Godparent

A godparent (also known as a sponsor),[1] in many denominations of Christianity, is someone who bears witness to a child's baptism and then aids in their catechesis, as well as their lifelong spiritual formation.[2] In the past, in some countries, the role carried some legal obligations as well as religious responsibilities.[3] In both religious and civil views, a godparent tends to be an individual chosen by the parents to take an interest in the child's upbringing and personal development, to offer mentorship or claim legal guardianship of the child should anything happen to the parents.[4][5]

A male godparent is a godfather, and a female godparent is a godmother. The child is a godchild (i.e. godson for boys and goddaughter for girls).

Stained glass window depicting Episcopal baptism
Detail from the "Baptism Window" at St. Mary's Episcopal Cathedral in Memphis, Tennessee, showing godparents from the mid-20th century.

Christianity

Origins and history

As early as the 2nd century AD, infant baptism had begun to gain acceptance among Christians for the spiritual purification and social initiation of infants,[6] the requirement for some confession of faith necessitated the use of adults who acted as sponsors for the child. They vocalized the confession of faith and acted as guarantors of the child’s spiritual beliefs.

Normally, these sponsors were the natural parents of a child, as emphasized in 408 by St. Augustine who suggested that they could, it seems exceptionally, be other individuals.[7] Within a century, the Corpus Juris Civilis indicates that parents had been replaced in this role almost completely.[8] This was clarified in 813 when the Synod of Mainz prohibited natural parents from acting as godparents to their own children.[9]

By the 5th century, male sponsors were referred to as "spiritual fathers", and by the end of the 6th century, they were being referred to as "compaters" and "commaters", suggesting that these were being seen as spiritual co-parents.[10] This pattern was marked by the creation of legal barriers to marriage that paralleled those for other forms of kin. A decree of Justinian, dated to 530, outlawed marriage between a godfather and his goddaughter, and these barriers continued to multiply until the 11th century, forbidding marriage between natural and spiritual parents, or those directly related to them.[11] As confirmation emerged as a separate rite from baptism from the 8th century, a second set of sponsors, with similar prohibitions, also emerged.[12] The exact extent of these spiritual relationships as a bar to marriage in Catholicism was unclear until the Council of Trent, which limited it to relationships between the godparents, the child, and the parents.[13]

During the Reformation

Luther, Zwingli, and Calvin preserved infant baptism against the attacks of more radical reformers including Anabaptists, and with it, sponsors at baptism.[14] However, Luther strongly objected to the marriage barriers it created, Zwingli stressed the role of parents and pastors, rather than the "witnesses", in religious instruction, and Calvin and his followers tended to prefer the sponsors to be the natural parents.[15] A single godparent was retained in baptism at Geneva and among French Calvinists, but some followers of Calvin, most notably in Scotland and eventually the English colonies in America, rejected them altogether.[16]

Numbers of sponsors

In the early church, one sponsor seems to have been the norm, but in the early Middle Ages, there seems to have been two, one of each sex, and this practice has been largely maintained in Orthodox Christianity.[17] In 888, the Catholic Council of Metz attempted to limit the number to one, but proliferation seems to have continued.[18] In early 14th-century Spain, as many as 20 godparents were being chosen.[19] In England, the Synod of Worcester (1240) stipulated three sponsors (two of the same sex and one of the opposite), and this has remained the norm in the Church of England.[20] The Council of Trent attempted to limit the numbers of godparents to one or two, but practice has differed across the Catholic world.[21]

Modern practices

Anglican Communion

The Church of England, the mother Church of the Anglican Communion, retained godparents in baptism, formally removing the marriage barriers in 1540, but the issue of the role and status of godparents continued to be debated in the English Church.[22] They were abolished in 1644 by the Directory of Public Worship promulgated by the English Civil War Parliamentary regime, but continued to be used in some parishes in the north of England.[23] After the Restoration in 1660, they were reintroduced to Anglicanism, with occasional objections, but dropped by almost every dissenting church.[24] There is some evidence that the restored institution had lost some of its social importance as well as its universality.[25]

