Gold Key Comics

Gold Key Comics was an imprint of Western Publishing created for comic books distributed to newsstands. Also known as Whitman Comics, Gold Key operated from 1962 to 1984.

Gold Key Comics
Goldkeycomics.jpeg
StatusDefunct, 1984
Founded1962
Country of originUnited States
Headquarters locationPoughkeepsie, New York
Publication typesComic books
ImprintsWhitman Comics
Owner(s)Western Publishing

History

Gold Key Comics was created in 1962, when its parent company Western Publishing switched to in-house publishing rather than packaging content for branding and distribution by its business partner, Dell Comics.[1] Hoping to make their comics more like traditional children's books, they initially eliminated panel line-borders, using just the panel, with its ink and artwork evenly edged but not bordered by a "container" line. Within a year they had reverted to using inked panel borders and oval balloons. They experimented with new formats, including Whitman Comic Book, a black-and-white 136 page hardcover series containing reprints[2] and Golden Picture Story Book, a tabloid-sized 52-page hardcover containing new material.[3] In 1967, Gold Key reprinted a number of selected issues of their comics under the title Top Comics which were sold in plastic bags containing five comics at gas stations and various eateries. Like Dell, Gold Key was one of the few major American publishers of comic books never to display the Comics Code Authority seal on its covers.[4]

Properties

Gold Key featured a number of licensed properties and several original titles, including a number of publications that spun off from Dell's Four Color series, or were published as standalones by Dell. It maintained decent sales numbers throughout the 1960s, thanks to its offering of many titles based upon popular TV series of the day, as well as numerous titles based upon both Walt Disney Studios and Warner Bros. animated properties.[1] It was also the first company to publish comic books based upon Star Trek.[5] While some titles, such as Star Trek and The Twilight Zone, were published for many years, many other licensed titles were characterized by short runs, sometimes publishing no more than one or two issues. Gold Key considered suing over the similarly themed television series Lost in Space for its resemblance to the preexisting Space Family Robinson but decided their business relationship with CBS and Irwin Allen was more important than any monetary reward resulting from such a suit; as a result, the Gold Key series adopted the branding Space Family Robinson Lost in Space with issue #15 (Jan. 1966), even though narratively it had no connection to the TV series.[6][7]

Editor Chase Craig stated that Gold Key would launch titles with Hanna-Barbera characters with direct adaptations of episodes of the program because "[t]he studio had approval rights and the people there could get pointlessly picky about the material... but they rarely bothered looking at any issue after the first few. Therefore, it simplified the procedure to do the first issue as an adaptation and maybe the second. They couldn't very well complain that a plot taken from the show was inappropriate".[8]

Over the years, it lost several properties, including the King Features Syndicate characters (Popeye, Flash Gordon, The Phantom, etc.) to Charlton Comics in 1966, numerous, but not all, Hanna-Barbera characters also to Charlton Comics in 1970,[9] and Star Trek to Marvel Comics in 1979.

Creators

The stable of writers and artists built up by Western Publishing during the Dell Comics era mostly continued into the Gold Key era. In the mid-1960s a number of artists were recruited by the newly formed Disney Studio Program and thereafter divided their output between the Disney Program and Western. Writer/artist Russ Manning and editor Chase Craig launched the Magnus, Robot Fighter series in 1963.[10][11] Jack Sparling co-created the superhero Tiger Girl with Jerry Siegel in 1968,[12] drew the toyline tie-in Microbots one-shot,[13] and illustrated comic book adaptations of the television series Family Affair, The Outer Limits, and Adam-12.[14][15] Dan Spiegle worked on Space Family Robinson,[6] The Green Hornet, The Invaders, Korak, Son of Tarzan, Brothers of the Spear, and many of Gold Key's mystery/occult titles.[16][17] Among the other creators at Gold Key were writers Donald F. Glut, Len Wein, Bob Ogle, John David Warner, Steve Skeates, and Mark Evanier; and artists Cliff Voorhees, Joe Messerli,[18] Carol Lay, Jesse Santos,[19] and Mike Royer. Glut created and wrote several series including The Occult Files of Dr. Spektor,[20] Dagar the Invincible,[21] and Tragg and the Sky Gods.[22] Also in the 1970s, writer Bob Gregory started drawing stories, mostly for Daisy and Donald. Artist/writer Frank Miller had his first published comic book artwork in The Twilight Zone for Gold Key in 1978.[23]

