Golaghat district

Golaghat district (Pron:ˌgəʊləˈgɑ:t) is an administrative district in the state of Assam in India. It attained district status in 1987. The district headquarters are located at Golaghat. The district occupies an area of 3502 km² and lies 100 m above sea level. As of 2001, Golaghat district has a population of 946,279. Hindus 813,263, Muslims 74,808 (7.9%), Christians 52,277. World famous Kaziranga National Park is situated in Golaghat district.

Golaghat district
District location in Assam
District location in Assam
Country India
StateAssam
DivisionUpper Assam
HeadquartersGolaghat
Area
 • Total3,502 km2 (1,352 sq mi)
Population
(2011)
 • Total946,279
Time zoneUTC+05:30 (IST)
Websitegolaghat.gov.in

Etymology

The name 'Golaghat' originated from the markets established by a business class of people called 'Marwari' (who have their origins in Rajasthan) during the middle of 19th century at the bank of the river Dhansiri in the vicinity of the district headquarters. "Gola" means market and "Ghat" means the port of river transport.

History

Inscription on rocks of Nagajari Khanikar village of Sarupathar, remnants of fortifications, brick structures, monuments, temples, tanks, etc. are evidence of a 9th-century kingdom in the Doyang-Dhansiri valley. The Ahoms were the rulers of the Doyang-Dhansiri valley in the 16th century. Earlier, this part was ruled by the Kacharis known as Herombial. The Kacharis were pushed back towards west of the Karbi Hills. The Ahom King appointed a ruler entitled 'Morongi-Khowa Gohain', an administrative post with the Rank of a Governor/Minister of the Ahom administration. Under Morongi-Khowa Gohain, large number of people from different parts of Ahom kingdom were settled in erstwhile Kachari Kingdom. An interesting aspect of such settlement was that a large number of people from different castes/communities were mixed up together so that there was remote chance of rebellion in such newly acquired territory. Most of the Morongi-Khowa Gohains were appointed from the Burhagohain families although there were few exceptions. The Numaligarh was a Fort built by Numal Gohain, a young Ahom prince, which served as the administrative headquarters of the 'Morongi-Khowa Gohain' and also as a border trade post with the Nagas, Kacharis, Dimasas and other such hill people.

Later, when the British took control of Assam, the Doyang-Dhansiri valley was incorporated under the newly formed Golaghat subdivision of the Sibsagar district in 1846. Golaghat district played an active part in the freedom struggle of India. Kushal Konwar, Kamala Miri, Dwariki Das, Biju Vaishnav, Sankar Chandra Barua, Shri Tara Prasad Barooah, Rajendra Nath Barua, Gaurilal Jain, Ganga Ram Bormedhi and Dwarikanath Goswami are eminent freedom fighters of the region.

Golaghat was raised to the position of a district of Assam on 15 August 1987, when it was split from Sibsagar district.[1]

Geography

Golaghat district occupies an area of 3,502 square kilometres (1,352 sq mi),[2] comparatively equivalent to the Bahamas' North Andros Island.[3]

Location

Golaghat district is surrounded by the river Brahmaputra to the north, the state of Nagaland to the south, Jorhat district to the east and Karbi Anglong and Nagaon district to the west. Dhansiri is the principal river, which originates from Laisang peak of Nagaland. It streams through a distance of 352 km from south to north before joining the Brahmaputra. Its catchment area is 1220 km². Doyang, Nambor, Doigrung and Kalioni are the four rivulets of the Dhansiri. The river Kakodonga marks the border between Golaghat and Jorhat districts.

National protected area

Climate

The climate is tropical with a hot and humid weather prevailing most of the summer and monsoon months. Total average annual rainfall is 1300 mm. Maximum precipitation occurs in June and July. Maximum temperature is 38.0 °C in June and minimum temperature is 8.0 °C in December.

