Golden hat

Golden hats (or Gold hats) (German: Goldhüte, singular: Goldhut) are a very specific and rare type of archaeological artifact from Bronze Age Europe. So far, four such objects ("cone-shaped gold hats of the Schifferstadt type") are known. The objects are made of thin sheet gold and were attached externally to long conical and brimmed headdresses which were probably made of some organic material and served to stabilise the external gold leaf. The following Golden Hats are known as of 2012:

Cône d'Avanton, musée des Antiquités Nationales
Avanton gold cone

Cultural context

British Museum gold thing 501594 fh000035
The Mold cape from Wales, somewhat earlier than the hats and similarly a gold version of an organic item of apparel

The hats are associated with the Proto-Celtic[1] Bronze Age Urnfield culture. Their close similarities in symbolism and techniques of manufacture are testimony to a coherent Bronze Age culture over a wide-ranging territory in eastern France and western and southwestern Germany. A comparable golden pectoral was found at Mold, Flintshire, in northern Wales, but this appears to be of somewhat earlier date.

The cone-shaped Golden Hats of Schifferstadt type are assumed to be connected with a number of comparable cap or crown-shaped gold leaf objects from Ireland (Comerford Crown, discovered in 1692) and the Atlantic coast of Spain (gold leaf crowns of Axtroki and Rianxo). Only the Spanish specimens survive.

Archaeological context

The archaeological contexts of the cones are not very clear (for the Berlin specimen, it is entirely unknown). At least two of the known examples (Berlin and Schifferstadt) appear to have been deliberately and carefully buried in antiquity.


Although none can be dated precisely, their technology suggests that they were probably made between 1200 and 800 BC.


It is assumed that the Golden Hats served as religious insignia for the deities or priests of a sun cult then widespread in Central Europe. Their use as head-gear is strongly supported by the fact that the three of four examples have a cap-like widening at the bottom of the cone, and that their openings are oval (not round), with diameters and shapes roughly equivalent to those of a human skull. The figural depiction of an object resembling a conical hat on a stone slab of the King's Grave at Kivik, Southern Sweden, strongly supports their association with religion and cult, as does the fact that the known examples appear to have been deposited (buried) carefully.

Attempts to decipher the Golden Hats' ornamentation suggest that their cultic role is accompanied or complemented by their use as complex calendrical devices. Whether they were really used for such purposes, or simply presented the underlying astronomical knowledge, remains unknown.


The gold cones are covered in bands of ornaments along their whole length and extent. The ornaments - mostly disks and concentric circles, sometimes wheels - were punched using stamps, rolls or combs. The older examples (Avanton, Schifferstadt) show a more restricted range of ornaments than the later ones.

Berliner Goldhut-Kalenderfunktion1
Calendrical functions of the Berlin Gold Hat

It appears to be the case that the ornaments on all known Golden Hats represent systematic sequences in terms of number and types of ornaments per band.

A detailed study[2] of the Berlin example, which is fully preserved, claimed that the symbols possibly represent a lunisolar calendar. The object may have permitted the determination of dates or periods in both lunar and solar calendars.

Since an exact knowledge of the solar year was of special interest for the determination of religiously important events such as the summer and winter solstices, if astronomical knowledge was depicted on the Golden Hats it would have been of high value to Bronze Age society. Whether the hats themselves were indeed used for determining such dates, or whether they even represented such knowledge, remains unknown.

The functions hypothesized so far would permit the counting of temporal units of up to 57 months. A simple multiplication of such values could also permit the calculation of longer periods, e.g. metonic cycles.

Each symbol, or each ring of a symbol, may represent a single day. Apart from ornament bands incorporating differing numbers of rings there are seemingly special symbols and zones in intercalary areas, which may have had to be added to or subtracted from the periods in question.

The system of this mathematical function incorporated into the artistic ornamentation has not been fully deciphered so far, but a schematic study of the Berlin Golden Hat and the periods it may delimit has been attempted.

In principle, according to this theory, starting with zone Zi, a sum is achieved by adding a relevant contiguous number of neighbouring sections: Zi .. Zi+n. To reach the equivalent lunar or solar value, from this initial sum must be subtracted the sum of symbols from the intercalary zone(s) within the area counted.

The illustration[3] depicts the solar representation on the left and the lunar one on the right. The red or blue fields in zones 5, 7, 16 and 17 are intercalary zones.

