Godhra

Godhra is a Municipality in Panchmahal district in Indian state of Gujarat. It is the administrative headquarters of the Panchmahal district. Originally the name came from gou which means "cow" and dhara which has two meanings: one in Sanskrit which means "hold" or "land" and the other in Hindi which means "flow": It means the Land of the Cow. People of Godhra are very festive. Godhra is very well known for its Garba-Festival.

Godhra is widely known in India and internationally for being the starting point of the 2002 Gujarat riots. Statewide religious riots between Hindus and Muslims began after the Godhra train burning incident near the Godhra railway station on 27 February 2002, where about 59 train passengers were burnt alive.[1] It was in Godhra that Vallabhbhai Patel first met Gandhi in 1917 and was subsequently drawn into the Indian freedom struggle.[2]

Godhra
Ramsagar Lake near Bus Stand, Godhra
Ramsagar Lake near Bus Stand, Godhra
Nickname(s): 
Land of Cows
Godhra is located in Gujarat
Godhra
Godhra
Godhra is located in India
Godhra
Godhra
Coordinates: 22°46′38″N 73°37′13″E / 22.777266°N 73.620253°ECoordinates: 22°46′38″N 73°37′13″E / 22.777266°N 73.620253°E
Country India
StateGujarat
DistrictPanchmahal
Named forCows
Elevation
73 m (240 ft)
Population
(2011)
 • Total143,644
Languages
 • SpokenGujarati
 • OfficialGujarati and English
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN
389001
Telephone code02672
Vehicle registrationGJ-17
Sex ratio935/1000 /
Literacy rate87.51 %
Websitegodhracity.com

History

  • The word "Godhra" means the land of cows. As per local folklore, cows used to come here from Pavagadh for grazing.
  • AD 975: A bronze of Lord Rishabhanath of AD 975 found at Akota mentions Gohadra kula, i.e., the school of Jain monks at Gohadra.[3]
  • AD 1415: The historical name of Godhra is "Godhrahk", which was established by Parmar king named Dhudhul Mandalik in A.D. 1415.
  • 15th Century: Five hundred years ago, the respectable Saint Shrimad Vallabhacharya in his morning ritual speech gave the example of his dream city. He explained how the city which was seen in dream by her daughter was handed over by a Muslim resident to a Hindu family.

Other Name in Literature

Gujarati Historic Novel named Gujaratno Jay written by Zaverchand Meghani based on various Jain Prabandhas describes city as Godhpur(ગોધપુર). [4]

Religious importance

  • Godhra is one of the religious places in the India which has four bethaks (temples) for Vaishnav Sampraday. There are two main seats of Lord Gokulnathji and one each for Lord Gusaiji and Lord Mahaprabhuji. Godhra is the only city in India that has all three seats (or bhaitaks) of the Mahaprabhuji, Gusianji, and Gokulnathji.
  • Godhra has three beautiful Jain temples. The main idol (or Mul Nayak) in the Jain Temple is of Shantinath. It also has a popular temple called the 'Trimandir', a non-sectarian temple founded by Dada Bhagwan in the Bhamaiya area (Ahmedabad Road). [5]

Demographics

  • Year 2011: As of 2011 India census,
    • Population:
      • Godhra had a population of 143,644
      • Males constitute 51.67% of the population and females 48.32%
    • Literacy:
      • Godhra has an average literacy rate of 87.51%, higher than the national average of 74.04%
      • Male literacy is 92.25%, and female literacy is 82.44%
  • Year 2001: As of 2001 India census,[6]
    • Population:
      • Godhra had a population of 121,852.
      • Males constitute 52% of the population and females 48%.
    • Literacy:
      • Godhra has an average literacy rate of 73%, higher than the national average of 59.5%
      • Male literacy is 79.5%, and female literacy is 64.5%.