At present, in the Church of England, relatives can stand as godparents, and although it is not clear that parents can be godparents, they sometimes are. Godparents should be both baptized and confirmed (although it is not clear in which Church), but the requirement for confirmation can be waived. There is no requirement for clergy to baptize those from outside their parishes, and baptism can be reasonably delayed so that the conditions, including suitable godparents, can be met. As a result, individual clergy have considerable discretion over the qualifications of godparents.[26] Many "contemporary Anglican rites likewise require parents and godparents to respond on behalf of infant [baptismal] candidates."[27]

Lutheran churches

Lutherans follow a similar theology of godparents as Roman Catholics. They believe that godparents "help [children] with their Christian upbringing, especially if they should lose their parents".[28] Lutherans, like Roman Catholics, believe that a godparent must be both a baptized and confirmed Christian.[28] Some Lutherans also follow the Roman Catholic tradition that a Christian who is not affiliated with the Lutheran denomination may serve as a witness rather than a godparent.[29]

Methodist Church

The Book of Discipline stipulates that it is the duty of a godparent, also known as a sponsor, "to provide training for the children of the Church throughout their childhood that will lead to a personal commitment to Jesus Christ as Lord and Savior, to an understanding of the Christian faith, and to an appreciation of the privileges and obligations of baptism and membership (¶ 225.4)." John Wesley, the founder of the Methodist Church, wrote a homily titled "Serious Thoughts Concerning Godfathers and Godmothers" in which he stated that godparents are "spiritual parents to the baptized, whether they were infants or [adults]; and were expected to supply whatever spiritual helps were wanting either through the death or neglect of the natural parents."[30] He described the role of godparents, instructing that they should call upon their godchild "to hear sermons, and shall provide that he(/she) may learn the Creed, the Lord's Prayer, and the Ten Commandments, and all other things which a Christian ought to know and believe to his soul's health; and that this child be virtuosly brought up, to lead a godly and a Christian life."[30] As such, the Book of Worship states that godparents/sponsors should be "selected carefully" and "should be members of Christ's holy Church; and it is the duty of pastors to instruct them concerning the significance of Holy Baptism, their responsibilities for the Christian training of the baptized child, and how these obligations may be fulfilled."[31]

Orthodox Church

The Orthodox institution of godparenthood has been the least affected of the major traditions by change. In some Orthodox churches (Serbian, Greek) usually the best man (kum, кум, koumbaros) or bridesmaid (kuma, кума, koumbara) at a couple's wedding act as a godparent to the first or all children of the marriage. In some instances, the godfather is responsible for naming the child. A godparent to a child will then act as a sponsor at the child's wedding.[32] Godparents are expected to be in good standing in the Orthodox church, including its rulings on divorce, and aware of the meaning and responsibilities of their role.[33] They cannot be a minor or a parent of the child, and at least one sponsor must be Orthodox.

Reformed Churches

In the Reformed tradition that includes the Continental Reformed, Congregationalist and Presbyterian Churches, the godparents are more often referred to as sponsors, who have the role of standing with the child during infant baptism and pledging to instruct the child in the faith.[34] In the bapismal liturgy of Reformed Geneva, "the traditional presence of godparents was retained".[35] John Calvin, the progenitor of the Reformed tradition, himself served as a godparent during forty-seven baptisms.[35] The Reformed Church in Geneva, in order to ensure confessional orthodoxy, "expected parents to select Reformed godparents."[36] Today, many Reformed churches invite parents to select godparents for their prospective neophyte, while other parishes entrust this responsibility to the whole congregation.[37][38]

Roman Catholic Church

Baptism at St. Mary's Church in Dedham, Massachusetts
A child being baptized with her parents and godparents.