The values in the individual fields are reached by multiplying the number of symbols per zone with the number of rings or circles incorporated in each predominant symbol. The special symbols in zone 5 are assigned the value of "38", as indicated by their number.

Zone 12 is dominated by 20 repetitions of punched symbol No. 14, a circular disc symbol surrounded by 5 concentric circles.
Thus, the symbol has the value of 20 x 5 = 100.
The smaller ring symbols placed between the larger repetitions of No. 14 are considered as mere ornaments and thus not counted.

Through this system, the Hats could be used to calculate a lunisolar calendrical system, i.e. a direct reading in either lunar or solar dates, as well as the conversion between them.

The table can be used in the same way as the original Golden Hats may have been. To determine the number of days in a specific time period (yellow fields), the values of the coloured fields above are added, reaching an intermediate sum. If any of the red intercalary zones are included, their sum has to be subtracted. This allows the calculation of 12, 24, 36, 48, 54 and 57 synodic months in the lunar system and of 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, 54 and 57 sun months (i.e. twelfths of a tropical year).

To determine a 54 month cycle in the lunar system, the numerical values of the green or blue zones 3 to 21 are added, reaching a sum of 1,739 days. From this, the values of the red intercalary fields 5, 16 and 17 are subtracted, The result is 1739-142=1597 days, or 54 synodic months of 29.5305 days each.

The overall discrepancy of 2 days to the astronomically accurate value is probably the result of a slight imprecision in the Bronze Age observation of synodic and solar month.


The Golden hats known so far are made from a gold alloy containing 85-90% Au, about 10% Ag and traces of Cu and Sn (< 1% each). They are made of seamless single pieces of gold sheet, hammered to a thinness between 0.25 millimetres (0.0098 in) (Schifferstadt) and 0.6 millimetres (0.024 in) (Berlin). Thus, the cones are surprisingly light considering their size. The Ezelsdorf example, measuring 89 centimetres (35 in) in height, weighs only 280 grams (9.9 oz).

Because of the tribological characteristics of the material, it tends to harden with increasing deformation (see ductility), increasing its potential to crack. To avoid cracking, an extremely even deformation was necessary. Additionally, the material had to be softened by repeatedly heating it to a temperature of at least 750 °C (1,380 °F).

Since gold alloy has a relatively low melting point of about 960 °C (1,760 °F), a very careful temperature control and an isothermal heating process were required, so as to avoid melting any of the surface. For this, the Bronze Age artisans used a charcoal fire or oven similar to those used for pottery. The temperature could only be controlled through the addition of oxygen, using a bellows.

Considering the tribologic conditions and the technical means available at the time, the production even of an undecorated Golden hat would represent an immense technical achievement.

In the course of their further manufacture, the Golden hats were embellished with rows of radial ornamental bands, chased into the metal. To make this possible, they were probably filled with a putty or pitch based on tree resin and wax - in the Schifferstadt specimen, traces of this have survived. The thin gold leaf was structured by chasing: stamp-like tools or moulds depicting the individual symbols were repeatedly pressed into (or rolled along) the exterior of the gold. Combs were also used.


The gold hats were first brought together for comparison and set in the broader context of the culture of Bronze Age Europe in a 1999 exhibition in Bonn, Gods and heroes of the Bronze Age: Europe in the time of Odysseus. Normally they reside in separate museums, at Berlin (Museum für Vor- und Frühgeschichte), Speyer (Historisches Museum der Pfalz, the Schifferstadt specimen), Nuremberg (Germanisches Nationalmuseum, the Ezelsdorf one), and Saint-Germain-en-Laye (Musée d'Archéologie Nationale).

Goldfund von Eberswalde
The Eberswalde Hoard, with similar symbols

Gallery of all four known golden hats, for comparison


Berliner Goldhut



Goldener Hut in Schifferstadt 2

Schifferstadt (drawing)

See also

Casco de Leiro, Castelo San Antón (A Coruña)
Casco de Leiro, Museo Arqueolóxico e Histórico, A Coruña


