Gokula

Gokula Singh (also known as Gokal or Gokul Singh Jat; died 1670 AD) was a Jat zamindar of Tilpat, in what is now the state of Haryana, India.[1] The second of four sons born to Madu, his birthname was Ola.[2] Gokula provided leadership to the Jat peasants who challenged the power of the Mughal Empire.

The first serious outbreak of anti-imperial reaction took place among the Jats of Mathura district, who had been oppressed by the imperial faujdar, Abdun-Nabi. In 1669, the Jat peasantry rose under the leadership of Gokula, resulting in the death of the faujdar. The freedom of the district could not be maintained for more than a year, and they were suppressed by Hasan Ali Khan, the new faujdar, who was aided by the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb. Gokula was put to death.[3]

Gokula Singh left Sinsini

Around 1650-51, Madu and his uncle Singha had fought against the Rajput ruler Jai Singh I with Mughal support. During the warfare, Sindhuraj died and thus Madu's second son, Ola, became his successor. After this war, Singha along with Ola and Jat families in the fortress of Girsa, moved beyond the River Yamuna to Mahavan.[2]

Rebellion

In early 1669, Aurangzeb appointed a strong follower of Islam, Abdunnabi, as faujdar of Mathura to curb the Hindus of the area. Abdunnabi established a cantonment near Gokul Singh and conducted all his operations from there. Gokula Singh organised the farmers to withhold taxes from the Mughals, which caused the rulers to retaliate. Meanwhile, Aurangzeb issued orders on 9 April 1669 to abolish the Hindu temples, which led to a large number of Hindu temples and ancient heritage from the period of Kushans to be damaged.[4]

Although dominated and led by Jats, the rebel forces led by Gokula Singh included other local communities such as the Mev, Meena, Ahir, Gujjar, Naruka, and Panwar.[5] They gathered at the village of Sahora where, During May 1669, Abdunnabi was killed while attempting to seize it. Gokula and his fellow farmers moved further, attacking and destroying the Sadabad cantonment. This inspired the Hindus to fight against the Mughal rulers.[6] The fighting continued for five months.[7][8]

Battle of Tilpat

In 1669, Gokula Singh with 20,000 followers rushed forward to face the Mughals 20 miles from Tilpat. Abdunnabi attacked them. At first he appeared to be gaining ground, but in the middle of the fighting he was killed on 12 May 1669 (21st Zil-Hijja, 1079 A.H.).[9] [10] Both sides suffered many casualties but the rebels could not cope with the trained Mughals and their artillery. They retreated to Tilpat, where Hasan Ali followed and besieged them with the reinforcement of 1000 Musketeers, 1000 Rocketmen, and 25 artillery pieces. Amanulla, the Faujdar of the environs of Agra were also sent to reinforce Hasan Ali. Fighting continued for three days in which muskets and bows were used by the contestants. On the fourth day, the mughal charged the jats from all sides and having made a breach in the walls entered Tilpat.[11] Aurangzeb marched on 28 November 1669 from Delhi to curb the Jat threat. The Mughals under Hasan Alikhan and Brahmdev Sisodia attacked Gokula Singh.[12]

Death

Gokula Singh and his two associates were captured alive through the efforts of Shaikh Razi-ud-Din, the peshkar of Hassan Ali. They and other prisoners were presented to the Emperor. Being furious, he ordered Gokula Singh and Uday Singh to be hacked to death at Agra Kotwali on 1 January 1670. Other captives either met fate of their leader or were put in chains.[13]

See also

References

  1. ^ Habib, Irfan (2002). "Forms of Class Struggle in Mughal India". Essays in Indian History: Towards a Marxist Perception ; With, The Economic History of Medieval India: a Survey. Anthem Press. p. 251. ISBN 978-1-84331-025-9.
  2. ^ a b Narendra Singh Verma: Virvar Amar Jyoti Gokul Singh (Hindi), Sankalp Prakashan, Agra, 1986, p. 5
  3. ^ R. C. Majumdar, H.C. Raychaudhari, Kalikinkar Datta: An Advanced History of India, 2006, p.490
  4. ^ Narendra Singh Verma: Virvar Amar Jyoti Gokul Singh (Hindi), Sankalp Prakashan, Agra, 1986, p. 33
  5. ^ Ganga Singh, op. cit., I, p. 64-65
  6. ^ Narendra Singh Verma: Virvar Amar Jyoti Gokul Singh (Hindi), Sankalp Prakashan, Agra, 1986, p. 34
  7. ^ Narendra Singh Verma: Virvar Amar Jyoti Gokul Singh (Hindi), Sankalp Prakashan, Agra, 1986, p. 35
  8. ^ Sen, Sailendra (2013). A Textbook of Medieval Indian History. Primus Books. p. 188. ISBN 978-9-38060-734-4.
  9. ^ Sarkar, Jadunath. "Maasir-i-Alamgiri A history of emperor Aurangzeb Alamgir". AhleSunnah Library. Archived from the original on 11 November 2014. Retrieved 19 November 2015.
  10. ^ Ojha, Dhirendra Nath. Aristocracy in medieval India. Orient Publications. p. 100. Retrieved 28 August 2007.
  11. ^ Sharma, Gautam (1990). Valour and Sacrifice: Famous Regiments of the Indian Army. Allied Publishers. pp. 152–153. ISBN 9788170231400. Retrieved 19 November 2015.
  12. ^ Narendra Singh Verma: Virvar Amar Jyoti Gokul Singh (Hindi), Sankalp Prakashan, Agra, 1986, p. 39
  13. ^ Narendra Singh Verma: Virvar Amar Jyoti Gokul Singh (Hindi), Sankalp Prakashan, Agra, 1986, p. 50
Preceded by
--
Bharatpur ruler
? – 1670 AD
Succeeded by
Raja Ram
Archanai Pookal

