Golbery do Couto e Silva

Golbery do Couto e Silva (August 21, 1911 – September 18, 1987) was a Brazilian General of the Army, who developed the Brazilian National Security Doctrine.


Golbery do Couto e Silva
Golberi do Couto e Silva, ex-ministro-chefe do Gabinete Civil da Presidência da República.
Chief of Staff of the Presidency
In office
March 15, 1974 – August 6, 1981
PresidentErnesto Geisel (1974–79)
João Figueiredo (1979–81)
Preceded byJoão Leitão de Abreu
Succeeded byJoão de Carvalho Oliveira
Minister of the Federal Court of Accounts
In office
March 30, 1967 – September 18, 1968
Appointed byArtur da Costa e Silva
Preceded byAntônio Brochado da Rocha
Succeeded byGuilhermino de Oliveira
Head of the National Intelligence Service
In office
June 25, 1964 – March 15, 1967
PresidentCastelo Branco
Preceded byPosition established
Succeeded byEmílio Garrastazu Médici
Personal details
BornAugust 21, 1911
Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
DiedSeptember 18, 1987 (aged 76)
São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
Political partyARENA

Biography

Golbery was born in Rio Grande do Sul. Admitted to the Brazilian Military School for Officers at Realengo, Rio de Janeiro, at the age of 16 in 1927, he became an officer on November 22, 1930. He served in the 9th Infantry Regiment in the Pelotas city of the State of Rio Grande do Sul.

As a lieutenant, he also served in the 6th Infantry Regiment. In May 1937 he was promoted to captain and began to serve on the National Security Council. Later he was sent to Curitiba in the state of Parana. Soon after, he was sent to Joinville, serving in the 13th Chasseurs' Brigade.

In December 1941 he began his studies at the General Staff School of the Brazilian Army. He graduated in August 1943, and in the same year was sent to the 3rd Military Region, in Porto Alegre.

He was part of the Brazilian Expeditionary Force as an Intelligence Officer during the Second World War, a post he occupied until the end of the war.

Returning to Brazil in October 1946, Captain Golbery was reassigned to the state of Rio Grande do Sul and then to Rio de Janeiro. After some years of service, he reached the rank of general.

Doctrine of National Security

In 1966 he wrote a book titled Geopolítica do Brasil (Brazilian Geopolitics) in which he argued for a doctrine of national security that would connect the state to the economy in the name of national security. This book greatly influenced the armed forces during the military dictatorship in Brazil.[1][2]

He died, aged 76, in São Paulo.

References

  1. ^ The relevance of Golbery do Couto e Silva (in Portuguese)
  2. ^ Rethinking Golbery (in Portuguese)
1911 in Brazil

Events in the year 1911 in Brazil.

Academia Militar das Agulhas Negras

The Academia Militar das Agulhas Negras (AMAN, "Black Needles Military Academy" - named after the Agulhas Negras summit) is the biggest among several schools of formation of combatant officers of the Brazilian Army. It originated in 1792 with the creation of the Royal Academy of Artillery, Fortification and Drawing - first military school of the Americas - in the city of Rio de Janeiro. Today the Academy is located in the city of Resende, in the state of Rio de Janeiro.

Artur da Costa e Silva

Artur da Costa e Silva (Portuguese: [aʁˈtuʁ dɐ ˈkɔstɐ i ˈsiɫvɐ]; October 3, 1899 – December 17, 1969) was a Brazilian Army General and the second President of the Brazilian military government that came to power after the 1964 coup d'état. He reached the rank of Marshal of the Brazilian Army, and held the post of Minister of War in the military government of President Castelo Branco.

During his term in office Institutional Act 5 was promulgated. This law gave the President powers to dismiss the National Congress, strip politicians of their offices of power, and institutionalize repressive methods of rule against left-wing parties and individuals. Costa e Silva's government started the most oppressive stage of the military regime against opposition, left-wing activists and suspected communists, which would be continued and expanded under his successor Emílio Garrastazu Médici.

Brazil

Brazil (Portuguese: Brasil Portuguese pronunciation: [bɾaˈziw]), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: República Federativa do Brasil, listen ), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles) and with over 208 million people, Brazil is the world's fifth-largest country by area and the fifth most populous. The capital is Brasília, and the most populated city is São Paulo. The federation is composed of the union of the 26 states, the Federal District, and the 5,570 municipalities. It is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language and the only one in the Americas; it is also one of the most multicultural and ethnically diverse nations, due to over a century of mass immigration from around the world.Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Brazil has a coastline of 7,491 kilometers (4,655 mi). It borders all other South American countries except Ecuador and Chile and covers 47.3% of the continent's land area. Its Amazon River basin includes a vast tropical forest, home to diverse wildlife, a variety of ecological systems, and extensive natural resources spanning numerous protected habitats. This unique environmental heritage makes Brazil one of 17 megadiverse countries, and is the subject of significant global interest and debate regarding deforestation and environmental protection.

Brazil was inhabited by numerous tribal nations prior to the landing in 1500 of explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral, who claimed the area for the Portuguese Empire. Brazil remained a Portuguese colony until 1808, when the capital of the empire was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro. In 1815, the colony was elevated to the rank of kingdom upon the formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves. Independence was achieved in 1822 with the creation of the Empire of Brazil, a unitary state governed under a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary system. The ratification of the first constitution in 1824 led to the formation of a bicameral legislature, now called the National Congress. The country became a presidential republic in 1889 following a military coup d'état. An authoritarian military junta came to power in 1964 and ruled until 1985, after which civilian governance resumed. Brazil's current constitution, formulated in 1988, defines it as a democratic federal republic. Due to its rich culture and history, the country ranks thirteenth in the world by number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.Brazil is considered an advanced emerging economy. It has the eighth largest GDP in the world by both nominal and PPP measures. It is one of the world's major breadbaskets, being the largest producer of coffee for the last 150 years. It is classified as an upper-middle income economy by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country, with the largest share of global wealth in Latin America. Brazil is a regional power and sometimes considered a great or a middle power in international affairs. On account of its international recognition and influence, the country is subsequently classified as an emerging power and a potential superpower by several analysts. Brazil is a founding member of the United Nations, the G20, BRICS, Union of South American Nations, Mercosul, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States and the Community of Portuguese Language Countries.