Connectivity

Godhra Bus Stand
Godhra GSRTC Bus Station

Godhra is connected to all major towns of Gujarat by public transport service operated by GSRTC. And Godhra is Railway Junction that connects Godhra with different parts of state and nation

Education

Godhra has an average literacy rate of 87.51%, higher than the national average of 59.5%

University

  • Shri Govind Guru University
  • Darul Uloom Rahmaniyah, the Islamic university of Godhra, located 2 km out of Godhra
  • GEC Godhra. (Government Engineering College)
  • Engineering College, Tuwa (GTU)

Schools

  • Kalrav School (Vavdi)
  • Aman Day School
  • New Era High School (Primary Section is Dr. Chamanlal Mehta Primary School)
  • Calorx Public School
  • M & M Mehta High School (Primary Section is Anaj Mahajan Primary School)
  • Nalanda School
  • St. Arnolds High School
  • G.N. Junior Public School (Bhuaravav Road)
  • Sharda Mandir (T. C. Soni)[1]
  • Sri Sri Ravishankar Vidyamandir(CBSE)
  • Rotary English Medium School
  • Delhi Public School (CBSE)
  • Jay Jalaram International High School, Parvadi
  • Telang Vanijya High School
  • Nityam International School (Nityam Vidhya Vihar School, Kangaroo Pa Pa Pagli School)
  • Kendriya Vidayalaya, Godhra (CBSE)
  • The Iqbal Union High School
  • The Iqbal Girls High School
  • Meccab Memorial High School
  • The Saifee Jamali English High School
  • Acharya Narendradev Girls High School
  • Unnati Vidhyalay
  • Navrachna High School etc...
  • VMPatel Institute (Private ITI)
  • Usmangani (RD).School.Gondra Godhra *Other educational institutions like Student's brain development Institute Who run programs like UCMAS, Vedic Maths, Spoken English

Colleges

There are several colleges in Godhra for various studies, like

  • Sheth P. T. Arts & Science College, Godhra
  • Shree Sarvajanik Commerce College, Godhra
  • Shamlaji Homeopathic College, Vavdi
  • Shree Ghantakarna Mahaveer Physiotherapy College, Vavdi
  • General Nursing School, General Hospital
  • Government Engineering College, Chhabanpur
  • Government Polytechnic College, Godhra
  • Industrial Training Institute (ITI), Godhra
  • College of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, Godhra affiliated to Anand Agricultural University, Anand. Located at Dholakuwa 5 km away from Godhra on Dahod highway.
  • Diploma-Engineering College, Tuwa (GTU), 2 km away from Godhra-Ahmedabad Highway in Tuwa Village.

Landscape

Nehru Park Godhra
Nehru Park Godhra located near bus station

Mesri River, Ramsagar Lake, Naheru Garden and in far east Kanelav Lake represents nature's beauty.

See also

References

  1. ^ Dasgupta, Manas (2011-03-06). "It was not a random attack on S-6 but kar sevaks were targeted, says judge". The Hindu. Retrieved 2016-10-27.
  2. ^ Gandhi, Rajmohan (1 January 2011). Patel a Life. Navjivan trust. ISBN 8172291388.
  3. ^ Akota Bronzes, Umakant P. Shah, 1959, p. 57-58.
  4. ^ Meghani, Zaverchand (April 2011). Gujaratno Jay. Ahmdabad: Gurjar Sahitya Bhavan. p. 65. ISBN 978-81-8461-481-7.
  5. ^ "The Godhra Trimandir". Retrieved 2018-04-20.
  6. ^ "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 2004-06-16. Retrieved 2008-11-01.
2002 Gujarat riots

The 2002 Gujarat riots, also known as the 2002 Gujarat violence and the Gujarat pogrom, was a three-day period of inter-communal violence in the western Indian state of Gujarat. Following the initial incident there were further outbreaks of violence in Ahmedabad for three months; statewide, there were further outbreaks of violence against the minority Muslim population for the next year. The burning of a train in Godhra on 27 February 2002, which caused the deaths of 58 Hindu pilgrims karsevaks returning from Ayodhya, is cited as having instigated the violence.According to official figures, the riots ended with 1,044 dead, 223 missing, and 2,500 injured. Of the dead, 790 were Muslim and 254 Hindu. The Concerned Citizens Tribunal Report, estimated that as many as 1,926 may have been killed. Other sources estimated death tolls in excess of 2,000. Many brutal killings and rapes were reported on as well as widespread looting and destruction of property. The Chief Minister of Gujarat at that time, Narendra Modi, was accused of initiating and condoning the violence, as were police and government officials who allegedly directed the rioters and gave lists of Muslim-owned properties to them.In 2012, Modi was cleared of complicity in the violence by Special Investigation Team (SIT) appointed by the Supreme Court of India. The SIT also rejected claims that the state government had not done enough to prevent the riots. The Muslim community was reported to have reacted with anger and disbelief. In July 2013 allegations were made that the SIT had suppressed evidence. That December, an Indian court upheld the earlier SIT report and rejected a petition seeking Modi's prosecution. In April 2014, the Supreme Court expressed satisfaction over the SIT's investigations in nine cases related to the violence, and rejected as "baseless" a plea contesting the SIT report.Though officially classified as a communalist riot, the events of 2002 have been described as a pogrom by many scholars, with some commentators alleging that the attacks had been planned, with the attack on the train was a "staged trigger" for what was actually premeditated violence. Other observers have stated that these events had met the "legal definition of genocide," or referred to them as state terrorism or ethnic cleansing. Instances of mass violence include the Naroda Patiya massacre that took place directly adjacent to a police training camp; the Gulbarg Society massacre where Ehsan Jafri, a former parliamentarian, was among those killed; and several incidents in Vadodara city. Scholars studying the 2002 riots state that they were premeditated and constituted a form of ethnic cleansing, and that the state government and law enforcement were complicit in the violence that occurred.