Archanai Pookal is a 1982 Indian Tamil film, directed by Gokula Krishnan, starring Chandrasekar, Mohan, Rajalakshmi and Subathra in lead roles. The film had musical score by Ilaiyaraaja.

Bhanwari Kaur

Bhanwari Kaur (b. ? - d.1669) was a woman from Brij region in Uttar Pradesh, India who struggled against the oppression by Mugal ruler Aurangzeb in 1669. She was sister of Gokula Singh, a Jat chieftain of Sinsini village in Bharatpur district in Rajasthan, India. Later, he became a chieftain of Tilpat in Haryana.The first serious outbreak of anti-imperial reaction took place among the Jats of Mathura district Uttar Pradesh, where the imperial faujdar 'Abdun-Nabi', had oppressed them greatly. In 1669 the sturdy Jat peasantry rose under a leader, Gokula, Zamindar of Tilpat, killed the faujdar, and kept the whole district in disorder for a year, till they were suppressed by a strong imperial force under Hasan Ali Khan, the new faujdar of Mathura. Gokula was put to death.In early 1669 Aurangzeb appointed a strong follower of Islam Abdunnabi as Faujdar of Mathura to curb the Hindus of this area. Abdunnabi established a cantonment near Gokul Singh and conducted all his operations from there. Gokula organized the farmers not to give taxes to the Mughals. The Mughal soldiers retaliated, beginning the struggle of the farmers. Meanwhile, Aurangzeb issued orders on 9 April 1669 to abolish the temples of Hindus. As a result, large number of Hindu temples and ancient heritages of the period of Kushans were damaged. During month of May, 1669 the faujdar Abdunnabi seized village Sihora. Gokula was there and there was a fight in which Abdunnabi was killed. Gokula and his fellow farmers moved further, attacked and destroyed Sadabad cantonment. Sadullakhan had founded Sadabad during the period of Shahjahan. This incidence inspired the depressed Hindus to fight against atrocities of the Mughal rulers. The fights continued for five months.The rebels gathered at the village of Sahora (about 6 miles from Mathura). Abdun Nabi, the faujdar of Mathura, attacked them. At first he appeared to be gaining ground, but in the middle of the fighting he was killed on 12 May 1669 (21st Zil-Hijja, 1079 A.H.),Overjoyed at this success, Gokula ravaged the paragana and town of Sadabad (24 miles from Mathura) in the Daob., The turbulence spread to Agra District also whereto Radandaz Khan was sent (13 May – 22nd Zil-Hijja) with a force to put down the rebels. Aurangazeb appointed Saf Shikan Khan as the new faujdar of Mathura., As arms failed to prevail, diplomacy was resorted to.

After defeat in Sadabad and Sihora the new faujdar Saf Shikan Khan started campaign to take revenge with Gokula. He had learnt that on the occasion of haryali teej festival, the young girls gather to celebrate it with malhar songs and swings in entire Brij region. The young sister of Gokula, Bhanwar Kaur, also joined the festival at a garden outside Tilpati on haryali teej in shravan month in 1669.The new faujdar Saf Shikan Khan and his soldiers seized the place of celebration of haryali teej by the young girls and started misbehaving with them. Bhanwar Kaur along with her friends counter acted by attacking with ropes of swings and gofans. They could manage to get felled one of the soldiers from his horse and with sword obtained from him killed the soldier. This technique worked and the girls could kill more soldiers this way. Saf Shikan Khan at first got frightened but attacked Bhanwar Kaur. Bhanwar Kaur could defend the attack and wounded the horse of Saf Shikan Khan which left the field along with Saf Shikan Khan. Rest of the soldiers also ran away. the girls could kill 17 soldiers in the fight. Meanwhile, a shot from a soldier who was running away killed the brave girl Bhanwar Kaur. Total 11 girls were killed in the war with Mugal soldiers.