Diana Gabaldon began her career writing for Gold Key, initially sending a query that stated "I’ve been reading your comics for the last 25 years, and they’ve been getting worse and worse. I’m not sure if I could do better myself, but I’d like to try." Editor Del Connell provided a script sample and bought her second submission.[24]

According to former Western Publishing writer Mark Evanier, during the mid-1960s comedy writer Jerry Belson, whose writing partner at the time was Garry Marshall, also did scripts for Gold Key while writing for leading TV sitcoms like The Dick Van Dyke Show. Among the comics he wrote for were The Flintstones, Uncle Scrooge, Daffy Duck, Bugs Bunny, The Three Stooges, and Woody Woodpecker.[25]

Leo Dorfman, creator of Ghosts for DC Comics, also produced supernatural stories for Gold Key's similarly themed Twilight Zone, Ripley's Believe it or Not, Boris Karloff Tales of Mystery, and Grimm's Ghost Stories. One of Gold Key's editors at the time told Mark Evanier, "Leo writes stories and then he decides whether he's going to sell them to DC [for Ghosts] or to us. He tells us that if they come out good, they go to us and if they don't, they go to DC. I assume he tells DC the opposite."[26]

Editor Frank Tedeschi, who left in 1973 for a job in book publishing, helped bring in such new comics professionals as Walt Simonson, Gerry Boudreau, and John David Warner.[27]

Later years

The comics industry experienced a downswing in the 1970s and Gold Key was among the hardest hit.[1] Its editorial policies had not kept pace with the changing times and suffered an erosion of its base of sales among children, who could now watch cartoons and other entertainment on television for free instead. It is also alleged by Carmine Infantino that in the mid-to-late 1960s DC Comics attempted to pressure Gold Key from the comics business through sheer weight of output.[28] Among the original titles launched by Gold Key in the 1970s were Baby Snoots[29] and Wacky Witch[30] By 1977 many of the company's series had been cancelled and the surviving titles featured more reprinted material, although Gold Key was able to obtain the rights to publish a comic book series based upon Buck Rogers in the 25th Century between 1979 and 1981. It also lost the rights to publish Star Trek-based comic books to Marvel Comics just prior to the revival of the franchise via Star Trek: The Motion Picture, with the final Gold Key-published Star Trek title being issued in March 1979.[31]

In this period, Gold Key experimented with digests with some success. In a similar manner, to explore new markets, in the mid-1970s it produced a four-volume series, with somewhat better production values and printing aimed at the emerging collector market, containing classic stories of the Disney characters by Carl Barks and Floyd Gottfredson (Best of Walt Disney's Comics). In the late 1970s came somewhat higher grade reprints of various licensed characters also aimed at new venues (Dynabrites),[32][33] plus Starstream, a four-issue series adapting classic science fiction stories by authors such as Isaac Asimov and John W. Campbell.[34] Golden Press released trade paperback reprint collections such as Walt Disney Christmas Parade,[35] Bugs Bunny Comics-Go-Round,[36] and Star Trek: The Enterprise Logs [37][38] while the distribution of comic books on spinners and racks at drug stores and supermarkets and similar stores continued under the Gold Key label. The same comics were simultaneously distributed, usually three comics in plastic bags, to toy and department stores, newsstands at airports, bus/train stations, "as well as other outlets that weren't conducive to conventional comic racks",[39] under the Whitman logo, which it also used for products like coloring books. Western, at one point, also distributed bagged comics from its rival DC Comics under the Whitman logo. Former DC Comics Executive Paul Levitz stated that the "Western program was enormous — even well into the 1970s they were taking very large numbers of DC titles for distribution (I recall 50,000+ copies offhand)."[39] The continued decline in sales forced Western to cease newsstand distribution in 1981, and thereafter it released all its comics solely in bags as "Whitman Comics" and the "Gold Key" logo was discontinued.[1] Eventually arrangements were made to distribute these releases to the nascent national network of comic book stores. Western also prepared a prospectus in the early 1980s for a deluxe Carl Barks reprint project aimed at the collector market that was never published.[40] All these efforts ultimately proved unsuccessful and by 1984 Western was out of the comic book business.

