Gold shirts

The Revolutionary Mexicanist Action (Spanish: Acción Revolucionaria Mexicanista), better known as the Gold shirts (Spanish: Camisas Doradas), was a Mexican fascist paramilitary organization in the 1930s.[2]

Revolutionary Mexicanist Action

Acción Revolucionaria Mexicanista
LeaderGeneral Nicolás Rodríguez Carrasco
IdeologyMexican nationalism
Right-wing extremism
Racism against Asians
Political positionFar-right
Party flag



The group was founded by general Nicolás Rodríguez Carrasco in 1933 with the official title of Acción Revolucionaria Mexicana (Mexican Revolutionary Action). Carrasco, who had been a supporter of Pancho Villa until he deserted in 1918, named the group after the dorados, Villa's "golden" group of elite soldiers. The Gold shirts opposed the reforms of president Lázaro Cárdenas and were protected by former president Plutarco Elías Calles, who had become an enemy of Cárdenas. The Gold Shirts often violently clashed with supporters of the Mexican Communist Party and the Red Shirts and demanded the immediate deportation of all Jews and Chinese from Mexico. Although the dorados copied their style from the Blackshirts and Sturmabteilung, copying the anti-communism and authoritarianism of the former and the anti-Semitism of the latter, they nonetheless lacked the fascist mission, being essentially (according to Fascism expert Payne) counterrevolutionary and reactionary and as such were more easily employed by the existing state.[3]

During the Maximato era of the formerly heavily anticlerical Calles regime, the Gold shirts were moderately in favour of religious liberty for the Catholic Church, but because they still at times acted in an anticlericalist way against priests wearing the cassock, Cristeros never entered their ranks.


After Calles was deported by Cárdenas on April 9, 1936, the group lost its protector. A few months later, Rodríguez was arrested and deported to Texas in August 1936, from where he continued to lead the group until his death in 1940. After Mexico's declaration of war upon the Axis powers on May 22, 1942, the Gold shirts were banned.

See also



  1. ^
  2. ^ Sherman, John W., The Mexican right: the end of revolutionary reform, 1929-1940, p. 62, Greenwood Publishing Group, 1997
  3. ^ Stanley G. Payne, A History of Fascism 1914-1945, London, Roultedge, 2001, p. 342

External links

1903–04 Brentford F.C. season

During the 1903–04 English football season, Brentford competed in the Southern League First Division. Despite leading the division in September 1903, disruption behind the scenes and the suspension of manager Dick Molyneux for the final month of the season led to a 13th-place finish.

1964 All-Ireland Senior Football Championship Final

The 1964 All-Ireland Senior Football Championship Final was the 77th All-Ireland Final and the deciding match of the 1964 All-Ireland Senior Football Championship, an inter-county Gaelic football tournament for the top teams in Ireland.

Galway took a four-point lead in the first ten minutes, and won with the help of Cyril Dunne's nine points. It was the first of three All-Ireland football titles won by Galway in the 1960s, which made them joint "team of the decade" with Down who also won three.Galway's three 1960s titles came consecutively.

To say that Kerry were favourites for this final would be an understatement, and given the contrast of both counties' semi-final victories, few people saw past Kerry for the All-Ireland title. Galway's hard-fought 2-point victory over Meath could hardly compare to Kerry's 12-point demolition of Cavan, or could it. If there was a prepared script, Galway didn't read it, as they proceeded to run the favourites ragged with a wonderful display of constructive, intelligent football. Their opening salvo yielded 4 points as Kerry sought to impose their own pattern on the game. They did manage to save face and at half-time, the four point gap remained, 0-7 to 0-3 in favour of Galway. Early second-half uncertainty on Galway's part almost allowed Kerry back into the decider and if they had taken one of two early goal chances, they might just have done that. It was the wake-up call Galway needed as the flow of the game steered irresistibly into Galway's hands. Cyril punished every Kerry indiscretion with the signal of a white flag. Mick O'Connell responded with equal aplomb but when Galway's lead extended to six points, it was all over. Galway had won their first title since 1956 and their 5th overall. It was the first part of their memorable "Three In A Row".