  1. Gold und Kult der Bronzezeit. (Exhibition catalogue). Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nürnberg 2003. ISBN 3-926982-95-0
  2. Wilfried Menghin (ed.): Acta Praehistorica et Archaeologica. Unze, Potsdam 32.2000, p. 31-108. ISSN 0341-1184
  3. Peter Schauer: Die Goldblechkegel der Bronzezeit – Ein Beitrag zur Kulturverbindung zwischen Orient und Mitteleuropa. Habelt, Bonn 1986. ISBN 3-7749-2238-1
  4. Gerhard Bott (ed.): Der Goldblechkegel von Ezelsdorf. (Exhibition cat.). Theiß, Stuttgart 1983. ISBN 3-8062-0390-3
  5. Mark Schmidt: Von Hüten, Kegeln und Kalendern oder Das blendende Licht des Orients. in: Ethnographisch-Archäologische Zeitschrift. Berlin 43.2002, p. 499-541. ISSN 0012-7477
  6. Werner Schröter, Karl-Friedrich Lebkücher, Alexander Koch (ed.), Lothar Sperber: Der Goldene Hut von Schifferstadt (Museum Book), Historisches Museum der Pfalz Speyer, Speyer 2008


  1. ^ Chadwick, Nora; Corcoran, J. X. W. P. (1970). The Celts. Penguin Books. pp. 28–33. ISBN 0140212116. OCLC 631775651.
  2. ^ Menghin 2000, see bibliography
  3. ^ Source: Menghin, op. cit.

External links

1918 Oklahoma Sooners football team

The 1918 Oklahoma Sooners football team represented the University of Oklahoma in the 1918 college football season. In their 14th year under head coach Bennie Owen, the Sooners compiled a 6–0 record (2–0 against conference opponents), and outscored their opponents by a combined total of 278 to 7.No Sooners were recognized as All-Americans.No Sooners received All-Southwest Conference honors.

1962 Oklahoma Sooners football team

The 1962 Oklahoma Sooners football team represented the University of Oklahoma during the 1962 NCAA University Division football season. They played their home games at Oklahoma Memorial Stadium and competed as members of the Big Eight Conference. They were coached by head coach Bud Wilkinson.


Avanton is a commune in the Vienne department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region in western France.

A Bronze Age golden hat was found near Avanton in 1844, see Avanton Gold Cone. It is on display in the National Museum of Archeology in Saint-Germain-en-Laye.

Avanton Gold Cone

The Avanton Gold Cone or Avanton Cone (French: Cône d'Or d'Avanton or French: Cône d'Avanton) is a late Bronze Age artefact, belonging to the group of Golden hats, only four of which are known so far.

The Avanton Cone was the second such object to be discovered (after the Golden Hat of Schifferstadt). It was found in 1844 in a field near the village of Avanton, about 12 km north of Poitiers, France. The object was damaged; comparison with other finds suggests that a part (the brim) is missing. The remaining part of the Avanton cone is 55 cm long and weighs 285 g. Originally dated to the Middle Bronze and suggested to be a fertility symbol, it now appears to be of later date and more complex function (see Golden hats).

The Avanton Cone is on display in the Musée d'Archéologie Nationale at Saint-Germain-en-Laye, near Paris.

Berlin Gold Hat

The Berlin Gold Hat or Berlin Golden Hat (German: Berliner Goldhut) is a Late Bronze Age artefact made of thin gold leaf. It served as the external covering on a long conical brimmed headdress, probably of an organic material. It is now in the Neues Museum on Museum Island in Berlin, in a room by itself with an elaborate explanatory display.

The Berlin Gold Hat is the best preserved specimen among the four known conical golden hats known from Bronze Age Europe so far. Of the three others, two were found in southern Germany, and one in the west of France. All were found in the 19th and 20th centuries. It is generally assumed that the hats served as the insignia of deities or priests in the context of a sun cult that appears to have been widespread in Central Europe at the time. The hats are also suggested to have served astronomical/calendrical functions.

The Berlin Gold Hat was acquired in 1996 by the Berlin Museum für Vor- und Frühgeschichte as a single find without provenance. A comparative study of the ornaments and techniques in conjunction with dateable finds suggests that it was made in the Late Bronze Age, circa 1,000 to 800 BC.

Boomer and Sooner

Boomer and Sooner are two matching white ponies who pull the Sooner Schooner, a Conestoga wagon across the field when the University of Oklahoma football team scores. The Sooner Schooner is the true mascot of the team, bringing to mind the pioneers who settled Indian Territory during the 1889 Land Run and were the original "Sooners". The Sooner Schooner represents the University of Oklahoma as a mascot for the University and its sports teams, the Oklahoma Sooners.

Boyd Field

Boyd Field was a stadium in Norman, Oklahoma that hosted the University of Oklahoma Sooners football team from 1905 until they moved to Oklahoma Memorial Stadium in 1923. The stadium held 11,000 people at its peak and was opened in 1905. The stadium was named after former university president, David Ross Boyd.