The Catholic institution of godparenthood survived the Reformation largely unchanged. A godparent must normally be an appropriate person, at least sixteen years of age, a confirmed Catholic who has received the Eucharist, not under any canonical penalty, and may not be the parent of the child. Someone who belongs to another Christian church cannot become a godparent but can be a 'witness' in conjunction with a Catholic sponsor. A witness does not have any religious role recognized by the Church.[39]

In 2015, the Vatican declared that transgender Catholics cannot become godparents, stating in response to a transgender man's query that transgender status "reveals in a public way an attitude opposite to the moral imperative of solving the problem of sexual identity according to the truth of one's own sexuality" and that, "[t]herefore it is evident that this person does not possess the requirement of leading a life according to the faith and in the position of godfather and is therefore unable to be admitted to the position of godfather or godmother."[40]

Spiritual kinship

In some Catholic and Orthodox countries, particularly in southern Europe, Latin America, and the Philippines, the relationship between parents and godparents or co-godparents has been seen as particularly important and distinctive.[41] These relationships create mutual obligations and responsibilities that may be socially useful for participants. The Portuguese and Spanish compadre (literally, "co-father") and comadre ("co-mother"), the French marraine and parrain, and the archaic meaning of the English word gossip (from godsib, "godsibling"), describe these relationships.[42] By extension, they can also be used to describe a friendship.

The Spanish and Portuguese words for the godparent roles are used for members of the wedding partypadrino/padrinho meaning "godfather" or "best man" and madrina/madrinha meaning "godmother" or "matron of honor", reflecting the custom of baptismal sponsors acting in this role in a couple's wedding.[43]

The Spanish custom was also adopted in the Philippines, a predominantly Christian country in Southeast Asia that was a former part of the Spanish Empire. The Filipino terms ninong for godfather and ninang for godmother, were also borrowed from Hispanic custom, and apply to godparents in both a child's Baptism and the child's later Confirmation. In the context of a wedding, the terms instead refer to the principal sponsors of the couple.

Literature and folklore

Godparents are noted features of fairy tales and folklore written from the 17th century onwards, and by extension, have found their way into many modern works of fiction. In Godfather Death, presented by the Brothers Grimm, the archetype is, unusually, a supernatural godfather. However, most are a fairy godmother as in versions of Cinderella, Sleeping Beauty, and The Blue Bird. This feature may simply reflect the Catholic milieu in which most fairy tales were created, or at least recorded, and the accepted role of godparents as helpers from outside the family, but feminist Marina Warner suggests that they may be a form of wish fulfilment by female narrators.[44]

Non-Christian traditions

Santeria

In the Yoruba religion Santería, godparents must have completed their santo or their Ifá. A person gets his Madrina and Yubona (co-godmother) or his Padrino and Yubon (co-godfather). A santero, aside from his co-godparents, may have an oluo (babalawo, initiate of ifa) who consults him with an ekuele (divinating chain).

Judaism

Nimrod ST 07
Brit milah—the sandek holds the baby boy

There are two roles in the Jewish circumcision ceremony that are sometimes translated as godparent. The sandek holds the baby boy while he is circumcised. Among Orthodox Ashkenazi, the kvater (or kvaterin if female) is the person who takes the child from his mother and carries him into the room in which the circumcision is performed. Kvater is etymologically derived from the archaic German Gevatter ("godfather").

Chinese traditions

Some Chinese communities practise the custom of matching a child with a relative or family friend who becomes the godmother (乾媽) or godfather (乾爹). This practice is largely non-religious in nature, but commonly done to strengthen ties or to fulfill the wish of a childless adult to have a "son/daughter". In most circumstances, an auspicious day is selected during which a ceremony takes place, involving the godchild paying his/her respects to his new godfather/godmother in the presence of relatives or friends.[45]

Alternatively, as it is already common in Chinese kinship to use kinship terms among people that are not related (e.g. addressing a respected coworker as "brother" or one's father's friend may be referred to as "uncle"), an older friend or family friend with a deep friendship and a sufficient age gap will also informally address the other as his godparent or godchild, a gesture often initiated by the older person.