1965 All-Ireland Senior Football Championship Final

The 1965 All-Ireland Senior Football Championship Final was the 78th All-Ireland Final and the deciding match of the 1965 All-Ireland Senior Football Championship, an inter-county Gaelic football tournament for the top teams in Ireland.It was the second of three in a row All-Ireland football titles won by Galway in the 1960s, which made them joint "team of the decade" with Down who also won three.Galway's three 1960s titles came consecutively.

1966 All-Ireland Senior Football Championship Final

The 1966 All-Ireland Senior Football Championship Final was the 79th All-Ireland Final and the deciding match of the 1966 All-Ireland Senior Football Championship, an inter-county Gaelic football tournament for the top teams in Ireland.

Mattie McDonagh scored a goal after 21 minutes and Galway led 1-6 to 0-1 at half-time, and went on to complete a three-in-a-row. McDonagh's goal came 11th in RTÉ's 2005 series Top 20 GAA Moments.It was the third of three All-Ireland football titles won by Galway in the 1960s, which made them joint "team of the decade" with Down who also won three.Galway's three 1960s titles came consecutively.Harry Beitzel, an Australian credited with pioneering the development of the composite rules sport International rules football, is said to have drawn inspiration from watching the 1966 All-Ireland Senior Football Championship Final on television, and in 1967 sent an Australian side – "The Galahs" – to play the game against an Irish side. Beitzel followed this up the next year with The Australian Football World Tour, a six-match series with games played against Irish teams in Ireland, the UK and United States. (The 1968 Galahs also played exhibition matches of Australian Rules throughout the tour, including a game in Bucharest, Romania.)

This was to be, if not the battle of the century, at least the final of the decade. That was the assessment from all the pundits as Galway geared up to secure their third All-Ireland title in a row, against Meath. The credentials of both sides were perfect: Galway unbeaten since the 1963 All-Ireland final with Dublin against a Meath team that had put in an incredible second-half performance against Down to win by ten points. The champions, with the breeze behind them, made the early running. With 13 minutes gone they had strolled to a 3-point lead. Despite the best efforts of the Meath side to keep the score that low against A Galway side who had the momentum, the crucial score came not long after. Cyril picked up possession and played the ball across the Meath goal. As it bounced across the face of John McCormack's goal, Mattie McDonagh came steaming in and planted the ball into the back of the net with relative ease. It was Galway's first goal in their "Three In A Row" assault. Thirty seconds later, Liam Sammon pointed followed quickly by another from Seamus Leydon. This left it at 1-05 to no score in favour of Galway. Murty Sullivan got Meath off the mark but at half-time, they trailed by 8 points, 1-06 to 0-01. A reshuffled Meath team re-opened the second half with promise, but the revival they sought, desperately needing a goal, never looked like coming. Meath outscored Galway in the second half but it was merely an irrelevant statistic as the Tribesmen had made it "Three In A Row", with a six-point victory. The ingredients were there for a thrilling contest were there for a thrilling contest, but on the day it all came apart for Meath and remained the same for a Galway side who made GAA history with their performance.

1968 FA Cup Final

The 1968 FA Cup Final was the 87th final of the FA Cup. It took place on 18 May 1968 at Wembley Stadium and was contested between West Bromwich Albion and Everton.

West Brom won 1–0 after extra time. Jeff Astle scored the winning goal, thus achieving the feat of scoring in every round of that season's competition. It was the fifth time that West Brom had won the FA Cup; they have not reached the final since.

This was the first FA Cup Final to be televised live in colour. Both teams wore their away strips, West Brom wearing white shirts and shorts with red socks, and Everton wearing gold shirts and blue shorts. This was also the first FA Cup Final in which a substitute was used, when West Brom's Dennis Clarke came on for an injured John Kaye.

The referee was Leo Callaghan from Merthyr Tydfil in South Wales.

2000 All-Ireland Senior Football Championship Final

The 2000 All-Ireland Senior Football Championship Final was the 113th All-Ireland Final and the deciding match of the 2000 All-Ireland Senior Football Championship, an inter-county Gaelic football tournament for the top teams in Ireland.

Kerry defeated Galway after a replay. There was controversy over the decision to hold the replay on a Saturday, instead of the usual Sunday. Since then games on days other than Sundays have become commonplace. Kerry ultimately triumphed over Galway by a scoreline of 0 – 17 to 1 – 10.

Bridge of Allan F.C.