Anand, Gujarat

Anand (pronunciation ) is the administrative centre of Anand District in the state of Gujarat, India. It is administered by Anand Municipality. It is part of the region known as Charotar, consisting of Anand and Kheda Districts.

Anand is known as the Milk Capital of India. It became famous for Amul dairy and its milk revolution. This city hosts the Head Office of Gujarat Cooperative Milk Marketing Federation Ltd (GCMMF which is parent organisation for AMUL & co-operative operations to collect milk), NDDB of India, well known business school - Institute of Rural Management Anand (IRMA), Vidya Dairy and the Anand Agricultural University. Another famous educational hub is Vallabh Vidhyanagar, an educational suburb of Anand which has institutes like GCET(G.H.Patel college of engineering and technology) and is home for around 50,000 students from all over India.

Anand lies between Ahmedabad and Vadodara on the Western Railways, 101 km from the state capital Gandhinagar. It is a railway Junction and a broad gauge line from here runs to Godhra, covering Dakor, a major Hindu pilgrimage en route. MEMUs and one or two regular passenger trains ply on this route. It also has a branch line to Khambhat. DMUs Diesel Multiple Units ply on this route as it is not electrified yet. Anand Railway Station has 5 platforms, numbers 1, 2, 3 and 4 are on the main line and number 5 is on the branch line to Godhra. A new platform is in construction on the branch to Ahmedabad from the Godhra line forming a triangle. The National express highway from Ahmedabad to Vadodara also passes through Anand.

Anand has seen rapid economic growth along the Anand-Vallabh Vidya Nagar and Karamsad road belt. It is well on track to become a Municipal Corporation with the inclusion of various peripheral villages like Karamsad, Chikhodra, Lambhvel, V. V Nagar, Bakrol, Mogri and 20 others, however the major part of the town still lacks drainage system.

Anand Junction railway station

Anand Railway Station is a major junction located in Anand, Gujarat. It is a junction on the railway line which connects Ahmedabad with Vadodara and Mumbai and was opened in 1901.A 14 mile long broad gauge line was opened in 1929 connecting Vadtal with Anand and Boriavi, benefitting pilgrims visiting the Swaminarayan Temple in Vadtal. Other broad gauge branches from Anand connect it to Godhra and Cambay.

In 2011, Indian Railways announced its intention to set up "multi-function complex" including budget hotels at Anand Railway Station.

Best Bakery case

The Best Bakery case (also called Tulsi Bakery case) was a legal case involving the burning down of the Best Bakery, a small outlet in the Hanuman Tekri area in Vadodara, Gujarat, India, on 1 March 2002. During the incident, a mob targeted the Sheikh family who ran the bakery and had taken refuge inside, resulting in the deaths of 14 (11 Muslims including family members and 3 Hindu employees of the bakery). This case has come to symbolize the carnage in 2002 Gujarat riots (and the alleged State Government complicity in it) that followed the Godhra train Massacre. All the 21 accused were acquitted by the court due to shoddy police work and issues with evidence. It was the first case to be tried with respect to the Godhra riots.

G. T. Nanavati

Girish Thakorlal Nanavati (born 17 February 1935 in Jambusar, Gujarat) is a retired judge from the Supreme Court of India. After his retirement he headed two commissions inquiring into the 1984 Anti-Sikh riots and the Godhra riots.