See also

References

  1. ^ Roth, John K. (1 December 2005). Ethics. Salem Press. p. 595. ISBN 9781587651724.
  2. ^ Fitzgerald, Timothy (1994). Infant Baptism. Liturgy Training Publications. p. 17. ISBN 9781568540085.
  3. ^ Rojcewicz, Rebekah (2009). Baptism is a Beginning. Liturgy Training Publications. p. 24. ISBN 9781568544984. In earlier times the role of godparent carried with it a legal responsibility for the child, should he or she become orphaned. Today, being a godparent is not legally binding and carries no legal rights, although godparents may also serve as legal guardians for children if this arrangement is documented in a valid will.
  4. ^ Marty, Martin E. Baptism: A User's Guide. Augsburg Books. p. 139. ISBN 9781451414080.
  5. ^ S. Ringen, What democracy is for: on freedom and moral government (Princeton University Press, 2007), p. 96.
  6. ^ J. H. Lynch, Godparents and Kinship in Early Medieval Europe (Princeton, NJ, 1980), p. 114.
  7. ^ W. Parsons, ed., Saint Augustine, Letters, The Fathers of the Church, 18 (New York, 1953), pp. 134-5.
  8. ^ P. Kruger, ed., Corpus Iuris Civis, vol. 3, Codex Iustinianus (Dublin and Zurich, 1970), v, 4, 26, p. 197.
  9. ^ "Godparent". Encyclopædia Britannica.
  10. ^ S. W. Mintz and E. R. Wolf, 'An analysis of ritual co-parenthood', Southwestern Journal of Anthropology, 6 (1950), p. 344.
  11. ^ C. E. Smith, Papal Enforcement of Some Medieval Marriage Laws (Port Washington, WI, and London, 1940), p. 48.
  12. ^ P. Cramer, Baptism and Change in the Early Middle Ages c. 200 – c. 1150, Cambridge Studies in Medieval Life and Thought, 4th series, 20 (Cambridge, 1993), p. 179.
  13. ^ N. P. Tanner, ed., Decrees of the Ecumenical Councils, 1, (London and Georgetown Washington DC, 1990), p. 757.
  14. ^ J. D. C. Fisher, ed., Christian Initiation: the Reformation Period, Alcuin Collections, 51 (London, 1970), p. 171.
  15. ^ H. T. Lehmann and J. Pelikan, eds, Luther Works, 45 St Louis MO and Philadelphia, PA (1958-67), p. 24; W. P. Stephens, The Theology of Huldrych Zwingli (Oxford, 1986), p. 194.
  16. ^ W. Coster, Baptism and Spiritual Kinship in Early Modern England (Ashgate, 2002), pp. 84-5.
  17. ^ S. Gudeman, 'The compadrazgo as a reflection of the natural and spiritual person', Proceedings of the Royal Anthropological Institute (1971), p. 48.
  18. ^ J. Goody, The Development of Family and Marriage in Europe (Cambridge, 1983), p. 199.
  19. ^ G. M. Foster, 'Confradia and compadrazgo in Spain and Spanish America', Southwestern Journal of Anthropology, 9 (1953), p. 3.
  20. ^ J. D. C. Fisher, ed., Christian Initiation: Baptism in the Medieval West. A Study in the Disintegration of the Primitive Rite of Initiation, Alcuin Collections, 47 (London, 1965), p. 157.
  21. ^ N. P. Tanner, ed., Decrees of the Ecumenical Councils, 1, (London and Georgetown Washington DC, 1990), p. 747.
  22. ^ W. Coster, Baptism and Spiritual Kinship in Early Modern England (Ashgate, 2002), p. 87.
  23. ^ C. Durston, 'Puritan rule and the failure of cultural revolution', in C. Durston and J. Eales, eds, The Culture of English Puritanism (London, 1986), p. 227.
