to recognize and to react to light signals of different colours or to perform tricks. Fish respond to certain colours most evidently in relation to feeding. Fish learn to anticipate feedings provided they occur at around the same time every day.
Goldfish are gregarious, displaying schooling behaviour, as well as displaying the same types of feeding behaviours. Goldfish may display similar behaviours when responding to their reflections in a mirror.
Goldfish have learned behaviours, both as groups and as individuals, that stem from native carp behaviour. They are a generalist species with varied feeding, breeding, and predator avoidance behaviours that contribute to their success. As fish they can be described as "friendly" towards each other. Very rarely does a goldfish harm another goldfish, nor do the males harm the females during breeding. The only real threat that goldfish present to each other is competing for food. Commons, comets, and other faster varieties can easily eat all the food during a feeding before fancy varieties can reach it. This can lead to stunted growth or possible starvation of fancier varieties when they are kept in a pond with their single-tailed brethren. As a result, care should be taken to combine only breeds with similar body type and swim characteristics.
In the wild, the diet of goldfish consists of crustaceans, insects, and various plant matter. Like most fish, they are opportunistic feeders and do not stop eating on their own accord. Overfeeding can be deleterious to their health, typically by blocking the intestines. This happens most often with selectively bred goldfish, which have a convoluted intestinal tract. When excess food is available, they produce more waste and faeces, partly due to incomplete protein digestion. Overfeeding can sometimes be diagnosed by observing faeces trailing from the fish's cloaca.
Goldfish-specific food has less protein and more carbohydrate than conventional fish food. Enthusiasts may supplement this diet with shelled peas (with outer skins removed), blanched green leafy vegetables, and bloodworms. Young goldfish benefit from the addition of brine shrimp to their diet. As with all animals, goldfish preferences vary.
Goldfish may only grow to sexual maturity with enough water and the right nutrition. Most goldfish breed in captivity, particularly in pond settings. Breeding usually happens after a significant temperature change, often in spring. Males chase gravid female goldfish (females carrying eggs), and prompt them to release their eggs by bumping and nudging them.
Goldfish, like all cyprinids, are egg-layers. Their eggs are adhesive and attach to aquatic vegetation, typically dense plants such as Cabomba or Elodea or a spawning mop. The eggs hatch within 48 to 72 hours.
Within a week or so, the fry begins to assume its final shape, although a year may pass before they develop a mature goldfish colour; until then they are a metallic brown like their wild ancestors. In their first weeks of life, the fry grow quickly—an adaptation born of the high risk of getting devoured by the adult goldfish (or other fish and insects) in their environment.
Some highly selectively bred goldfish can no longer breed naturally due to their altered shape. The artificial breeding method called "hand stripping" can assist nature, but can harm the fish if not done correctly. In captivity, adults may also eat young that they encounter.
Breeding goldfish by the hobbyist is the process of selecting adult fish to reproduce, allowing them to reproduce and then raising the resulting offspring while continually removing fish that do not approach the desired pedigree.