Bridge of Allan Football Club was a Scottish association football club based in Bridge of Allan, Stirlingshire. The club was founded in 1878 and disbanded in 1899. The club competed in the Scottish Cup for four seasons between 1880 and 1891 as well as the regional Stirlingshire Cup competition. From 1890 onwards, the club's home colours were black and gold shirts with navy shorts. The club played its home matches at Westerton Park before moving to Coneyhill Park in 1881 where it remained until 1899 when the club disbanded.

FC Tytan Armyansk

FC Tytan Armyansk (Ukrainian: ФК Титан; Russian: ФК Титан) was a football club based in Armyansk, Autonomous Republic of Crimea. The club last played in the Persha Liha during the 2013–14 season. The club was dissolved due to annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation.Colors are (Home) gold shirts, black shorts. (Away) white shirts, black shorts.

Fascism in North America

Fascism in North America is composed of a set of related political movements in Canada, the United States, Mexico and elsewhere that were variants of fascism. Fascist movements in North America never realized power, unlike their counterparts in Europe. Although the geopolitical definition of North America varies, for the sake of convenience it can be assumed to include Central America and the Caribbean, where fascist variants also flourished.

Fascist paramilitary

A fascist paramilitary is a fighting force - whether armed, unarmed, or merely symbolic - that is independent of regular military command and is established for the defence and advancement of a movement that adheres to the radical nationalist ideology of fascism. Since fascism is such a militarist ideology, there are very few varieties of fascism where paramilitaries do not play a central role, and some kind of paramilitary participation is almost always a basic requirement of membership in fascist movements. Fascist paramilitaries have seen action in both peacetime and wartime. Most fascist paramilitaries wear political uniforms, and many have taken their names from the colours of their uniforms.

The first fascist paramilitary was the Blackshirts of Italian Fascism led by Benito Mussolini. While many of the Blackshirts were former members of the Arditi who had fought in World War I or the Fascio of the immediate post-war years, the most direct inspiration for the first fascist paramilitary was Giuseppe Garibaldi's Redshirts.

A number of other fascist movements established paramilitaries modelled after the Italian original, most notably Nazism with its Sturmabteilung and Schutzstaffel. Others include:

in Ireland, in the 1930s, the Blueshirts under Eoin O'Duffy

the gold shirts and the Red Shirts of 1930s Mexico

the Greenshirts of Brazilian Integralism

the Heimwehr in Austria, in the 1920s and 1930s

the Legionary Greenshirts of the Romanian Iron Guard

Iron Wolf (organization)

National Union (Portugal)Several fascist movements took their cue from the Sturmabteilung rather than the Blackshirts, such as the Greyshirts in South Africa and the Silver Legion of America. Following the Axis invasion of Albania, the occupation forces formed the Albanian Militia under the Blackshirts. Several fascist paramilitaries were active in Romania including the Lăncieri.

Some fascist movements have also established paramilitary youth organizations such as the Hitler Youth or the Mocidade Portuguesa.

A number of fascist paramilitaries have been deployed in conventional warfare. For example, in the later years of World War II the Italian Blackshirts developed into the Black Brigades. Likewise, the combat wing of the Schutzstaffel, the Waffen-SS, fought in many major battles of World War II. The Einsatzgruppen were death squads active in Eastern Europe which carried out the Holocaust and other political killings. In an act of desperation, the Nazis deployed remnants of the Hitler Youth and Sturmabteilung against the Red Army in the Battle of Berlin. At the eleventh hour of the war, the Nazis laid plans for a guerrilla resistance movement they called the Werwolf. However, these plans amounted to little more than a handful of sabotages and assassinations which were ineffective.

Neo-Nazis have used the white power skinhead scene as a recruitment base for neofascist paramilitaries like Combat 18. Soccer hooliganism throughout Europe is another source of recruits. Some groups in the white supremacist wing of the militia movement in the United States can be seen as neofascist paramilitaries.

Gawler SC

The Gawler Eagles FC, known as Gawler Eagles, provides organised soccer games for boys and girls, men and women from 5 years to over 50 years old, The Club currently has over 30 teams in the FFSA State League, SAASL, SAWSA, EDJSA and FFSA Junior Premier League. The Women play in the SA Women's Soccer Association Premier League while the Men's teams play in the Football Federation SA State League and the SA Amateur Soccer Division 5.