Gokula (film)

Gokula is a 2009 Indian Kannada-language comedy – drama film written, directed and co-produced by Prakash. It stars Vijay Raghavendra, Yash, Pooja Gandhi, Pawan and Nakshatra in the lead roles. Actress Ragini Dwivedi is featured in a special appearance in an item song. The soundtrack and original score is composed by Mano Murthy and the cinematography is by Sathya Hegde.

The film was launched on 27 November 2009.

Gokula Krishna

Gokula Krishna (Kannada: ಗೋಕುಲ ಕೃಷ್ಣ) is a 2012 Kannada romantic comedy film directed by B. M. Jayakannan and produced jointly by P. Shekar Gowda and Narayan Swamy. It stars Prajwal Devraj and Ananya in the lead roles. Ananya makes her Kannada debut with this film. Bhavya, Jai Jagadish, Srinath, Doddanna and Sadhu Kokila among others play the supporting roles. S. A. Rajkumar is the score and soundtrack composer. The film made its theatrical release on 19 October 2012.

Gokula Krishna College of Engineering

Gokula Krishna College Of Engineering (GKCE) is a college near Sullurupet and the Satish Dhawan Space Centre in Nellore district in Andhra Pradesh state, India. It provides undergraduate courses in engineering, pharmacy, diploma and postgraduate courses in MCA and Master of Business Administration.

It provides engineering qualifications in CSE, ECE, EEE, Mechanical engineering and Information Technology.

Gokula Krishnan

Gokula Krishnan was an Indian film director, who has directed Tamil films. He was primarily active in the 1980s and early 1990s and is most noted for his work on films featuring actor Karthik. He also extensively worked with Malayalam director Fazil, when he made Tamil films, helping write dialogues.

Goloka

Goloka (Sanskrit: गोलोक) also known as Goloka Vrindavana, Krishnaloka or Gokula, is the eternal supreme abode of Lord Krishna and Radha.

In the Bhagavata Purana, is especially portrayed as the highest person who resides in Goloka.The terms "Goloka" and "Vaikunta" are often synonymously used. All the Vaikunta lokas are said to be like petals of a lotus flower, and the centre is called Krishna Loka or Goloka Vrindavan, the topmost of all the lokas, below to Manidvipa and rare is the soul who is allowed to go there.

Goloka is mentioned in vaishnavism schools such as Gaudiya Vaishnavism, Swaminarayan Sampraday and in scriptures such as Pancharatra, Garga Samhita, Brahma Samhita and Brahma vaivarta.

Maragatha Veenai

Maragatha Veenai (transl. Emerald Veena) is a 1986 Tamil-language Indian feature film directed by Gokula Krishnan, starring Suresh and Revathy in lead roles.

Muthu Kaalai

Muthu Kaalai is a 1995 Tamil drama film directed by Gokula Krishnan. The film features Karthik and Soundarya in lead roles. The film, produced by Raadhika Reddy, had musical score by Ilaiyaraaja and was released on 24 February 1995 to above average reviews.

Nakshatra (actress)

Nakshatra is an Indian film actress who appeared in regional Indian language films namely Malayalam and Kannada.

Nanda Gokula

Nanda Gokula (Kannada: ನಂದ ಗೋಕುಲ) is a 1972 Indian Kannada language drama directed by Y. R. Swamy and produced by Shyamprasad Enterprises. It starred Rajkumar, Ramesh and Jayanthi in the lead roles. Vijaya Bhaskar scored the music and the story was written by Chi. Udaya Shankar.

Outer Ring Road, Bangalore

Outer Ring Road (ORR) is a ring road that runs around most of the perimeter of the city of Bangalore, India. This 60-kilometre-long (37 mi) road was developed by the Bangalore Development Authority and different sections were opened progressively between 1996 and 2002.

The Outer Ring Road is road connects all major highways around the city - Tumkur Road (NH 4), Bellary Road (NH 7), Old Madras Road (NH 4), Hosur Road (NH 7), Bannerghatta Road, Kanakapura Road (NH 209), Mysore Road (SH-17) and Magadi Road. It passes through major neighborhoods and suburbs such as Hebbal(NH7), Banaswadi, Krishnarajapuram(NH4), Marathahalli, HSR Layout, Madiwala(NH7), BTM Layout, JP Nagar, Banashankari, Kengeri, Bangalore University, Nagarbhavi, Nandini Layout, Kengeri Satellite Town and Gokula.