Economy

The economy of Golaghat district (Gola) is agriculture-based. Tea, rice and sugar cane are the main agricultural crops grown in the district, with tea being is the largest agricultural industry. There are 63 large tea gardens producing about 20,000 tonnes of tea per year. Moreover, the emergence of small tea growers has proclaimed a new improvement in the district. Small-scale tea growers have gotten considerable fame here because of large incomes compared to other high-land crops. It has caught the desire of unemployed people to take owning tea-gardens as their profession. The rearing and reeling of muga and endi, the making of Japi (headgear) and earthen potential and the extraction of agaru oil are the cottage industries prevalent in Golaghat district. Quality muga silk and agaru oil in Golaghat district are well known in the state. Long-neck earthen potential made in Dhekial, especially for storing molasses, is unique in the world. 'Japi' of Naharani, Dergaon finds a market in the entire Brahmaputra valley.

Numaligarh Refinery Limited (NRL) is the only major heavy industry in the district. Numaligarh Refinery, situated in Morangi, is engineered to process 3.0 million tonnes per year of indigenous crude oil, adopting innovated technologies. Numaligarh Refinery was custom-built in October, 2000 as the latest multi-faceted refinery in the country, having up-to-the-minute facilities and an intricacy measuring 6.67 on the Nelson complexity index, which is the highest among the public sector refineries. NRL has achieved global standards by obtaining certification of its Quality, Environment and Occupational Health & Safety Management Systems. It has already adopted Hydrocracker technology to enhance the production of middle distillates.

Divisions

There are four Assam Legislative Assembly constituencies in this district: Bokakhat, Sarupathar, Golaghat, and Khumtai.[4] All four are in the Kaliabor Lok Sabha constituency.[5]

Administration

Within the merged establishment of the Deputy Commissioner, Golaghat are the Offices of the Sub-Divisional Officers, Dhansiri and Bokakhat. There are multiple functions and issues looked after by the Deputy Commissioner's office from its headquarters. The branches of the Office of the Deputy Commissioner are rationalized as Administration, Civil Defence, Confidential, Development, Election, Excise, Home Guards, Magisterial, Nazarat, Personnel, Registration, Revenue, Supply, Treasury and Zila Sainik Board. The Courts of District and Session Judge are also located in its headquarters at Golaghat.

Demographics

According to the 2011 census Golaghat district has a population of 1,058,674,[6] roughly equal to the nation of Cyprus[7] or the US state of Rhode Island.[8] This gives it a ranking of 430th in India (out of a total of 640).[6] The district has a population density of 302 inhabitants per square kilometre (780/sq mi) .[6] Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 11.88%.[6] Golaghat has a sex ratio of 961 females for every 1000 males,[6] and a literacy rate of 78.31%.[6]

Hindus 813,263, Muslims 74,808 (7.9%), Christians 52,277. The main communities of the districts are the Chutiya, Tea tribes, Ahom,Kalita, Assamese Brahmins, Mising and Kachari. There is also a small population of Turung and Aiton people living in the district. Migrant communities like Marwari, Indian Gorkhas and Bengali live in the townships.

Territorial dispute

Around 420 sq.km area of Golaghat district is under occupation by the state of Nagaland (Merapani region). There were major conflicts between the two sides in 1979 and 1985, with 54 and 41 deaths respectively. Almost all the deaths were from the Assamese side and the attackers included NSCN militants and Nagaland police[9].

Culture

Golaghat district crowns many literary intellects who have made outstanding contributions to Assamese literature. The most prominent writer of the 19th century who hailed from Golaghat was Hem Chandra Barua, the writer of first Assamese dictionary Hemkosh. Raghunath Mahanta, Satradhikar of Doyang Alengi Satra of Golaghat, was another writer of 19th century who composed three masterpieces, namely Shatrunjoy Kavya, Adbhoot Ramayan and Katha Ramayan. One significant poet of the Ahom age was Durgeswar Dwiji. He composed a book titled Sangkhosur Badh. Hem Chandra Goswami is regarded as one of the most exceptional writers of the late 19th century and early twentieth century. He is the first sonnet writer of Assamese language. The credit of first Assamese poetess plus first Assamese short story writer amongst women went to Yamuneswari Khatoniar of Golaghat. Her collection of verses called Arun was the first book written by a woman poet.