Relaunches, reprints, and legacy

Three of Gold Key's original characters, Magnus, Robot Fighter, Doctor Solar, and Turok, Son of Stone, were used in the 1990s to launch Valiant Comics' fictional universe.

Dark Horse Comics (and later, Dynamite Entertainment) have published reprints, including several in hardcover collections, of such original Gold Key titles as Magnus, Robot Fighter; Doctor Solar; Mighty Samson; M.A.R.S. Patrol; Turok: Son of Stone; The Occult Files of Doctor Spektor; Dagar the Invincible; Boris Karloff's Tales of Mystery; Space Family Robinson; Flash Gordon; the Jesse Marsh drawn Tarzan;[41][42] [43][44] and some of the Russ Manning-produced Tarzan series.[45] They started several revivals of characters under Jim Shooter, including Doctor Solar, Magnus, Turok, and Mighty Samson.[46] The Checker Book Publishing Group, in conjunction with Paramount Pictures, began reprinting the Gold Key Star Trek series in 2004.[47] Hermes Press reprinted the three series based on Irwin Allen's science-fiction TV series,[48] as well as Gold Key's Dark Shadows,[49] My Favorite Martian,[50] and the Phantom.[49]

Bongo Comics published a parody of Gold Key in Radioactive Man #106 (volume 2 #6, Nov. 2002) with script/layout by Batton Lash and finished art by Mike DeCarlo that Tony Isabella dubbed "a nigh-flawless facsimile of the Gold Key comics published by Western in the early 1960s...from the painting with tasteful come-on copy on the front cover to the same painting, sans logo or other type, presented as a "pin-up" on the back cover".[51]

In 2001, Western Publishing, including the Gold Key properties, was bought by Classic Media.[52] In 2012, Classic Media was bought out by DreamWorks Animation SKG and rebranded as DreamWorks Classics, who currently own the Gold Key properties.[53] On April 28, 2016, NBCUniversal acquired DreamWorks Animation for $3.8 billion.[54]