Selective breeding over centuries has produced several colour variations, some of them far removed from the "golden" colour of the original fish. There are also different body shapes, fin and eye configurations. Some extreme versions of the goldfish live only in aquariums—they are much less hardy than varieties closer to the "wild" original. However, some variations are hardier, such as the Shubunkin. Currently, there are about 300 breeds recognised in China. The vast majority of goldfish breeds today originated from China. Some of the main varieties are:
|Common goldfish||Black Telescope||Bubble Eye|
|Common goldfish come in a variety of colours including red, orange, "gold", white, black, and yellow ('lemon') goldfish.||The Black telescope is a black-colored variant of telescope goldfish that has a characteristic pair of protruding eyes. It is also referred to as popeye, moor, kuro-demekin in Japan and dragon-eye in China.||The small, fancy Bubble Eye has no dorsal fin and upward pointing eyes accompanied by two large fluid-filled sacs.|
|Fancy Celestial eye goldfish or Choten gan has a double tail and a breed-defining pair of upturned, telescope eyes with pupils gazing skyward.||The comet or comet-tailed goldfish is the most common single tailed variety in the United States. It is similar to the common goldfish, except slightly smaller and slimmer, and is mainly distinguished by its long, deeply forked tail.||The Fantail goldfish is the western form of the Ryukin and possesses an egg-shaped body, a high dorsal fin, a long quadruple caudal fin, and no shoulder hump.|
|The fancy lionhead has a hood. This fish is the precursor to the ranchu.||The fancy oranda is characterised by a prominent raspberry-like hood (also known as wen or headgrowth) that encases the whole head and some with the entire face except for the eyes and mouth.||The fancy pearlscale or chinshurin in Japanese, is spherical-bodied with finnage similar to the fantail and veiltail. It scales are protruded into white domesat it reminds us of pearls.|
|The fancy Pompoms or pompon or hanafusa have bundles of loose fleshy outgrowths between the nostril ,called nasal boquettes, on each side of the head.||The ryukin has a short, deep body with a characteristic shoulder hump.||Fancy and hardy Japanese Shubunkins (朱文金) (translated literally as "red brocade") have a single tail with nacreous scales, and a pattern known as calico.|
|The fancy telescope is characterised by its protruding eyes. It is also known as globe eye or dragon eye goldfish.||The fancy Japanese ranchu is hooded. The Japanese refer to it as the "king of goldfish".||The fancy panda telescope is another colored variant of telescope goldfish.|
|Veiltail||Butterfly tail||Meteor goldfish|
|The fancy veiltail is known for its extra-long, flowing double tail. Modern veiltail standards require little or no indentation of the trailing edges of the caudal fins, as in a wedding veil for a bride.||The Butterfly Tail Moor or Butterfly Telescope is of the telescope-eye lineage, with twin broad tails best viewed from above. The spread of the caudal fins resembles butterflies underwater.||The Meteor goldfish is a strange-looking variety that has been developed by specialist breeders of fancy goldfish. It has no tail fin, hence its name.|
|The Lionchu or lionhead-ranchu is a fancy goldfish that has resulted from crossbreeding lionheads and ranchus.||The egg-fish goldfish is a fancy goldfish that lacks a dorsal fin and has a pronounced egg-shaped body.||The Shukin is Ranchu-like goldfish developed from Ranchu and Oranda at the end of the 19th century in Japan.|
|The Curled-gill or Reversed-gill goldfish is another uncommon variety of fancy goldfish that has been developed by specialist enthusiasts. It owes its name to the out-turned appearance of its gill covers.||The Tamasaba or Sabao is an uncommon Japanese variety of goldfish with a body shaped similar to the Ryukin and a very long, flowing, single tail that is similar to that of a comet goldfish, hence its other name, comet Tail ryukin.||The Tosakin is a very distinctive breed of goldfish with a large tail fin that spreads out horizontally (like a fan) behind the fish, followed by the bottom tips folding behind its caudal fin. Though technically a divided tail, the two halves are attached at the center/middle forming a single fin.|
|The White telescope is a white variant of telescope goldfish that has a white body and characteristic pair of protruding eyes.|
Chinese tradition classifies goldfish into four main types. These classifications are not commonly used in the West.
Prussian carp remain the closest wild relative of the goldfish. Previously, some sources claimed the Crucian carp (Carassius carassius) as the wild version of the goldfish. However, they are differentiated by several characteristics. C. auratus have a more pointed snout while the snout of a C. carassius is well rounded. C. a. gibelio often has a grey/greenish colour, while crucian carp are always golden bronze. Juvenile crucian carp have a black spot on the base of the tail which disappears with age. In C. auratus this tail spot is never present. C. auratus have fewer than 31 scales along the lateral line while crucian carp have 33 scales or more.
Like their wild ancestors, common and comet goldfish as well as Shubunkin can survive, and even thrive, in any climate that can support a pond, whereas fancy goldfish are unlikely to survive in the wild as their bright colours and long fins make them easy prey. Goldfish can hybridise with certain other species of carp as well as C. a. gibelio. Within three breeding generations, the vast majority of the hybrid spawn revert to the wild type colour. Koi may also interbreed with the goldfish to produce sterile hybrids.