Golden Hat Foundation

The Golden Hat Foundation is a non-profit organisation founded by actress Kate Winslet and Margret Ericsdottir in 2010. The two met while Winslet was filming the documentary A Mother's Courage: Talking Back to Autism, which focused on Ericsdottir's son Keli Thorsteinsson, who is autistic and non-verbal. The organization centers on raising strengths-focused autism awareness and states that their mission is to "Change the way people on the autism spectrum are perceived, by shining a light on their abilities and emphasizing their great potential."The organization takes its name from a poem written by Thorsteinsson, in which he described a magical golden hat that had the ability to speak for its protagonist, who was unable to speak. In 2011 the Golden Hat Foundation paired with the cosmetics company Lancôme to create a golden hat themed make-up collection, with the intent for part of the proceeds to benefit the organization.

Golden Hat of Schifferstadt

The Golden Hat of Schifferstadt (German: Der Goldene Hut von Schifferstadt) was discovered in a field near the town of Schifferstadt in Southwest Germany in 1835. It is a Bronze Age artefact made of thin sheet gold and served as the external decoration of a head-dress, probably of an organic material, with a brim and a chin-strap. The hat is on display in the Historical Museum of the Palatinate in Speyer. It is one of a group of four similar artifacts known as the Golden hats, all cone-shaped Bronze Age head-dresses made of sheet gold.

Golden hat (disambiguation)

Golden hat can refer to:

Golden hat - a set of four conical shaped golden hats dating to between 1400 BC and 800 BC

Golden Hat Trophy - awarded to the winner of the Red River Shootout college football game and now one of three trophies awarded after the game

Kate Winslet

Kate Elizabeth Winslet, (born 5 October 1975) is an English actress. She is particularly known for her work in period dramas and tragedies, and is often drawn to portraying troubled women. Winslet is the recipient of several accolades, including three British Academy Film Awards, and is among the few performers to have won Academy, Emmy, and Grammy Awards.

Born in Reading, Berkshire, Winslet studied drama at the Redroofs Theatre School. Her first screen appearance, at the age of 15, was in the British television series Dark Season (1991). She made her film debut playing a teenage murderess in Heavenly Creatures (1994), and received her first BAFTA Award for playing Marianne Dashwood in Sense and Sensibility (1995). Global stardom followed soon after with her leading role in the epic romance Titanic (1997). It was the highest-grossing film of all time to that point, after which she eschewed parts in blockbusters in favour of critically acclaimed period pieces, including Quills (2000) and Iris (2001), which were not widely seen.

The science fiction romance Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind (2004), in which Winslet was cast against type in a contemporary setting, proved to be a turning point in her career, and she gained further recognition for her performances in Finding Neverland (2004), Little Children (2006), Revolutionary Road (2008), and The Reader (2008). For playing a Nazi camp guard in the last of these, she won the BAFTA Award and Academy Award for Best Actress. In the 2010s, Winslet played a single mother in 1930s America in the miniseries Mildred Pierce (2011), joined the Divergent film series, and portrayed Joanna Hoffman in Steve Jobs (2015). She won a Primetime Emmy Award for the former and a third BAFTA Award for the latter.

For her narration of a short story in the audiobook Listen to the Storyteller (1999), Winslet won a Grammy Award. She performed the song "What If" for the soundtrack of her film Christmas Carol: The Movie (2001). A co-founder of the charity Golden Hat Foundation, which aims to create autism awareness, she has written a book on the topic, The Golden Hat: Talking Back to Autism (2010). Time magazine named her one of the 100 most influential people in the world in 2009, and in 2012, she was appointed Commander of the Order of the British Empire (CBE). Divorced from the film directors Jim Threapleton and Sam Mendes, Winslet has been married to the businessman Ned Rocknroll since 2012. She has a child from each marriage.

List of Oklahoma Sooners starting quarterbacks

This is a list of the starting quarterbacks for the Oklahoma Sooners football teams since 1950.

Marion Cotillard

Marion Cotillard (French: [maʁjɔ̃ kɔtijaʁ] (listen); born 30 September 1975) is a French actress, singer-songwriter, musician, and environmentalist. She is the recipient of an Academy Award, a BAFTA Award, a Golden Globe Award, two César Awards, a European Award, and a Lumières Award. She became a Knight of the Order of Arts and Letters in France in 2010, and was promoted to Officer in 2016.