Titles include

Original series

Licensed series

References

  1. ^ a b c d Markstein, Don (2010). "Gold Key Comics". Don Markstein's Toonopedia. Archived from the original on October 29, 2015.
  2. ^ A Whitman Comic Book at the Grand Comics Database
  3. ^ Sampson, Wade (February 6, 2008). "The Biggest Disney Comic Book in the World". Mouse Planet. Archived from the original on October 29, 2015.
  4. ^ Booker, M. Keith (2014). Comics through Time: A History of Icons, Idols, and Ideas. Santa Barbara, California: Greenwood Publishing Group. p. xxviii. ISBN 978-0313397509.
  5. ^ Church, Kevin (August 27, 2013). "A Navigational Guide To 45 Years Of Star Trek Comics". ComicsAlliance. Archived from the original on September 5, 2015.
  6. ^ a b Markstein, Don (2007). "Space Family Robinson". Don Markstein's Toonopedia. Archived from the original on October 29, 2015. Gold Key didn't sue, because it had some very lucrative licensing deals going with various TV producers and didn't want to upset any apple carts.
  7. ^ Space Family Robinson Lost in Space at the Grand Comics Database.
  8. ^ Evanier, Mark (April 25, 2006). "Goodbye, Charlie!". News From ME. Archived from the original on September 5, 2015.
  9. ^ Markstein, Don (2010). "Charlton Comics". Don Markstein's Toonopedia. Archived from the original on October 31, 2015. After abandoning licensing for a decade or so, Charlton re-entered that field in 1967, by picking up the titles of King Comics — Flash Gordon, Popeye, The Phantom, Blondie, Jungle Jim, and Beetle Bailey...In 1970, most of the Hanna-Barbera characters, including Yogi Bear and The Flintstones, went from Gold Key Comics to Charlton.
  10. ^ Markstein, Don (2005). "Magnus, Robot Fighter 4000 AD". Don Markstein's Toonopedia. Archived from the original on October 31, 2015.
  11. ^ "Russell Manning". Lambiek Comiclopedia. March 22, 2015. Archived from the original on October 15, 2015. Russ Manning also created...Magnus, Robot Fighter (1963-68) for the Gold Key comic books. Especially Magnus, stood out for its excellent artwork.
  12. ^ Markstein, Don (2010). "Tiger Girl". Don Markstein's Toonopedia. Archived from the original on June 9, 2014. Tiger Girl's comic was drawn by Jack Sparling...The writer was no less a personage than Jerry Siegel, who co-created Superman himself.
  13. ^ Friedt, Stephan (October 2014). "Here Come the Microbots". Back Issue!. Raleigh, North Carolina: TwoMorrows Publishing (76): 11–13.
  14. ^ Jack Sparling at the Grand Comics Database
  15. ^ "Jack Sparling". Lambiek Comiclopedia. 2015. Archived from the original on October 2, 2015.
  16. ^ Dan Spiegle at the Grand Comics Database
  17. ^ "Dan Spiegle". Lambiek Comiclopedia. July 7, 2013. Archived from the original on September 19, 2015. He also did fillers and issues of Space Family Robinson, Magnus Robot Fighter, Maverick, Tarzan, Brothers of the Spear, Flipper, and Lassie. When Russ Manning left Dell in 1967, Spiegle took over the Korak title.
  18. ^ Evanier, Mark (June 30, 2010). "Joe Messerli, R.I.P." NewsFromMe. Archived from the original on October 29, 2015.
  19. ^ "Jesse Santos". Lambiek Comiclopedia. May 9, 2013. Archived from the original on October 5, 2015. He began an association with Western Publications in 1970...and illustrated Gold Key titles like Brothers of the Spear, Dagar, Dr. Spektor, and Tragg.
  20. ^ Markstein, Don (2007). "Doctor Spektor". Don Markstein's Toonopedia. Archived from the original on October 26, 2015. Dr. Adam Spektor, a researcher of the supernatural, was introduced in Mystery Comics Digest #5 (July, 1972)...The story was written by Don Glut...and drawn by Dan Spiegle.
  21. ^ Markstein, Don (2009). "Dagar the Invincible". Don Markstein's Toonopedia. Archived from the original on October 26, 2015. Dagar started as a non-series character, the hero of a story that writer Don Glut...wrote for Gold Key's Mystery Comics Digest.
  22. ^ Markstein, Don (2007). "Tragg and the Sky Gods". Don Markstein's Toonopedia. Archived from the original on October 26, 2015. Writer Don Glut...and artist Jesse Santos...supplied the comic, in which aliens from interstellar space had a profound effect on a tribe of Stone Age people.
  23. ^ "The Complete Works of Frank Miller". Moebiusgraphics.com. n.d. Archived from the original on September 8, 2015.
  24. ^ Lee, Stephan (November 26, 2011). "Diana Gabaldon on her favorite and least-favorite books: The EW Book Quiz!". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on October 29, 2015.