Like most species in the carp family, goldfish produce a large amount of waste both in their faeces and through their gills, releasing harmful chemicals into the water. Build-up of this waste to toxic levels can occur in a relatively short period of time, and can easily cause a goldfish's death. For common and comet varieties, each goldfish should have about 20 US gallons (76 l; 17 imp gal) of water. Fancy goldfish (which are smaller) should have about 10 US gallons (38 l; 8.3 imp gal) per goldfish. The water surface area determines how much oxygen diffuses and dissolves into the water. A general rule is have 1 square foot (0.093 m2). Active aeration by way of a water pump, filter or fountain effectively increases the surface area.
The goldfish is classified as a coldwater fish, and can live in unheated aquaria at a temperature comfortable for humans. However, rapid changes in temperature (for example in an office building in winter when the heat is turned off at night) can kill them, especially if the tank is small. Care must also be taken when adding water, as the new water may be of a different temperature. Temperatures under about 10 °C (50 °F) are dangerous to fancy varieties, though commons and comets can survive slightly lower temperatures. Extremely high temperatures (over 30 °C (86 °F) can also harm goldfish. However, higher temperatures may help fight protozoan infestations by accelerating the parasite's life-cycle—thus eliminating it more quickly. The optimum temperature for goldfish is between 20 °C (68 °F) and 22 °C (72 °F).
Like all fish, goldfish do not like to be petted. In fact, touching a goldfish can endanger its health, because it can cause the protective slime coat to be damaged or removed, exposing the fish’s skin to infection from bacteria or water-born parasites. However, goldfish respond to people by surfacing at feeding time, and can be trained or acclimated to taking pellets or flakes from human fingers. The reputation of goldfish dying quickly is often due to poor care. The lifespan of goldfish in captivity can extend beyond 10 years.
If left in the dark for a period of time, goldfish gradually change colour until they are almost gray. Goldfish produce pigment in response to light, in a similar manner to how human skin becomes tanned in the sun. Fish have cells called chromatophores that produce pigments which reflect light, and give the fish colouration. The colour of a goldfish is determined by which pigments are in the cells, how many pigment molecules there are, and whether the pigment is grouped inside the cell or is spaced throughout the cytoplasm.
Because goldfish eat live plants, their presence in a planted aquarium can be problematic. Only a few aquarium plant species for example Cryptocoryne and Anubias, can survive around goldfish, but they require special attention so that they are not uprooted. Plastic plants are more durable.
Goldfish are popular pond fish, since they are small, inexpensive, colourful and very hardy. In an outdoor pond or water garden, they may even survive for brief periods if ice forms on the surface, as long as there is enough oxygen remaining in the water and the pond does not freeze solid. Common goldfish, London and Bristol shubunkins, jikin, wakin, comet and some hardier fantail goldfish can be kept in a pond all year round in temperate and subtropical climates. Moor, veiltail, oranda and lionhead can be kept safely in outdoor ponds year-round only in more tropical climates and only in summer elsewhere.
Ponds small and large are fine in warmer areas (although it ought to be noted that goldfish can "overheat" in small volumes of water in summer in tropical climates). In frosty climes the depth should be at least 80 centimeters (31 in) to preclude freezing. During winter, goldfish become sluggish, stop eating and often stay on the bottom of the pond. This is normal; they become active again in the spring. Unless the pond is large enough to maintain its own ecosystem without interference from humans, a filter is important to clear waste and keep the pond clean. Plants are essential as they act as part of the filtration system, as well as a food source for the fish. Plants are further beneficial since they raise oxygen levels in the water.
Compatible fish include rudd, tench, orfe and koi, but the latter require specialised care. Ramshorn snails are helpful by eating any algae that grows in the pond. Without some form of animal population control, goldfish ponds can easily become overstocked. Fish such as orfe consume goldfish eggs.
Like some other popular aquarium fish, such as the guppy, goldfish and other carp are frequently added to stagnant bodies of water to reduce mosquito populations. They are used to prevent the spread of West Nile Virus, which relies on mosquitoes to migrate. However, introducing goldfish has often had negative consequences for local ecosystems.