  24. ^ H. Davis, Worship and Theology in England, from Andrews to Baxter and Fox 1603-1690 (Princeton, NJ, 1975) p. 384.
  25. ^ W. Coster, Baptism and Spiritual Kinship in Early Modern England (Ashgate, 2002), pp. 269-273.
  26. ^ The Canons of the Church of England, 6th edn (London, 2000).
  27. ^ Hefling, Charles; Shattuck, Cynthia (1 July 2006). The Oxford Guide to The Book of Common Prayer: A Worldwide Survey. Oxford University Press. pp. 487–. ISBN 9780199723898.
  28. ^ a b Luther's Small Catechism with Explanation (Concordia Publishing House, 1991 edition). Retrieved 2010-16-05.
  29. ^ Godparents at LCMS.org. Retrieved 2010-16-05.
  30. ^ a b Wesley, John (1831). The Works of the Reverend John Wesley, A. M. J. Emory and B. Waugh. p. 235. |access-date= requires |url= (help)
  31. ^ The United Methodist Book of Worship. United Methodist Publishing House. 5 April 2016. p. 93. ISBN 9781426735004.
  32. ^ J. K. Campbell, Honour, family and Patronage, a Study of the Institutions and Moral Values in a Greek Mountain Community (Oxford, 1964).
  33. ^ Instructions for Weddings, Divorces, Baptisms, Funerals, and Memorials "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-01-17. Retrieved 2009-01-06.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link).
  34. ^ McKim, Donald K. (21 April 2014). The Westminster Dictionary of Theological Terms, Second Edition: Revised and Expanded. Westminster John Knox Press. p. 304. ISBN 9781611643862.
  35. ^ a b Manetsch, Scott M. (2013). Calvin's Company of Pastors: Pastoral Care and the Emerging Reformed Church, 1536-1609. Oxford University Press. p. 383. ISBN 9780199938575.
  36. ^ Maag, Karin (13 January 2016). Lifting Hearts to the Lord: Worship with John Calvin in Sixteenth-Century Geneva. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. p. 162. ISBN 9781467444002.
  37. ^ Maddox, Cindy. "Baptism & Communion". First Congregational Church - United Church of Christ. Retrieved 12 August 2017. You’re welcome to invite one or two Godparents to take part in the baptism service, though this is optional and matter of personal choice.
  38. ^ Wehrheim, Carol A. (2006). The Baptism of Your Child: A Book for Presbyterian Families. Westminster John Knox Press. p. 24. ISBN 9780664502850.
  39. ^ Code of Canon Law Can. 872-4 [1].
  40. ^ Wofford, Taylor (September 2, 2015). "Transgender Catholics Can't Be Godparents, Vatican Says". Newsweek.com. Retrieved September 23, 2015.
  41. ^ G. M. Foster, 'Confradia and compradrazgo in Spain and Spanish America', Southwestern Journal of Anthropology, 9 (1953), pp. 1–3.
  42. ^ W. Coster, Baptism and Spiritual Kinship in Early Modern England (Ashgate, 2002), pp. 91–7.
  43. ^ H. G. Nutini, and E. Bell, Ritual Kinship: The Structure and Historical Development of the Compadrazgo System in Rural Tlaxcala 1 (Princeton, 1980), p. 342.
  44. ^ M. Warner, From the Beast to the Blonde, on Fairy Tales and Their Tellers (London, 1995), pp. 215-6.
  45. ^ D. Waters, "Taking a Godson" , Journals of The Royal Asiatic Society Hong Kong Branch, Vol. 33, 1993.