  25. ^ Evanier, Mark (October 12, 2006). "Jerry Belson, R.I.P." News From ME. Archived from the original on October 29, 2015.
  26. ^ Evanier, Mark (May 29, 2009). "More on Leo Dorfman". News From Me. Archived from the original on November 4, 2012. Retrieved November 3, 2012.
  27. ^ "Gold Key & Charlton [News]". The Comic Reader (96). April 1973. Archived from the original on March 17, 2014. Retrieved March 17, 2014.
  28. ^ Ro, Ronin (2004). Tales to Astonish: Jack Kirby, Stan Lee, and the American Comic Book Revolution. London, United Kingdom: Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 158. ISBN 978-1422359013.
  29. ^ Markstein, Don (2007). "Baby Snoots". Don Markstein's Toonopedia. Archived from the original on March 6, 2015. Baby Snoots, a Gold Key original launched with an August, 1970 cover date, was a young elephant...Snoots lasted a respectable 22 issues.
  30. ^ Markstein, Don (2007). "Wacky Witch". Don Markstein's Toonopedia. Archived from the original on October 31, 2015. Wacky ran 21 issues, ending with a December, 1975 cover date.
  31. ^ Darius, Julian (May 13, 2013). "On the Very First Star Trek #1". Sequart Organization. Archived from the original on September 12, 2015.
  32. ^ "Scott's Classic Comics Corner: Shedding Some Light on Dynabrite". Comic Book Resources. September 28, 2010. Archived from the original on June 9, 2011.
  33. ^ "The Last Word in Comics...Dynabrite!". Gold Key Comics. n.d. Archived from the original on September 5, 2015.
  34. ^ Starstream at the Grand Comics Database
  35. ^ Walt Disney Christmas Parade at the Grand Comics Database
  36. ^ Bugs Bunny Comics-Go-Round at the Grand Comics Database
  37. ^ Star Trek: The Enterprise Logs at the Grand Comics Database
  38. ^ Danhauser, Curt (n.d.). "Guide to the Gold Key Star Trek Comics". Curtdanhauser.com. Archived from the original on August 1, 2015.
  39. ^ a b Evanier, Mark (May 2, 2007). "More on Comicpacs". News From ME. Archived from the original on October 29, 2015.
  40. ^ Gunnarsson, Joakim (March 31, 2013). "The Collectors Editions that never was". Sekvenskonst. Archived from the original on May 2, 2014.
  41. ^ "Tarzan: The Jesse Marsh Years Vol. 1". Dark Horse Comics. Archived from the original on July 28, 2014. Retrieved October 7, 2012.
  42. ^ "Tarzan: The Jesse Marsh Years Vol. 2". Dark Horse Comics. Archived from the original on July 28, 2014. Retrieved October 7, 2012.
  43. ^ "Tarzan: The Jesse Marsh Years Vol. 3". Dark Horse Comics. Archived from the original on July 6, 2014. Retrieved October 7, 2012.
  44. ^ "Tarzan: The Jesse Marsh Years Vol. 4". Dark Horse Comics. Archived from the original on July 28, 2014. Retrieved October 7, 2012.
  45. ^ "Tarzan: The Russ Manning Years Vol. 1". Dark Horse Comics. Archived from the original on July 21, 2013. Retrieved October 7, 2012.
  46. ^ Manning, Shaun (July 25, 2009). "CCI: Jim Shooter Talks Gold Key at Dark Horse". Comic Book Resources. Archived from the original on June 10, 2015.
  47. ^ Weiland, Jonah (January 29, 2004). "Checker collects Gold Key Star Trek issues". Comic Book Resources. Archived from the original on October 29, 2015.
  48. ^ "Hermes to Collect Irwin Allen Comics". Newsarama. October 16, 2008. Archived from the original on October 29, 2015.
  49. ^ a b Adair, Torsten (December 10, 2011). "Coming Attractions: Fall 2011: Hermes Press". ComicsBeat. Archived from the original on September 28, 2015.
  50. ^ My Favorite Martian The Complete Series at the Grand Comics Database
  51. ^ Isabella, Tony (May 17, 2003). "Tony's Online Tips". World Famous Comics. Archived from the original on September 6, 2015. Retrieved June 20, 2014.
  52. ^ Kirkpatrick, David D. (August 16, 2001). "2 Companies Pay $84 Million for Golden Books". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Archived from the original on September 12, 2015. Retrieved June 20, 2014.
  53. ^ Kung, Michelle (July 22, 2012). "DreamWorks Buys Classics: Studio Expands Library With Staples Such as Casper, Boosting Its IP Portfolio". The Wall Street Journal. News Corporation. Archived from the original on August 14, 2015. Retrieved June 20, 2014.
  54. ^ "Comcast's NBCUniversal buys DreamWorks Animation in $3.8-billion deal". Los Angeles Times. Tribune Publishing. Retrieved April 28, 2016.
  55. ^ The Little Monsters at the Grand Comics Database.
  56. ^ Markstein, Don (2007). "The Little Monsters". Don Markstein's Toonopedia. Archived from the original on November 12, 2015. Retrieved November 12, 2015.