The home ground is located at the Karbeethan Reserve, Angle Vale Road, Evanston Gardens. The Club colours are yellow and blue. Games are played home/ away on Saturdays and Sundays, they play home games at Karbeethan Reserve in Gawler.

Gold (color)

Gold, also called golden, is a color.

The web color gold is sometimes referred to as golden to distinguish it from the color metallic gold. The use of gold as a color term in traditional usage is more often applied to the color "metallic gold" (shown below).

The first recorded use of golden as a color name in English was in 1300 to refer to the element gold and in 1423 to refer to blond hair.Metallic gold, such as in paint, is often called goldtone or gold tone. In heraldry, the French word or is used. In model building, the color gold is different from brass. A shiny or metallic silvertone object can be painted with transparent yellow to obtain goldtone, something often done with Christmas decorations.

List of fascist movements by country G–M

A list of political parties, organizations, and movements adhering to various forms of fascist ideology, part of the list of fascist movements by country.


The Maximato was a transitional period in the historical and political development of Mexico from 1928 to 1934. Named after former president Plutarco Elías Calles's sobriquet el Jefe Máximo (the maximum leader), the Maximato was the period when Calles continued to exercise power and exert influence, but did not hold the presidential office. The six-year period was the term that president-elect Alvaro Obregón would have served had he not been assassinated directly after the July 1928 elections. There needed to be some kind of political solution to the presidential succession crisis. Calles could not hold the presidency again, due to restrictions on re-election without an interval out of power, but he remained the dominant figure in Mexico.

There were two solutions to the crisis. Firstly, an interim president was to be appointed followed by new elections. Secondly, Calles created an enduring political institution, the Partido Nacional Revolucionario (PNR), that held presidential power from 1929 until 2000.

The interim presidency of Emilio Portes Gil lasted from 1 December 1928 to 4 February 1930. He was passed over as candidate for the newly formed PNR in favor of a political unknown, Pascual Ortiz Rubio. Ortiz Rubio resigned in September 1932, in protest at Calles's continued wielding of power. He was succeeded by Abelardo L. Rodríguez, who served out the rest of the term that ended in 1934. As President Rodríguez exerted more independence from Calles than had Ortiz Rubio. The election of that year was won by former revolutionary general Lázaro Cárdenas, chosen as the candidate for the PNR. Following the election, Calles attempted to exert over control Cárdenas, but with strategic allies Cárdenas outmaneuvered Calles politically, and expelled him and his major allies from the country in 1936.

The Maximato was a transitional period of personal power for ex-President Calles, but the institutionalization of political power in the party structure was a major achievement in Mexican history.

Nicolás Rodríguez Carrasco

Nicolás Rodríguez Carrasco (1890 in Chihuahua – 1940 in Ciudad Juárez) was a Mexican general and fascist.

During the Mexican Revolution Rodríguez fought alongside Pancho Villa. He managed to become brigadier general but deserted in 1918. After the revolution he moved to the right and joined several racist, antisemitic and antisinist organizations. In 1929 he supported the presidential campaign of José Vasconcelos. Vasconcelos lost the election, claimed it had been rigged, and had to flee the country but Rodríguez decided to stay and instead befriended Vasconcelos' enemy Plutarco Elías Calles, former president and at that moment strongman of Mexico.

Under protection of Calles Rodríguez founded the green shirts, though they were disbanded by president Abelardo L. Rodríguez in 1932. A year later he founded another fascist organization, the Gold shirts, which would become more successful than his previous one. The gold shirts opposed the new president Lázaro Cárdenas and his reforms, and demanded the immediate expulsion of all Jews and Chinese. After Calles' deportation in 1936 Rodríguez lost his protector and in August of the same year he was arrested and deported. Rodríguez moved to Texas joined by many of his gold shirts, and sought cooperation with American fascists like the Silver shirts of William Dudley Pelley.

In 1938 he attempted without success to attack Mexico from the border at Matamoros. After this failed attempt he was continuously monitored by the Mexican and American secret services, and therefore was not able to organize any new actions. He died in 1940.