External links

  • The dictionary definition of godparent at Wiktionary
Death of Tassos Isaac

Anastasios "Tassos" Isaac (Greek: Αναστάσιος "Τάσος" Ισαάκ) (1972 – 11 August 1996), was a Greek Cypriot refugee who participated in a civilian demonstration against the Republic of Turkey's military occupation of the northern part of the Republic of Cyprus. The demonstrators' demand was for the complete withdrawal of Turkish troops from the island, and the return of Cypriot refugees to their homes. Isaac was killed by a mob of Turkish people in the United Nations Buffer Zone in Cyprus.

Fairy godmother

In fairy tales, a fairy godmother (French: fée marraine) is a fairy with magical powers who acts as a mentor or parent to someone, in the role that an actual godparent was expected to play in many societies. In Perrault's Cinderella, he concludes the tale with the cynical moral that no personal advantages will suffice without proper connections.

The fairy godmother is a special case of the donor.

Godfrid Haraldsson

Godfrid Haraldsson (c. 820 – c. 856) was the son of the Danish king Harald Klak. In 826 he was baptized together with his parents in Mainz in the Frankish Empire, with crown prince Lothair standing as a godparent.

After his baptism, Godfrid stayed in Lothair's retinue, until they fell out sometime in the 840s, and Godfrid returned to Denmark. There he teamed up with Rorik, the son of his father's brother (his cousin). In 850 they united against Lothair and raided Dorestad. Rorik took possession of Frisia. Godfrid continued to plunder Flanders and Artois, and returned to Denmark for the winter. In 851 he was back, raiding in Frisia and around the Rhine, then sailed up the Scheldt to attack Ghent and the abbey of Drongen.

After another winter in Denmark, Godfred returned again in 853 to Francia. On 9 October 853 he sailed up the Seine. The fleet advanced beyond Rouen, as far as Pont-de-l'Arche, and encamped on an island near Les Andelys. Charles the Bald summoned his army as well as that of the Middle Kingdom of Lothar, Godfred's godfather. The two sides faced each other the whole winter, the Frankish land army lacking boats to attack the Vikings. The stalemate was resolved in the spring of 853 when Godfred sailed away, probably with a tribute.

In 855 Godfred and his cousin Rorik tried to gain power in Denmark after the death of king Horik I. The attempt failed, and they returned the same year, taking back Dorestad and a large part of the area of what is now The Netherlands. After this, the sources are silent about this Godfred. He probably died soon afterwards.

Jelle Zijlstra

For other people named Zijlstra, see Zijlstra.

Jelle Zijlstra (Dutch pronunciation: [ˈjɛlə ˈzɛilstraː]; 27 August 1918 – 23 December 2001) was a Dutch politician of the defunct Anti-Revolutionary Party (ARP) now merged into the Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA). He served as Prime Minister of the Netherlands from 22 November 1966 until 5 April 1967.Zijlstra a economist by occupation, served in the Royal Netherlands Army from 1936 to 1940 when the Germans took control over the Dutch Government, notably fighting in the Battle of France. He became a professor of Economics at the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam at the age of 30 in 1948. Zijlstra was asked to become Minister of Economic Affairs after the Dutch general election of 1952 in the Second Drees cabinet under Prime Minister Willem Drees of the Labour Party, he resigned as a professor the same day he took office as the new Minister of Economic Affairs on 2 September 1952. Zijlstra became the lijsttrekker (top candidate) of the Anti-Revolutionary Party for the Dutch general election of 1956 and served as party leader from 23 April 1956 to 3 October 1956, and as the parliamentary party leader of the Anti-Revolutionary Party in the House of Representatives from 14 June 1956 to 3 October 1956 and a Member of the House of Representatives from 3 July 1956 to 3 October 1956. After a slow cabinet formation the third Drees cabinet was formed and Zijlstra remained Minister of Economic Affairs. The Drees III cabinet fell on 22 December 1958 and a caretaker cabinet was formed by former Prime Minister Louis Beel of the Catholic People's Party. Zijlstra remained as Minister of Economic Affairs and simultaneously served as Minister of Finance in the second Beel cabinet. Zijlstra again became the lijsttrekker for the Anti-Revolutionary Party during the Dutch general election of 1959, and served as party leader of the Anti-Revolutionary Party a second time from 29 December 1958 until 26 May 1959. After a quicker formation the new De Quay cabinet was formed on 19 May 1959. Zijlstra remained Minister of Finance under the new Prime Minister Jan de Quay of the Catholic People's Party, and served until 14 July 1963, when the Marijnen cabinet was installed.