External links

Brothers of the Spear

"Brothers of the Spear" was a long-running backup feature in the Tarzan comic-book series created by American company Western Publishing and published first through Dell Comics and then through Gold Key Comics. Though published as part of a licensed Edgar Rice Burroughs franchise, this original series was owned by Western.

Checkmate (TV series)

Checkmate is an American detective television series created by Eric Ambler, starring Anthony George, Sebastian Cabot, and Doug McClure. The show aired on CBS Television from 1960 to 1962 for a total of 70 episodes. It was produced by Jack Benny's production company, "JaMco Productions" in co-operation with Revue Studios. Guest stars included Charles Laughton, Peter Lorre, Lee Marvin, Mickey Rooney and many other prominent performers.

Doctor Spektor

Doctor Spektor is a fictional comic book "occult detective" that appeared in Western Publishing's Gold Key Comics. Created by writer Donald F. Glut and artist Dan Spiegle, he first appeared in Mystery Comics Digest #5 (July 1972).

Donald Duck (American comic book)

Donald Duck is an American comic book magazine starring the Disney character Donald Duck and published by various publishers since 1952.

Green Hornet

The Green Hornet is a fictional masked crime-fighter created in 1936 by George W. Trendle and Fran Striker, with input from radio director James Jewell. Since his 1930s radio debut, the character has appeared in numerous serialized dramas in a wide variety of media. The Green Hornet appeared in film serials in the 1940s, a television show in the 1960s, multiple comic book series from the 1940s on, and a feature film in January 2011. The franchise is owned by Green Hornet, Inc., who license the property across a wide variety of media that includes comics, films, TV shows, radio and books. As of the 2010s, the comic-book rights are licensed to Dynamite Entertainment.

Kings Watch

Kings Watch is a bi-monthly comic book limited series written by Jeff Parker and drawn by Marc Laming. It was published by Dynamite Entertainment from September 6, 2013 to April 7, 2014. It is a crossover featuring Flash Gordon, the Phantom, and Mandrake the Magician from King Features Syndicate. The trade paperback edition was released on August 13, 2014.

Korak (character)

Korak [long "O"] is the ape name of John "Jack" Clayton III, Earl of Greystoke , the son of Tarzan and Jane Porter.

Mighty Samson

Mighty Samson was a comic book series published Gold Key Comics. A post-apocalyptic adventure, it was set in the area around New York City, now known as "N'Yark", on an Earth devastated by a nuclear war. The series was created by writer Otto Binder and artist Frank Thorne.

Scamp (comics)

Scamp is a Disney canine cartoon and comics character, the son of Lady and the Tramp, appearing in the animated movies Lady and the Tramp and Lady and the Tramp II: Scamp's Adventure, as well as in comic strips and books of his own since the 1950s. An unnamed puppy appeared in the first Lady and the Tramp that was used as the basis for the comics character.

Solar (comics)

Solar is an American fictional comic book superhero created by writer Paul S. Newman, editor Matt Murphy, and artist Bob Fujitani. The character first appeared in Doctor Solar, Man of the Atom #1 in 1962 by Gold Key Comics and has since appeared in other incarnations in books published by Valiant Comics in the 1990s, Dark Horse Comics in the 2000s, and Dynamite Entertainment in the 2010s.

Tarzan in comics

Tarzan, a fictional character created by Edgar Rice Burroughs, first appeared in the 1912 novel Tarzan of the Apes, and then in 23 sequels. The character proved immensely popular and quickly made the jump to other media, including comics.

The Flintstones (comics)

The Flintstones is a comic series spun off from The Flintstones animated series. Various comic book publishers have created their own versions.

The 2016 comic book by DC Comics reimagines the 1960s Hanna Barbera properties alongside

Scooby Apocalypse, Wacky Raceland and Future Quest.

Turok

Turok is a fictional character who first appeared in American comic books published by Western Publishing through licensee Dell Comics. He first appeared in Four Color Comics #596 (October/November 1954). After a second Four Color appearance (#656 October 1955), the character graduated to his own title – Turok, Son of Stone (#3 March–May 1956) — published by both Dell and then Gold Key Comics from 1956 to 1982. Subsequently, he appeared in titles published by Valiant Comics, Dark Horse Comics and Dynamite Comics.

The character also inspired a popular video game series, starting with Turok: Dinosaur Hunter, published by Acclaim Entertainment in 1997. Several sequels would be released in the following years for various gaming consoles.