Pittsburgh Steelerettes

The Pittsburgh Steelerettes were the first cheerleading squad in the National Football League, serving as the cheerleaders for the Pittsburgh Steelers during the 1960s. The squad eventually disbanded, and the Steelers to this day are among the few NFL teams that do not have cheerleaders.From their beginning in 1961 until the squad's demise in 1969, all members of the Steelerettes were full-time students at Robert Morris Junior College in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Robert Morris was a small Junior College without a football team who had unofficially adopted the Steelers as "their team". An administrator at the College, William Day, also served as the entertainment coordinator for the Steelers. It was his idea to hold tryouts at the College and select a group of young coeds to perform on the field, in hopes of improving lackluster ticket sales to Steelers games.At tryouts, candidates were evaluated on coordination, personality, gymnastics, and appearance. Squad members took a basic football test to prove that they would know when to cheer, and were required to maintain a 2.0 GPA. At games, they performed choreographed jazz routines to live jazz music, performed by Harold Betters and bandleader Benny Benack. They practiced in the school cafeteria or in front of their dormitory. Steelerettes received one free ticket per game as pay.During the 1962 season, the Steelerettes were accompanied by a squad of the NFL's first male cheerleaders, also Robert Morris students, known as the Ingots. The men fired a cannon filled with 12-gauge blanks when the Steelers scored, wearing uniforms of black slacks, white or gold shirts and hard hats. The male group disbanded at the end of one season.By the late 1960s, Robert Morris' student body had grown and the school now had its own football team. The decision to disband was a joint decision between the Rooney family and Robert Morris. Apparently, the cheerleaders wished to wear outfits that were more "modern" and "daring". In response, the owner fired the team. The last squad of Steelerettes left the field after the 1969 season, the first year of Hall of Famers head coach Chuck Noll and defensive tackle "Mean Joe" Greene. Nearly 60 women participated in the squad over their eight seasons.While as of 2018 the team still does not have cheerleaders, in 2007 the team unveiled its new mascot Steely McBeam.

University shinty

In the sport of shinty, there are several clubs which play under the banner of one of the Scottish universities. However, these clubs are not always student teams in the strictest sense of the word, and have a long history of participation at national senior level. Since the introduction of a summer season, only the Aberdeen University Shinty Club continues to play in the senior leagues, although Edinburgh, Glasgow and St Andrews have all done so in the past.

Wolverhampton Wanderers F.C.

Wolverhampton Wanderers Football Club (listen), commonly known as Wolves, is an English professional football club in Wolverhampton, West Midlands. Formed as St Luke's F.C. in 1877, they have played at Molineux Stadium since 1889 and compete in the Premier League, the top division of English football, after winning the 2017–18 EFL Championship. Wolves will compete in the 2019–20 UEFA Europa League, the first time the club has qualified for a European tournament for thirty-nine years, by virtue of finishing in seventh-place in the 2018–19 Premier League in their first season back in the top tier.

Wolves were one of the founding members of the Football League in 1888. The club in 2018–19 enjoyed its 64th season of top flight football; Wolves's longest continuous period in the top tier was 26 consecutive seasons in the 33 years between 1932 to 1965 (n.b. there was no league football between 1939 and 1946 due to World War II). In the 1950s, Wolves were English League champions three times (1953–54, 1957–58 and 1958–59), under the management of Stan Cullis. Wolves have also finished League runners-up on five occasions, most recently in 1959–60.

Wolves have won the FA Cup four times, most recently in 1960, and finished runners-up on a further four occasions. The club has also won the Football League Cup twice, in 1974 and 1980.

In 1953, Wolves was one of the first British clubs to install floodlights, taking part in televised "floodlit friendlies" against leading overseas club sides between 1953 and 1956 in the run-up to the creation of the European Cup in 1955 and the first participation of an English club side in that competition in 1956. Wolves reached the quarter-finals of the 1959–60 European Cup and the semi-finals of the 1960–61 European Cup Winners' Cup, and were runners-up to Tottenham Hotspur in the inaugural 1972 UEFA Cup Final.

Wolves' traditional kit consists of gold shirts and black shorts and the club badge one or more wolves. Wolves have long-standing rivalries with other West Midlands clubs, the main one being with West Bromwich Albion, against whom they contest the Black Country derby, although the two clubs have not met in a League fixture since 2011–12, the last season they competed in the same division.

Women's football in Brunei

Under the current Sharia law, women's football in Brunei Darussalam is prohibited. Until women were banned from playing, football was the second most popular sport in the country for women. There are no registered female players in the country. While there is officially no support for women's football in the country, only foreigner girls at Berakas International School are allowed within the school campus. There are also some women futsal teams set up as regional representatives on occasion.

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