Ernesto Geisel

Ernesto Beckmann Geisel (Portuguese pronunciation: [eɾˈnɛstu ˈbɛkmɐ̃ ˈɡajzew], German pronunciation: [ɛɐ̯ˈnesto ˈbɛkman ˈɡaɪzl̩]; August 3, 1907 – September 12, 1996) was a Brazilian Army officer and politician, who was President of Brazil from 1974 to 1979, during the Brazilian military government.

List of Brazilians

This is a list of Brazilians, people in some way notable that were either born in Brazil or immigrants to Brazil (citizens or permanent residents), grouped by their area of notability.

List of physically disabled politicians

The following is a list of politicians who hold or held office while having a significant physical disability.

Military dictatorship in Brazil

The Brazilian military government was the authoritarian military dictatorship that ruled Brazil from April 1, 1964 to March 15, 1985. It began with the 1964 coup d'état led by the Armed Forces against the administration of President João Goulart—who, having been vice-president, had assumed the office of president upon the resignation of the democratically elected president Jânio Quadros—and ended when José Sarney took office on March 15, 1985 as President. The military revolt was fomented by Magalhães Pinto, Adhemar de Barros, and Carlos Lacerda (who had already participated in the conspiracy to depose Getúlio Vargas in 1945), Governors of Minas Gerais, São Paulo, and Guanabara. The coup was also supported by the Embassy and State Department of the United States.The military dictatorship lasted for almost twenty-one years; despite initial pledges to the contrary, the military government, in 1967, enacted a new, restrictive Constitution, and stifled freedom of speech and political opposition. The regime adopted nationalism, economic development, and Anti-Communism as its guidelines.

The dictatorship reached the height of its popularity in the 1970s with the so-called "Brazilian Miracle", even as the regime censored all media, and tortured and exiled dissidents. João Figueiredo became President in March 1979; in the same year he passed the Amnesty Law for political crimes committed for and against the regime. While combating the "hardline" members of the regime and supporting a re-democratization policy, he couldn't control the crumbling economy, chronic inflation and concurrent fall of other military dictatorships in South America. Amid massive popular demonstrations in the streets of the main cities of the country, the first free elections in 20 years were held for the national legislature in 1982. In 1985, another election was held, this time to elect (indirectly) a new president, being contested between civilian candidates for the first time since the 1960s, which was won by the opposition. In 1988, a new Constitution was passed and Brazil returned to democracy. Since then, the military has remained under control of civilian politicians, with no official role in domestic politics.

Brazil's military regime provided a model for other military regimes and dictatorships around Latin America, systematizing the “Doctrine of National Security”, which "justified" the military's actions as operating in the interest of national security in a time of crisis, creating an intellectual basis upon which other military regimes relied. In 2014, nearly 30 years after the regime collapsed, the Brazilian military recognized for the first time the excesses committed by its agents during the years of the dictatorship, including the torture and murder of political dissidents. In May 2018, the United States government released a memorandum, written by Henry Kissinger (who was Secretary of State at that time), dating back to April 1974, confirming that the leadership of the Brazilian military regime was fully aware of the killing of dissidents. It is estimated that 434 people were either confirmed killed or went missing (not to be seen again) during the military dictatorship in Brazil. Though some human rights activists and others point out that this number can be much higher, the armed forces have always disputed those figures.

Ministry of Justice and Public Security (Brazil)

The Ministry of Justice and Public Security (Portuguese: Ministério da Justiça e Segurança Pública), previously known as Ministry of Justice (Portuguese: Ministério da Justiça) and Minitry of Justice and Citizenship (Portuguese: Ministério da Justiça e Cidadania), is a cabinet-level federal ministry in Brazil. The current Minister of Justice and Public Security is Sérgio Moro.

National Intelligence Service of Brazil

The Serviço Nacional de Informações, or SNI (National Information Service) of Brazil was formed by the Castelo Branco government in 1964. SNI was disbanded for a time and later resumed operations under the name Agência Brasileira de Inteligência.

Silva

Silva, de Silva and da Silva are surnames in Portuguese-speaking countries, such as Portugal and Brazil. It is derived from the Latin word silva, meaning 'forest' or 'woodland'.

It is also widespread in Portuguese-speaking regions of Spain (mostly in Galicia) and even more widespread in regions of the former Portuguese Empire in the Americas (being the most common surname in Brazil), in Africa and Asia, notably in India and Sri Lanka. (See also: Luso-Indian, Portuguese in Sri Lanka)

Movement of people has led to the name being used in many places. Due to emigration from Portuguese-speaking countries, Silva (and the variants Da Silva and De Silva) is the fifth most common surname in the French department of Val-de-Marne, outside Paris, and it was the 19th most common family name given to newborns between 1966 and 1990 in France. (See: Portuguese in France)

It is also the 7th most common surname (and the most common non-German, non-French) in Luxembourg. (See: Portuguese Luxembourger)

It is also among the top 20 surnames in Andorra, Angola, Cape Verde

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