Raibahadur Ghanashyam Barua of Golaghat, who was also famous in the field of politics as the first Central Minister of Assam, translated William Shakespeare's The Comedy of Errors into the Assamese language along with three of his partners. Kamal Chandra Sarma of Golaghat enjoyed the influential position of secretary of 'Asomiya Bhasa Unnoti Sadhini Sabha'. Syed Abdul Malik, the invincible writer of Assamese literature, belongs to the village of Nahoroni in Golaghat. He was the president of Assam Sahitya Sabha. Malik received many exalted prizes, including Sahitya Akademy, Sankar Dev Award, Xahityacharyya, etc.

Other people from Golaghat who marked their names as great writers of Assamese literature include Surendranath Saikia, Hari Parsad Barua, Kirtinath Hazarika, Dr Nagen Saikia, Dr Debo Prasad Barooah, Nilamoni Phukan, Samir Tanti, Lakhikanta Mahanta, Purna Chandra Goswami, Dr Upen Kakoty, Lolit Barua, Golap Khound and Premadhar Dutta. The Golaghat Sahitya Sabha is one of the oldest congresses of Assam Sahitya Sabha, started in 1918.

Flora and fauna

In 1974 Golaghat district became home to Kaziranga National Park, which has an area of 472 km2 (182.2 sq mi).[10] It shares the park with Nagaon district. It also home to Nambor - Doigrung Wildlife Sanctuary.

References

  1. ^ Law, Gwillim (2011-09-25). "Districts of India". Statoids. Retrieved 2011-10-11.
  2. ^ Srivastava, Dayawanti et al. (ed.) (2010). "States and Union Territories: Assam: Government". India 2010: A Reference Annual (54th ed.). New Delhi, India: Additional Director General, Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting (India), Government of India. p. 1116. ISBN 978-81-230-1617-7.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  3. ^ "Island Directory Tables: Islands by Land Area". United Nations Environment Program. 1998-02-18. Retrieved 2011-10-11. North Andros Island 3,439
  4. ^ "List of Assembly Constituencies showing their Revenue & Election District wise break - up" (PDF). Chief Electoral Officer, Assam website. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 March 2012. Retrieved 26 September 2011.
  5. ^ "List of Assembly Constituencies showing their Parliamentary Constituencies wise break - up" (PDF). Chief Electoral Officer, Assam website. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 March 2012. Retrieved 26 September 2011.
  6. ^ a b c d e f "District Census 2011". Census2011.co.in. 2011. Retrieved 2011-09-30.
  7. ^ US Directorate of Intelligence. "Country Comparison:Population". Retrieved 2011-10-01. Cyprus 1,120,489 July 2011 est.
  8. ^ "2010 Resident Population Data". U. S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 2011-07-21. Retrieved 2011-09-30. Rhode Island 1,052,567
  9. ^ https://indianexpress.com/article/india/india-others/explained-assam-vs-nagaland-a-border-dispute-of-five-decades/
  10. ^ Indian Ministry of Forests and Environment. "Protected areas: Assam". Archived from the original on August 23, 2011. Retrieved September 25, 2011.

External links

Coordinates: 26°00′N 93°00′E / 26.0°N 93.0°E

Atul Bora

{{Infobox officeholder

| honorific-prefix =

| name = Atul Bora

| image =

| caption =

| office = Member of Assam Legislative AssemblyBokakhatconstituency

| term_start = 2016

| term_end =

| majority =

| predecessor = Arun Phukan

| successor = incumbent

| constituency = Bokakhat constituency

|office1 = Minister of Agriculture, Horticulture and Food Processing, Animal Husbandry and Veterinary, Urban Development, Town and Country Planning

|term_start1 = 24 May 2016

| office2 = President Asom Gana Parishad

| term start2 = 15 July, 2014

| term end2 =

| predecessor2 = Prafulla Kumar Mahanta

| office3 = Member of Assam Legislative Assembly

Golaghat constituency

| predecessor3 = Nagen Neog

| successor3 = Ajanta Neog

|term_start3 = 1996

|term_end3 = 2001

|office4 = Working President Asom Gana Parishad

| successor4 = [[Keshab Mahanta】]