Fishbowls are detrimental to the health of goldfish and are prohibited by animal welfare legislation in several municipalities. The practice of using bowls as permanent fish housing originated from a misunderstanding of Chinese "display" vessels: goldfish which were normally housed in ponds were, on occasion, temporarily displayed in smaller containers to be better admired by guests.
Goldfish kept in bowls or "mini aquariums" suffer from death, disease, and stunting, due primarily to the low oxygen and very high ammonia/nitrite levels inherent in such an environment. In comparison to other common aquarium fish, goldfish have high oxygen needs and produce a large amount of waste; therefore they require a substantial volume of well-filtered water to thrive. In addition, all goldfish varieties have the potential to reach 5" (12.7 cm) in total length, with single-tailed breeds often exceeding a foot (30.5 cm). Single-tailed varieties include common and comet goldfish.
In many countries, carnival and fair operators commonly give goldfish away in plastic bags as prizes. In late 2005 Rome banned the use of goldfish and other animals as carnival prizes. Rome has also banned the use of "goldfish bowls", on animal cruelty grounds, as well as Monza, Italy, in 2004. In the United Kingdom, the government proposed banning this practice as part of its Animal Welfare Bill, though this has since been amended to only prevent goldfish being given as prizes to unaccompanied minors.
In Japan, during summer festivals and religious holidays (ennichi), a traditional game called goldfish scooping is played, in which a player scoops goldfish from a basin with a special scooper. Sometimes bouncy balls are substituted for goldfish.
Although edible and closely related to some fairly widely eaten species, goldfish are rarely eaten. A fad among American college students for many years was swallowing goldfish as a stunt and as a fraternity initiation process. The first recorded instance was in 1939 at Harvard University. The practice gradually fell out of popularity over the course of several decades and is rarely practiced today.
In Iran and among the international Iranian diaspora, goldfish are a traditional part of Nowruz celebrations. Some animal advocates have called for boycotts of goldfish purchases, citing industrial farming and low survival rates of the fish.
In goldfish, as the best investigated fish species[...]
A.K.A. Goldfish is the title of a 1994 American creator-owned comic book series written and drawn by Brian Michael Bendis. The series was originally published by Caliber Comics, with later issues by Image Comics. The entire award-winning series was collected and published as a trade paperback, entitled Goldfish rather than A.K.A. Goldfish, in 2001.
The black-and-white series is a noir fiction tale, telling the story of David Gold, a con man, who used the sobriquet "Goldfish". Gold has returned to Cleveland, Ohio after a ten-year absence in order to regain possession of his son, currently in the custody of the boy's mother and Gold's ex-girlfriend, crime boss Lauren Bacall (a reference to the well-known actress of the same name). Bacall is the owner of the Club Cinderella, a nightclub, casino and brothel, and scene for many sequences within the story.Coldwater fish
Coldwater fish, in the context of aquariums, refers to fish species that prefer colder water temperatures than
average tropical fish, typically below 20 °C (68 °F). Some examples are koi and goldfish. These species tend to grow more slowly and live longer than fish that live in warmer waters, and are generally felt to be easier to keep.
Coldwater fish are fish such as goldfish, koi, and other members of the carp family that are able to survive in cold water temperatures. When kept in a household aquarium, they do not require a heater and are quite comfortable at around 60 °F (15 °C). These fish are also desirable choices for outdoor ponds and can stand temperatures down to 10 °C.Comet (goldfish)
The comet or comet-tailed goldfish is a single-tailed goldfish bred in the United States. It is similar to the common goldfish, except slightly smaller and slimmer, and is mainly distinguished by its long deeply forked tail.