Zijlstra became a Member of the Senate on 25 June 1963 and returned to the Vrije Universiteit as an associate professor of Public finances. On 14 October 1966, the Cals cabinet, the successor of the Marijnen cabinet, fell after the party leader of the Catholic People's Party Norbert Schmelzer introduced a motion of no confidence against the cabinet and Prime Minister Jo Cals, who was a member of his own party. The Dutch political landscape was fractured and Zijlstra was asked to form a caretaker cabinet of which the primary task was to write out an early general election in 1967. Zijlstra became Prime Minister of the Netherlands and Minister of General Affairs on 22 November 1966 and resigned as a Member of the Senate. Zijlstra simultaneously served as Minister of Finance, leading the Zijlstra cabinet until 5 April 1967 when the De Jong cabinet was installed.

After his premiership, Zijlstra retired from active politics at the age of forty-eight and became the President of De Nederlandsche Bank, the central bank of the Netherlands, serving from 1 May 1967 until 1 January 1982. He had already been appointed as President of the bank on 16 September 1966, but his unexpected premiership delayed this. Zijlstra also occupied numerous seats on supervisory boards in the business and industry world. Zijlstra was widely respected for his expertise and integrity, and was a godparent of King Willem-Alexander. On 30 April 1983 he was granted the honorary title of Minister of State, which he held until his death.

List of The Fairly OddParents characters

This is a list of characters in the Nickelodeon animated television series The Fairly OddParents.

Magalie Marcelin

Magalie Marcelin (1962 – January 12, 2010) was a Haitian feminist, lawyer and actress.

While still in her teens, she performed with a theatre group which used the stage as a medium to raise issues about women's rights and social justice. Marcelin was expelled by the government of Jean-Claude Duvalier. She was sent to Venezuela, came to Montreal in 1981 and studied law. Marcelin returned to Haiti after Duvalier's departure in 1986.In 1987, she established Kay Fanm (Women's House), a shelter for battered women and women's rights organization. She also helped ensure that women in legal difficulties related to gender-based violence received a fair trial, working pro bono. Marcelin worked as a consultant for a number of development projects. In 1997, she helped organize an international tribunal in Haiti dealing with violence against women.Marcelin appeared in the films Haiti in all our dreams and Anita.She was the godparent of the daughter of former Canadian Governor General Michaëlle Jean.Marcelin died at the age of 47 at Port-au-Prince in the 2010 Haiti earthquake.

Mary Elphinstone, Lady Elphinstone

Lady Mary Frances Buller-Fullerton-Elphinstone, Lady Elphinstone DCVO (born Lady Mary Frances Bowes-Lyon; 30 August 1883 – 8 February 1961) was a maternal aunt and godparent of Elizabeth II.

Middle name

In several cultures, a middle name is a portion of a personal name that is written between the person's given name and their surname. A person may be given a middle name regardless of whether it's necessary to distinguish them from other people with the same given name and surname. In cultures where a given name is expected to precede the surname, additional names are likely to be placed after the given name and before the surname, and thus called middle names. In English-speaking American culture, that term is often applied (arguably mistakenly) to names occupying that position even if the bearer would insist that that name is being mistakenly called a "middle name", and is actually (to mention several types of common cases):

part of a two-word given name (e.g. Mary Anne, about Mary Anne Clarke, and "Joe Bob Briggs"),

a maiden name (e.g. Rodham),

a patronymic (e.g. Sergeyevich),

a baptismal name (e.g. "Christopher" invoking Saint Christopher), or

a maternal surname (such as in Portuguese, Brazilian, and Filipino names).In the United States, such names are specifically referred to as middle names; in most other countries, as far as they are given names and not, for example, patronymics, they would simply be regarded as second, third etc. given names. In the U.S., the "middle name" is often abbreviated to the middle initial (e.g. Mary Lee Bianchi becomes Mary L. Bianchi, which is usually standard for signatures) or omitted entirely in everyday use (e.g. just Mary Bianchi). An individual may have more than one middle name, or none. In the United Kingdom, for comparison, she would usually be referred to as either Mary Bianchi, M. L. Bianchi or Mary Lee Bianchi, or she may choose Lee Bianchi, and informally there may be familiar shortenings.