Initially conceived to keep the truck traffic out of downtown Bengaluru, the city has outgrown the Outer Ring Road. Nandi Infrastructure Corporation Limited has almost completed another partial ring road around Bengaluru as a part of the Bengaluru

Mysore Infrastructure Corridor project (BMIC). The BDA and BMRDA have planned three more ring roads beyond the existing ring road. The first of these, the Peripheral ring road will run a few kilometres beyond the BMIC-PRR. The second and third of these will be known as the Intermediate ring road and the satellite towns ring road respectively.

Pooja Gandhi

Pooja Gandhi (born Sanjana Gandhi in 1983) is an Indian film actress and producer. She has acted mainly in Kannada language films and also appears in Tamil, Malayalam, Bengali and Hindi films. Gandhi, after starring in the commercially successful 2006 film Mungaru Male, become one of the most popular and highest paid actresses in South Indian cinema and also the recipient of several awards. Gandhi popularly came to be known as 'Male Hudugi' (Rain Girl) in the media and Kannada film industry.Gandhi made her film debut in 2003 with a Bengali film Tomake Salam and Tamil film Kokki in 2006. Since then, she has played lead roles in commercially successful films such as Mungaru Male (2006), Milana (2007), Krishna (2007), Taj Mahal (2008), Budhivanta (2008), Anu (2009), Gokula (2009), Dandupalya (2012) and Dandupalya 2 (2017). Gandhi has acted in more than 50 films in a decade.She joined the Janata Dal (Secular) party in 2012 by taking the membership of the party. She soon hopped onto KJP party and later to the BSR Congress party and contested the Karnataka assembly elections from Raichur constituency. However, she was defeated in the elections and did not win any seat from the constituency.For her contribution to the Kannada film industry, Gandhi received an honorary doctorate from South Korea based KEISIE University in 2016.

Poovarasan

Poovarasan is a 1996 Tamil drama film, directed by Gokula Krishnan, starring Karthik and Rachana Banerjee. The film, produced by M Gafar includes a musical score by Ilaiyaraaja and was released on 9 August, 1996.

Prakash (film director)

Prakash (film director) is a Kannada film director who made commercially successful movies like Milana, Vamshi, Khushi, and more.

Raja Ram Jat

Raja Ram Singh (1670–1688) was a Jat leader who organised a rebellion against Aurangzeb. He was chieftain of Sinsini in what became the princely state of Bharatpur, India. Raja Ram was son of Bhajja Singh of Sinsini. Details about the early life of Raja Ram are not available. After the death of Gokula on 1 January 1670, Raja Ram continued the raids against the Mughals.To avenge the death of Gokula, Raja Ram looted Akbar's tomb and dragged Akbar's bones and burned them.Aurangzeb appointed Mohammad Bidar Bakht as commander to crush the rebellion. On 4 July 1688, Raja Ram Jat was fatally shot. His head was sent to Aurangzeb as proof.

S. Gokula Indira

S. Gokula Indira is an Indian politician and was a member of the 14th Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly from the Anna Nagar constituency. She represented the All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam party.Indira lost in the elections of 2016 despite her party retaining power. Her constituency was won by M. K. Mohan.

Udhavikku Varalaamaa

Udhavikku Varalaamaa (English: Can we come for help ?) is a 1998 Tamil language comedy film directed by Gokula Krishnan. The film features Karthik, Devayani, Sangeetha and Anju Aravind in lead roles with Janagaraj, Pandiyan, Vadivukkarasi, Manivannan, Kovai Sarala and Jaiganesh playing supporting roles. The film was released on 16 January 1998 to negative reviews. This was Gokula Krishna's last film as director and continued as dialogue writer before his death in 2008 and also was his last collaboration with Karthik after Poovarasan and Muthu Kaalai.

Yash (actor)

Naveen Kumar Gowda, known by his stage name as Yash, is an Indian actor best known for his work in Kannada cinema. He began as an actor appearing on stage and in television shows in Kannada language.Yash made his feature film debut in 2007 with Jambada Hudugi, playing a supporting role. In his second film, Moggina Manasu (2008), he played the male lead opposite then future wife Radhika Pandit. The film was a success and earned him the Filmfare Award for Best Supporting Actor. He went on to star in many commercially successful films including Modalasala (2010), Kirataka (2011), Drama (2012), Googly (2013), Raja Huli (2013), Gajakesari (2014), Mr. and Mrs. Ramachari (2014), Masterpiece (2015) and K.G.F: Chapter 1 (2018).

His rise to success has been well documented by the media, and he has often been rated one of the popular actors in Karnataka.

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