Comet goldfish tend to have a diverse variety of colors, unlike the common house pet goldfish.Common goldfish
The common goldfish is a breed of goldfish with no other differences from its living ancestor, the Prussian carp, other than its color and shape. Goldfish are a form of domesticated wild carp and are a close relative of koi. Most varieties of fancy goldfish were derived from this simple breed. Common goldfish come in a variety of colors including red, orange, red/white, white/black, grey/brown/, olive green, yellow, white, black, and calico kind, with the most common variation being orange ,(combined with its simplicity, hence the name). Sometimes, the brightness, duration, and the vividness of the color may be an indication of the fish’s health status.Diff'rent Strokes
Diff'rent Strokes is an American sitcom that aired on NBC from November 3, 1978, to May 4, 1985, and on ABC from September 27, 1985, to March 7, 1986. The series stars Gary Coleman and Todd Bridges as Arnold and Willis Jackson, two Black boys from Harlem who are taken in by a rich white Park Avenue businessman and widower named Phillip Drummond (Conrad Bain) and his daughter Kimberly (Dana Plato), for whom their deceased mother previously worked. During the first season and first half of the second season, Charlotte Rae also starred as the Drummonds' housekeeper, Mrs. Edna Garrett (who ultimately spun off into her own successful sitcom, The Facts of Life).
The series made stars out of child actors Gary Coleman, Todd Bridges and Dana Plato and became known for the "very special episodes" in which serious issues such as racism, illegal drug use, hitchhiking, kidnapping and child sexual abuse were dramatically explored. The lives of these stars were later plagued by legal troubles and drug addiction, with Plato and Coleman later suffering early deaths.Fantail (goldfish)
The Fantail goldfish is the western form of the Ryukin that possesses an egg-shaped body, a high dorsal fin, a long quadruple caudal fin, and no shoulder hump.Freshwater aquarium
A freshwater aquarium is a receptacle that holds one or more freshwater aquatic organisms for decorative, pet-keeping, or research purposes. Modern aquariums are most often made from transparent glass or acrylic glass. Typical inhabitants include fish, plants, amphibians, and invertebrates, such as snails and crustaceans.
Freshwater fish may be either coldwater or tropical species. Although freshwater aquariums can be set up as community tanks, coldwater and tropical fish are generally not mixed due to incompatibilities in temperature requirements. Coldwater aquariums house goldfish and other species that do not require a heating apparatus. Warmer temperatures would actually increase their metabolism and shorten their lifespan. For a tropical fish tank, maintaining a warm environmental temperature ranging between 75 and 80 °F (24 to 27 °C) enables the fish to thrive.Aquariums may be decorated with sand or gravel, live or plastic plants, driftwood, rocks, and a variety of commercially made plastic sculptures. The smallest aquariums are fish bowls, but these are not recommended for most fish as they are generally too small, tend to stunt fish growth, and may lead to eventual death.Generation Z
Generation Z or Gen Z, also known by a number of other names, is the demographic cohort after the Millennials. There is no precise date for when Generation Z begins, but demographers and researchers typically use the mid-1990s to mid-2000s as starting birth years. There is little consensus regarding ending birth years. Most of Generation Z have used the Internet since a young age and are comfortable with technology and social media.Goldfish-class ROUV
The Goldfish class (金鱼, Jin Yu, or JY for short) remotely operated underwater vehicle (ROUV) is a class of light ROUV developed by the Shenyang Institute of Automation (沈阳自动化所) of the Chinese Academy of Science. It is in service with both the People's Liberation Army Navy (PLAN) and other civilian agencies of the People's Republic of China.
Three models of the Goldfish class ROUV have been developed as of late 2009: JY-01 (Jin Yu Yi Hao, 金鱼一号), the original base model of the class, which first entered service in the late 1980s for evaluation purposes; JY-02 (Jin Yu Er Hao, 金鱼二号), the successor to JY-01; and JY-03 (Jin Yu San Hao, 金鱼三号), the model that entered series production. The Goldfish class ROUV is designed to be a man-portable system that can be rapidly deployed without the need for extensive ship-borne or shore-based logistic support. JY-02 weighs 36 kg and is a meter in height; its successor, JY-03 is more compact. The entire system weight of JY-03 is less than 100 kg, while the largest subsystem, the underwater vehicle, weighs less than 35 kg. This means that JY-03 can be carried and deployed by two adults without difficulty.