It is debatable how long multiple given names have existed in English-speaking countries, but it is certain that among royalty and aristocracy the practice existed by the late 17th century (and possibly earlier), as exemplified in the name of the Stuart pretender James Francis Edward Stuart (1688–1766).

Despite their relatively long existence in North America, the phrase "middle name" was not recorded until 1835, in the periodical Harvardiana.

The use of multiple middle names has been somewhat impeded recently by the increased use of computer databases that occasionally allow for only a single middle name or more commonly a middle initial in storing personal records, effectively preventing people with multiple middle names from being listed in such databases under their full name. This is worsened by longer compound names, like María del Pilar Pereyra or María de las Nieves García.

The abbreviation "N.M.N." (no middle name) or "N.M.I." (no middle initial), with or without periods, is sometimes used in formal documents in the United States, where a middle initial or name is expected but the person does not have one. The middle name can also be a maiden name.

Since 1905, "middle name" has also developed a figurative usage meaning a notable or outstanding attribute of a person, as in the phrase "discretion is my middle name."

Nanny (disambiguation)

A nanny is a child's caregiver.

Nanny may also refer to:

A female goat

A Cajun word for godmother (see godparent)

An affectionate term for grandmother

Prince Gustav of Denmark

Prince Gustav of Denmark (Christian Frederik Vilhelm Valdemar Gustav; 4 March 1887 – 5 October 1944) was the fourth son of Frederick VIII of Denmark and his wife, Princess Louise of Sweden and Norway.

On 2 February 1935 in the Russian Orthodox Church in Copenhagen he was, together with his cousin Grand Duchess Olga Alexandrovna of Russia and her husband colonel Nikolai Kulikovsky, a godparent at the christening of Aleksander Schalburg, son of first lieutenant in the Royal Danish Life Guards Christian Frederik von Schalburg.Prince Gustav remained unmarried and had no children.

Royal Jubilee Commemorative Medals

The Kingdom of Sweden has a long history of awarding royal commemorative insignia. The oldest is the medal awarded to the godparents of Crown Prince Gustav Adolf in 1778. The majority of these medals celebrate birthdays, jubilees, coronations, and weddings within the Royal Family of Sweden.

Royal commemorative medals are categorized in to Category C in the Swedish order of wear, meaning they are worn after the Royal Order of the Seraphim and all war decorations.

Sponsor

Sponsor or sponsorship may refer to a person or organization with some sort of responsibility for another person or organisation:

Sponsor (commercial), supporter of an event, activity, or person

Sponsor (legislative), a person who introduces a bill

Sponsor (genus), a genus of beetles

Child sponsorship, form of charitable giving

Sponsor of ship naming and launching

Sponsor of baptism, see godparent

Sponsorship in a twelve-step program

"Sponsor" (song), a song by Teairra Marí

The Fairly OddParents (season 2)

The Fairly OddParents aired its second season starting on March 1, 2002. The season ended on January 10, 2003.

The Fairly OddParents shorts

The Fairly OddParents is a series of 10 shorts that aired as animated sketches in the Nickelodeon series Oh Yeah! Cartoons from 1998 to 2001. On March 30, 2001, a week after the shorts concluded in Oh Yeah! Cartoons, a full spin-off series of the same name premiered on Nickelodeon.

The Godfather (fairy tale)

"The Godfather" (German: Der Herr Gevatter) is a German fairy tale collected by the Brothers Grimm as tale number 42.

Who Wants to Be a Godparent?

"Who Wants to Be a Godparent?" is the fourth episode of the eighth season of the CBS sitcom How I Met Your Mother, and the 164th episode overall. It first aired on October 15, 2012.

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