|term_start3 = 2011

|term_end3 = 2014

| (1960-04-07) 7 April 1960

|birth_place = Borahi Gaon, Golaghat district, Assam

|occupation = Politician

|spouse = Bulbuli Baruah

|children =

|party = Asom Gana Parishad

|alma_mater = Gauhati University

|profession =

| nationality = Indian

|sibling =

|website =

}}

Atul Bora is an Indian politician from Assam belonging to a regional party, Asom Gana Parishad. In July 2014 he was elected president of the party. Currently he is the Minister for Agriculture, Veterinary and Irrigation in the Cabinet of Assam Government headed by Sarbananda Sonowal.

Barpathar

Barpathar is a town and a town area committee in Golaghat district in the state of Assam, India.

Bokakhat

Bokakhat (IPA: ˌbəʊkəˈkɑːt) is a town and a Municipality Board in Golaghat district in the state of Assam, India. It is about 23 km away from the world heritage site Kaziranga National Park. Bokakhat town is situated almost in the middle of Assam. It is the headquarters of Bokakhat subdivision. The town is base to many nearby tourist places and is well connected to other cities and towns by road. The Kaipho Langso waterfall, an important picnic spot surrounded with magnificent views, lies in Karbi Anglong 13 km away from Bokakhat. Other nearby attractions include the ruins of the ancient Numaligarh and the Deoparbat, the tea gardens of Hatikhuli, Methoni, Diffloo Behora & Borsapori and also the coffee and rubber plantations. The nearest airports are at Jorhat and Guwahati. The nearest railway stations are Badulipar and Furkating.

Dergaon

Dergaon (IPA: ˈdɜːˌgɑ̃ʊ) is a small town and a municipality in the Golaghat district of Assam, India.

Hemchandra Barua, the compiler of Hemkosh (the earliest Assamese-English dictionary) was from Dergaon.

Dhansiri River

Dhansiri is the main river of Golaghat District of Assam and the Dimapur District of Nagaland. It originates from Laisang peak of Nagaland. It flows through a distance of 352 kilometres (219 mi) from south to north before joining the Brahmaputra on its south bank. Its total catchment area is 1,220 square kilometres (470 sq mi).While flowing as the boundary between Karbi Anglong and Nagaland, it flanks a large wilderness very rich in wildlife. On one side is the Dhansiri Reserved Forest and on the other Intanki National Park.It has several types of important wood bearing trees along its bank like Intanki Forest. Dhansari river along with Kapili by headward erosion has completely isolated the Mikir hills from the Peninsular plateau. There are numerous perennially waterlogged swampy region locally known as bils associated with this river.

Furkating Junction railway station

Furkating is the main railway junction in the Golaghat district in the state of Assam in India.

Golaghat

Golaghat (, Golāghāṭa, Assamese pronunciation: [ɡʊlaɡʱat]; one of the largest subdivisions of Assam, later elevated to the position of a full–fledged district headquarter on 15 August 1987, is a city, and a municipality, and the seat of administrative operations of Golaghat district, besides being a sister city to Jorhat which is about 55 km away. It is one of the oldest urban areas in Assam that recently made its way to the Smart Cities nominations' list, along with Guwahati and four other prominent urban areas of the state, although losing out to Guwahati at the final stage. The Dhansiri, one of the tributaries of the Brahmaputra passes through Golaghat and is the primary water source for its citizens.

One of the earliest tea urban centres in Assam that has been the headquarters of the oldest subdivision for over 181–182 years since 1839, Golaghat was raised to the level of a District in the year 1987. The local government body, Golaghat Municipal Board (GMB), was established in 1920, and is one of the earliest civic bodies of the state of Assam formed before Indian Independence of 1947 that has been responsible for the civic infrastructure and administration of the city of Golaghat. It is a historical body in terms of its age that has been in operation since 1920.