Tweety

Tweety Bird is an animated fictional yellow canary in the Warner Bros. Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies series of animated cartoons. The name "Tweety" is a play on words, as it originally meant "sweetie", along with "tweet" being a typical English chick for the sounds of birds. His characteristics are based on Red Skelton's famous "Mean Widdle Kid." Tweety appeared in 47 cartoons during the golden age.

Twilight Zone literature

Twilight Zone literature is an umbrella term for the many books and comic books which concern or adapt The Twilight Zone television series.

Uncle Scrooge

Uncle Scrooge (stylized as Uncle $crooge) is a comic book starring Scrooge McDuck ("the richest duck in the world"), his nephew Donald Duck, and grandnephews Huey, Dewey, and Louie, and revolving around their adventures in Duckburg and around the world. It was first published in Four Color Comics #386 March 1952, as a spin-off of the popular "Donald Duck" series and is still presently ongoing. It has been produced under the aegis of several different publishers, including Western Publishing (initially in association with Dell Comics and later under its own subsidiary, Gold Key Comics and its Whitman imprint), Gladstone Publishing, Disney Comics, Gemstone Publishing, Boom! Studios, and IDW Publishing, and has undergone several hiatuses of varying length. Despite this, it has maintained the same numbering scheme throughout its six decade history, with only IDW adding a secondary numbering that started at #1.Besides Scrooge and his family, recurring characters include Gyro Gearloose, Gladstone Gander, Emily Quackfaster, and Brigitta MacBridge. Among the adversaries who make repeat appearances are the Beagle Boys, Magica De Spell, John D. Rockerduck and Flintheart Glomgold. Uncle Scrooge is one of the core titles of the "Duck universe".

Its early issues by famed writer/artist (and creator of Scrooge McDuck) Carl Barks formed the inspiration for the syndicated television cartoon DuckTales in the late 1980s. Several stories written by Barks and published in Uncle Scrooge were adapted as episodes of DuckTales.

Walt Disney's Comics and Stories

Walt Disney's Comics and Stories, sometimes abbreviated WDC or WDC&S, is an anthology comic book series featuring an assortment of Disney characters, including Donald Duck, Scrooge McDuck, Mickey Mouse, Chip 'n Dale, Lil Bad Wolf, Scamp, Bucky Bug, Grandma Duck, Brer Rabbit, Winnie the Pooh, and others.

Walt Disney Comics Digest

Walt Disney Comics Digest was one of three digest size comics published by Gold Key Comics in the early 1970s. The other two were Mystery Comics Digest and Golden Comics Digest.

Walt Disney Comics Digest was published for 57 issues from 1968 to 1976. The contents consisted (with few exceptions) of reprints, mainly from the various licensed Disney properties published by Gold Key. Most focused on the Disney animated characters (Mickey Mouse et al., Donald Duck et al., Junior Woodchucks, Uncle Scrooge, Gyro Gearloose, Chip 'n' Dale, Scamp, Peter Pan, etc.), but also included adaptions of various live action Disney films and TV shows, such as 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea, Zorro, True Life Adventures, Summer Magic, Kidnapped, and more. Besides stories, there were various text features, including puzzle pages and Minnie Mouse's Hollywood gossip column, plus reprints of Disney's panel comic strips Merry Menagerie and True Life Adventures.

It initially was 192 pages, but gradually shrunk until the last issues were only 128 pages. As distinguished from standard comics, the digest was square-bound with a glued binding. In many cases, stories were reformated to fit the digest format.

Yogi Bear

Yogi Bear is a cartoon character who has appeared in numerous comic books, animated television shows and films. He made his debut in 1958 as a supporting character in The Huckleberry Hound Show.

Yogi Bear was the first breakout character created by Hanna-Barbera and was eventually more popular than Huckleberry Hound. In January 1961, he was given his own show, The Yogi Bear Show, sponsored by Kellogg's, which included the segments Snagglepuss and Yakky Doodle. Hokey Wolf replaced his segment on The Huckleberry Hound Show. A musical animated feature film, Hey There, It's Yogi Bear!, was produced in 1964.

Yogi was one of several Hanna-Barbera characters to have a collar. This allowed animators to keep his body static, redrawing only his head in each frame when he spoke—a method that reduced the number of drawings needed for a seven-minute cartoon from around 14,000 to around 2,000.

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