Golden Square (Iraq)

The Golden Square (Arabic: المربع الذهبي) was a group of four officers of the Iraqi armed forces who played a part in Iraqi politics throughout the 1930s and early 1940s. The activities of the Golden Square culminated in supporting Rashid Ali al-Gaylani in his overthrow of government in 1941.[1]

Details

The "Golden Square" included the four most important leaders of the "Circle of Seven." The Circle of Seven was a group of Sunni Arab nationalist military officers who were greatly influenced by German Ambassador Fritz Grobba and, in turn, greatly influenced politics in Iraq during the 1930s and early 1940s.[2]

The members of the Golden Square were Colonel Salah al-Din al-Sabbagh, Colonel Kamil Shabib, Colonel Fahmi Said, and Colonel Mahmud Salman. During the Anglo-Iraqi War, the four members of the Golden Square commanded units located in the Baghdad area. Salah ad-Din al-Sabbagh was commander of the Iraqi 3rd Infantry Division. Kamal Shabib commanded the 1st Infantry Division. Fahmi Said commanded the Independent Mechanized Brigade. Mahmud Salman, the one non-Army officer, was the Chief of the Air Force.[3]

The members of the Golden Square were virulently anti-British. In time, these men represented real power as successive Iraqi governments sought the support of the military for survival. The members of the Golden Square looked to Germany to support them and, for his part, Grobba enthusiastically encouraged them to do so.[4]

On 1 April 1941, Rashid Ali and the Golden Square launched a coup d'etat to topple the government of the Regent, Prince 'Abd al-Ilah. The subsequent Anglo-Iraqi War ended disastrously for Rashid Ali and the members of the Golden Square who, for the most part, fled Iraq as the British closed in on Baghdad.[5]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Time Magazine, Trouble in Paradise
  2. ^ Tripp, p. 99
  3. ^ Lyman, p. 21
  4. ^ Lyman, p. 11
  5. ^ Time Magazine, Everybody Loses

References

  • Al-Marashi, Ibrahim; Salama, Sammy (2008). Iraq's armed forces: An analytical history. Oxon and New York: Routledge. p. 254. ISBN 0-415-40078-3.
  • Lyman, Robert (2006). Iraq 1941: The Battles for Basra, Habbaniya, Fallujah and Baghdad. Campaign. Oxford and New York: Osprey Publishing. p. 96. ISBN 1-84176-991-6.
  • Tarbush, Mohammad A. (1982). The Role of the Military in Politics: A Case Study of Iraq to 1941. Campaign. London and Boston: Kegan Paul. p. 285. ISBN 978-0-7103-0124-6.
  • Tripp, Charles (2002). A History of Iraq. Cambridge: Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge. p. 311. ISBN 978-0-521-52900-6.

External links

Four Colonels

The Four Colonels (Arabic: العقداء الأربعة) were a cabal of pro-Nazi Iraqi army officers who conspired to overthrow the Hashemite monarchy in Iraq and expel British forces. In 1941, they briefly seized power and instituted the Golden Square 'National Defense Government' regime before the British intervened. Three of the plotters and many of their supporters were put to death.

The members of the Golden Square were Colonel Salah al-Din al-Sabbagh, Colonel Kamil Shabib, Colonel Fahmi Said, and Colonel Mahmud Salman. During the Anglo-Iraqi War, the four members of the Golden Square commanded units located in the Baghdad area. Salah ad-Din al-Sabbagh was commander of the Iraqi 3rd Infantry Division. Kamal Shabib commanded the 1st Infantry Division. Fahmi Said commanded the Independent Mechanized Brigade. Mahmud Salman, the one non-Army officer, was the Chief of the Air Force.

Golden Square (disambiguation)

Golden Square may refer to:

Golden Square, London

Golden Square, Victoria, a suburb of Bendigo (Australia)

Golden Square Football Club, an Australian rules football club which competes in the Bendigo Football League

Golden Square railway station, a closed station on the Melbourne-Bendigo railway

Golden Square Secondary College

Golden Square Mile, former (1875–1930) luxurious neighbourhood in Montreal, Canada

Golden Square Shopping Centre in Warrington, Cheshire, England

Golden Square (Iraq) - the 1941 Iraqi coup d'état, also known as the Golden Square coup, was a pro-Nazi military coup in Iraq on April 1, 1941 that overthrew the British-backed regime of Regent 'Abd al-Ilah. It was led by four Iraqi nationalist army generals, known as "the Golden Square."

Two squares whose size is related by the golden ratio

Hasan Salama

Hasan Salama or Hassan Salameh (Arabic: حسن سلامة‎, Ḥasan Salāmah; 1913 – 2 June 1948) was a commander of the Palestinian Holy War Army (Jaysh al-Jihad al-Muqaddas, Arabic: جيش الجهاد المقدس) in the 1948 Palestine War along with Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni.

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