Golaghat has the earliest post/mail service and telegraphic communication systems in Assam dating back to 1876. It has the oldest social – literature/rhetorical congresses of Assam – the Golaghat Sahitya Sabha, of Asam Sahitya Sabha, started in 1918. The Golaghat Amateur Theatre Society (GATS), is one of the oldest theatre societies that was established in 1895 to uplift the dramatic and cultural activities in the state of Assam, particularly in Golaghat. The Golaghat Bar Association (GBA), established in 1891, is one of the oldest legal societies in Assam, especially in the Upper – Assam division.

Golaghat has a number of heritage buildings and sites – the Golaghat British Cemetery, established in 1876, the Bezbaruah Higher Secondary School, set up in the late 19th century in the year 1886 by the educationalist Dinanath Bezbarua, the Baptist Church founder by American missionaries in 1898, the Mission School set–up by British missionaries in 1919, Assam's first department store – Doss & Co., constructed in 1930, and incorporated under the Registrar of Companies (RoC) – Shillong in the year 1955 to name a few.Assam's first major political party, the AGP was formed here and launched in the year 1985 at the historic Golaghat Convention and by 2008, the same members of the historic Golaghat convention reunified the party at this place.It is the only place in Assam to have Sports Authority of India – Sports Training Centre (STC) after Guwahati. The place is also the headquarters of The North Eastern Tea Association (NETA), one of the tea growers' groups in the state of Assam, a constituent member of Consultative Committee of Plantation Associations (CCPA), Assam Valley branch.Golaghat has played a significant role in the tea industry of Assam and there is a saying that one can’t make bad tea in the Golaghat belt. The small tea growers’ movement was also started from Golaghat. As per the latest statistics, Golaghat has the third highest number of small tea growers (STGs) and third highest number of bought leaf factories (BLFs) in Assam.

Golaghat British Cemetery

The Golaghat British Cemetery is a cemetery in India located on the premises opposite to Cally Coomer Doss & Co., adjacent to the circle office of Assam Power Distribution Company Limited at Golaghat, Assam. It is Assam's one of the oldest burial grounds dating back to India's pre-independence era, containing 28 burials of British officers of tea estates and their families, and is open for public viewing.The oldest grave in the cemetery is that of Capt. John Butler, then political agent who died at the age of 33 on January 7, 1876. Butler was one of the first British officers to lead expeditions to the Naga and Manipur hills. The cemetery also houses the grave of John Gordon McIntosh, then manager of Bukhial tea estate, who died in a plane crash on May 12, 1957. McIntosh, nicknamed Mac, had his own personal Aeronca chief single engine propeller airplane which he would fly himself, accompanied by his German shepherd.Golaghat Municipal Board currently maintains the cemetery premises, besides preventing any land encroachment near the cemetery.

Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya, Golaghat

Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya, Golaghat is a CBSE affiliated school in Golaghat district of Assam under the Shillong region of Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti (NVS). One of 557 JNVs known for its academics, spread all over India by the Government of India. It is located 13 km from Golaghat town. This school is a residence school and all facilities to the students is free of cost. The entrance test for admission into 6th and 9th class of Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya, Golaghat is being conducted by the Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti. The school is affiliated to CBSE. There are classes being conducted from 6th standard to 12th standard. Currently, the Vice Principal is Mr. Manmohan Choudhary.

Kohora

Kohora is a small town situated in the Golaghat district of Assam. It is the main entrance of the world-famous Kaziranga National Park. It lies on the National Highway 37(Asean Highway 1). Kohora Lies Between Nagaon And Golaghat.

Munin Barua

Munin Barua (Assamese: মুনিন বৰুৱা; 5 November 1946 – 7 April 2018) was an Indian film director in Assamese cinematography. Among his best known films are Pita-Putro, Prabhati Pokhir Gaan, Hiya Diya Niya, Daag, Nayak, Bidhata. Barua is widely regarded in Assam to have been one of the directors who helped popularize and establish Assamese cinema outside the state, primarily elsewhere in India where other industries had historically dominated. In 2000, his film Hiya Diya Niya became a first 'blockbuster hit' in Assamese cinema, which helped revive the Assamese film industry. Another film, Dinabandhoo, received National Film Award for Best Feature Film in Assamese in 2005. One of his masterpieces Dinabandhu is available to watch online on Movietonne.