Goldfish class ROUV is a class of ROUV designed for underwater observation, and is used to inspect the underwater structures of harbors. During its deployment, it often operates in conjunction with more advanced ROUVs, and serves as a search vehicle to gather information. Goldfish class ROUVs can more cheaply inspect large areas than is possible with higher-spec ROUVs; these more capable ROUVs then use data gathered by the Goldfish class to perform maintenance tasks on specific areas. Goldfish class ROUVs also have civilian applications, including for underwater archeology missions in Fuxian Lake. Media coverage of the Fuxian Lake project revealed the existence of the Goldfish class ROUV to the general public for the first time.Goldfish (band)
Goldfish is an electronic duo originating from Cape Town, South Africa, consisting of Dominic Peters and David Poole. They create dance music containing elements of house, pop, jazz and African music. The band has released a number of albums, including Late Night People, Perceptions of Pacha and Get Busy Living, and GoldFish was named "Best Pop" at the MTV Africa Music Awards 2014.Goldfish (cracker)
Goldfish are fish-shaped cheese crackers manufactured by Pepperidge Farm which is a division of the Campbell Soup Company. The crackers have been available in several varieties and, since 1962, 40% of the crackers contain a small imprint of an eye and a smile. The brand's current marketing and product packaging incorporate this feature of the product: "The Snack That Smiles Back! Goldfish!", the slogan being reinforced by Finn, the mascot with sunglasses. The product is marketed as a "baked snack cracker" on the label with various flavors and varieties.Jerry and the Goldfish
Jerry and the Goldfish is a 1951 American one-reel animated cartoon and is the 56th Tom and Jerry short directed by William Hanna and Joseph Barbera and produced by Fred Quimby. It was animated by Irven Spence, Ray Patterson, Ed Barge and Kenneth Muse, with music by Scott Bradley and backgrounds by Robert Gentle.Koi
Koi (鯉, English: , Japanese: [koꜜi]) or more specifically nishikigoi (錦鯉, [ɲiɕi̥kiꜜɡoi], literally "brocaded carp"), are colored varieties of Amur carp (Cyprinus rubrofuscus) that are kept for decorative purposes in outdoor koi ponds or water gardens.
Koi is an informal group of the colored variants of C. carpio. Several varieties are recognized by the Japanese. Koi varieties are distinguished by coloration, patterning, and scalation. Some of the major colors are white, black, red, orange, yellow, blue, and cream. The most popular category of koi is the Gosanke, which is made up of the Kohaku, Taisho Sanshoku, and Showa Sanshoku varieties.List of The West Wing characters
The television series The West Wing is a political drama series which was originally broadcast on NBC.
Many actors noted for work in sitcoms, including John Goodman, Alan Alda, John Larroquette, Christopher Lloyd, Ed O'Neill, Matthew Perry, Patricia Richardson, Lily Tomlin, Wayne Wilderson, and Daniel Von Bargen appeared in dramatic roles on The West Wing.List of fictional fish
This is a list of fictional fish from literature, animation and movies. This also includes sharks, shellfish (though they are mollusks, not fish), and eels. Whales, seacows and dolphins are aquatic mammals, not fish, and are therefore excluded.Oranda
An oranda is a breed of goldfish characterized by a prominent bubble-like "hood" on the head. The headgrowth or hood (also known as wen or crown) may be a prominent growth on the top of the head (cranial region) or may encase the entire face except for the eyes and mouth.When it was first imported from China to Japan it was mistakenly thought to be native to the Netherlands, and was therefore dubbed the "Holland Lionmask", Dutch Lionhead, and "Netherlands Lion Head" (オランダ獅子頭), from which its English name "oranda" derives.Ryukin
The ryukin (琉金, Ryūkin) is a short deep-bodied fancy goldfish with a characteristic hump in the shoulder region.Samuel Goldwyn
Samuel Goldwyn (born Szmuel Gelbfisz; Yiddish: שמואל געלבפֿיש; c. July, 1879 – January 31, 1974), also known as Samuel Goldfish, was a Polish-American film producer. He was most well known for being the founding contributor and executive of several motion picture studios in Hollywood. His awards include the 1973 Golden Globe Cecil B. DeMille Award, the Irving G. Thalberg Memorial Award in 1947, and the Jean Hersholt Humanitarian Award in 1958.Telescope (goldfish)
The telescope eye (Japanese: 出目金, translit. Demekin) is a fancy goldfish characterised by its protruding eyes.