Cotillard had her first English-language role in the television series Highlander (1993) and made her film debut in The Story of a Boy Who Wanted to Be Kissed (1994). Her breakthrough came in the successful French film Taxi (1998), which earned her a César Award nomination. She made the transition into Hollywood in Tim Burton's Big Fish (2003), and subsequently appeared in A Very Long Engagement (2004), for which she won her first César Award.

For her portrayal of French singer Édith Piaf in La Vie en Rose (2007), Cotillard achieved worldwide recognition and won her second César Award, a BAFTA Award, a Golden Globe Award, a Lumières Award and the Academy Award for Best Actress, becoming the first and (as of 2018) only actor to win an Academy Award for a French-language performance, and also the second actress and one of only six actors to have won this award for a foreign language performance. Her performances in Nine (2009) and Rust and Bone (2012) garnered Cotillard two Golden Globe nominations, and for Two Days, One Night (2014), she earned a second Academy Award nomination for Best Actress, which was also her second nomination for a French-language film. Cotillard became one of only six actors to receive multiple Academy Award nominations for foreign language performances.

Cotillard played Joan of Arc on stage in different countries between 2005 and 2015 in the oratorio Jeanne d'Arc au bûcher. Her English-language films include Public Enemies (2009), Inception (2010), The Dark Knight Rises (2012), Macbeth (2015), and Allied (2016). She provided voice acting for the animated films The Little Prince (2015), April and the Extraordinary World (2015) and the French version of Minions (2015). Her other notable French and Belgian films include La Belle Verte (1996), War in the Highlands (1999), Pretty Things (2001), Love Me If You Dare (2003), Innocence (2004), Toi et Moi (2006) and Dikkenek (2006).

Oklahoma drill

The Oklahoma drill is an American football practice technique used to test players in confined full contact situations. The technique was developed by Oklahoma Sooners coach Bud Wilkinson.

Play Like a Champion Today

Play Like a Champion Today is a saying that both the University of Oklahoma Sooners and the University of Notre Dame Fighting Irish football programs have used over the years. Its origin before being used before the late 1940s is unknown.

Red River Showdown

The Red River Showdown, commonly called the Red River Rivalry, the Red River Classic, or the Red River Shootout, is the Oklahoma–Texas football rivalry. It is an American college football rivalry game played annually at the Cotton Bowl stadium in Dallas, Texas, during the State Fair of Texas in October. The participants are the Oklahoma Sooners football team of the University of Oklahoma and the Texas Longhorns football team of the University of Texas at Austin. The game is played the week following the State Fair Classic featuring Prairie View A&M University and Grambling State University. The series is one of the major rivalries in NCAA football and in all of American sports. The name is derived from the Red River that forms part of the boundary between Texas and Oklahoma that has in the past caused conflict between the two states, most notably the 1931 Red River Bridge War.

There are three Red River Showdown trophies exchanged based on the outcome of the game. The best known of these is the Golden Hat, which is a gold ten-gallon hat, formerly of bronze. The trophy is kept by the winning school's athletic department until the next year. A newer trophy, the Red River Rivalry trophy, has been exchanged between the two student governments since 2003. The governor of Texas and governor of Oklahoma also exchange the Governors' trophy and frequently place a bet on the game such as the losing governor having to present a side of beef to the winning governor, often donated to charity.Another annual tradition is the running of game balls by the schools' Reserve Officers' Training Corps programs. Each school's ROTC program uses a relay running system to run one game ball all the way from their respective campus to Dallas. Once there, they participate against each other in a football scrimmage, with the winner taking home a rivalry trophy and bragging rights. For both teams, the rivalry is bitterly emotional and territorial in nature relating to the two states' proximity, past border disputes and economic and cultural differences.

The Oklahoma Heismen

The Oklahoma Heismen is a 2005 documentary made by Vintage Sports Productions.

Tagline: From Small Town Athletic Fields to the Downtown Athletic Club.

Tim Janis

Tim Janis is an American composer with 10 Billboard charting CDs, over one million albums sold, five television specials, and a constant touring presence.

Winged helmet

A winged helmet is a helmet decorated with wings, usually on both sides. Ancient depictions of the god Hermes, Mercury and of Roma depict them wearing winged helmets, however in the 19th century the winged helmet became widely used to depict the Celts. It was also used in romantic illustrations of legendary Norse gods and heroes. The motif, along with the horned helmet, became a clichéd signifier of the "barbarian" Northern warrior.

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.