He died on 7 April 2018, at the age of 71 in Guwahati.

Nagajari-Khanikargaon rock inscription

The Nagajari-Khanikargaon rock inscription is a 5th-century land grant discovered in the Nagajari area of the Golaghat district. The artifact is fragmentary, with inscriptions in Sanskrit written in the eastern variety of the Brahmi script. In style, language, and script, the inscription is very similar to the Umachal and Barganga rock inscriptions. This is the only inscription among the Kamarupa inscriptions that distinguishes between the b (ব) and v (ৱ) letters. Additionally, since it betrays no influence of a local Prakrit, this inscription is often placed earlier than the Umachal rock inscription. It also avers to the fact that Aryan culture had spread to the Golaghat region by the 5th century.

Nambor - Doigrung Wildlife Sanctuary

Nambor - Doigrung Wildlife Sanctuary (Assamese: নামবৰ দৈগ্ৰুং অভয়াৰণ্য) is a Morangi located in Golaghat district of Assam in India. This wildlife sanctuary covers an area of 97.15 km2. It is located 25 km from Golaghat town and about 318 km from Guwahati LGBI Airport. The forest type is tropical semi-evergreen with pockets of pure evergreen, interspersed with small forest marshes. The area was declared as a Wildlife sanctuary in 2003. The sanctuary along with Garampani Wildlife Sanctuary (6 km2) and Nambor Wildlife Sanctuary (37 km2) are a part of the Kaziranga-Karbi Anglong Elephant Reserve, which was declared on 17 April 2003, with an estimated area of 3,270 km2.

Negheriting Shiva Doul

The Negheriting Shiva Doul is a Shiva temple in Dergaon, Assam. Situated on a hillock at about one and half km north from the National Highway 37 in the Golaghat district of Assam, the temple was first constructed by the Kacharis during 8th – 9th century AD. Later due to natural calamities it came into destruction. In 1687 it was re-constructed by Ahom king Swargadeo Rajeswar Singha. The famous architect assigned to the job was Ghanashyam Khonikar.

Nilmani Phookan Jr

Nilmani Phookan (born 1933) is an Indian poet in Assamese language and an academic. His work, replete with symbolism, is inspired by French symbolism and is representative of the genre in Assamese poetry. His notable works include Surya Henu Nami Ahe Ei Nodiyedi, Gulapi Jamur Lagna, and Kobita.He was awarded the 1981 Sahitya Akademi Award in Assamese for his poetry collection, Kavita (Kobita). He was awarded the Padma Shri by Government of India in 1990, and received the Sahitya Akademi Fellowship, the highest literary honor in India, given by Sahitya Akademi, India's National Academy of Letters in 2002.

Numaligarh

Numaligarh is a town in the Golaghat district of Assam, India. It is situated at a distance of 32 km from Golaghat town, 265 km from Guwahati, 51 km from Jorhat and 6 km from Morangi.

Numaligarh Refinery

The Numaligarh Refinery is located at Morangi, Golaghat district, Assam in India is a refinery owned by Numaligarh Refinery Limited, a joint venture between Bharat Petroleum (61.65%), Oil India (26%) and Govt of Assam (12.35%).It has a capacity of 3 million metric tonnes per year.

Sarupathar

Sarupathar is a town and the Sub-Divisional headquarter of Dhansiri Sub-Division in Golaghat district in the state of Assam, India.

Syed Abdul Malik

Syed Abdul Malik (1919–2000) was a notable writer of Assamese literature, from the village of Nahoroni in Golaghat. He was a president of Asam Sahitya Sabha.

Malik received many prizes, including Padmashri, Padma Bhusan, Sahitya Akademi Award, Sankar Dev Award, Xahityacharyya, etc. Malik won Sahitya Akademi Award in 1972 for his novel Aghari Atmar Kahini (Tale of a Nomadic Soul).

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