Godhra, Karachi

Godhra (Urdu: گودھرا ‎) is one of the neighbourhoods of New Karachi Town in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.There are several ethnic groups in Godhra including Gujratis, Muhajirs, Sindhis, Kashmiris, Seraikis, Pakhtuns, Balochis, Memons, Bohras, Ismailis, etc. Over 99% of the population is Muslim. The population of New Karachi Town is estimated to be nearly one million.

Godhra (Lok Sabha constituency)

Godhra was a Lok Sabha parliamentary constituency in Gujarat. The seat has been renamed 'Panchmahal' after 2008 delimitation.

Godhra Junction railway station

Godhra Junction railway station is a railway station in Panchmahal district, Gujarat. Its code is GDA. It serves Godhra city. The station consists of 3 platforms. It is under Vadodara railway division of Western Railway Zone of Indian Railways. It is located on New Delhi–Mumbai main line of the Indian Railways.

Godhra train burning

The Godhra train burning was an incident that occurred on the morning of 27 February 2002, in which 59 people died in a fire inside the Sabarmati Express train near the Godhra railway station in the Indian state of Gujarat. The victims were Hindu pilgrims who were returning from the city of Ayodhya after a religious ceremony at the disputed Babri Masjid site. The commission set up by the Government of Gujarat to investigate the train burning spent 6 years going over the details of the case, and concluded that the fire was arson committed by a mob of 1,000 to 2,000 people. A commission appointed by the central government, whose appointment was later held to be unconstitutional, stated that the fire had been an accident. A court convicted 31 Muslims for the incident and the conspiracy for the crime. The conviction was later upheld by the Gujarat High Court,The event is widely perceived as the trigger for the Gujarat riots that followed, which resulted in widespread loss of life, destruction of property and homelessness. Estimates of casualties range from the official figures of 790 Muslims and 254 Hindus, to upwards of 2,000 casualties.

List of Monuments of National Importance in Gujarat

This is a list of Monuments of National Importance (ASI) as officially recognized by and available through the website of the Archaeological Survey of India in the Indian state Gujarat. The monument identifier is a combination of the abbreviation of the subdivision of the list (state, ASI circle) and the numbering as published on the website of the ASI. 203 Monuments of National Importance have been recognized by the ASI in Gujarat.

Mathura–Vadodara section

The Mathura–Vadodara section is a railway line connecting Mathura and Vadodara. This section is part of Delhi–Mumbai line. This section includes Jaipur–Sawai Madhopur, Ajmer–Ratlam and Udaipur–Kota for branching and connectivity to this section.

This section deals primarily with cross traffic consisting of fertilizer, cement, oil, salt, food grains, oil seeds, lime stone and gypsum traffic. Container loading is done from here in bulk.

Nanavati-Mehta Commission

The Nanavati-Mehta Commission is the commission of inquiry appointed by the government of Gujarat to probe the Godhra train burning incident of 27 February 2002. Its mandate was later enlarged to include the investigation of the 2002 Gujarat riots. It was appointed on 6 March 2002, with K. G. Shah, a retired Gujarat High Court judge the only member. It was later re-constituted to include G. T. Nanavati, a retired judge of the Supreme Court of India, after protests from human rights organizations over Shah's closeness to Narendra Modi. Akshay H. Mehta, retired judge of the Gujarat High Court, replaced Shah when the latter died before the submission of the Commission's interim report. Justice Mehta was the same judge who had granted bail to Babu Bajrangi, the main accused of the Naroda Patiya massacre.

In September 2008 the Commission submitted the part of its report covering the Godhra train burning incident (Part I) in which it had concluded that burning of the S-6 coach of Sabarmati Express near Godhra railway station was a “planned conspiracy”. The part dealing with subsequent violence was submitted on 18 November 2014. Its term ended on 31 October 2014, having received 24 extensions from the state government.

Nari Contractor

Nariman Jamshedji "Nari" Contractor pronunciation (born 7 March 1934, Godhra, Gujarat) is a former cricket player, who was a left-handed opening batsman. His professional career finished after a serious injury.

Naroda Patiya massacre

The Naroda Patiya massacre took place on 28 February 2002 at Naroda, in Ahmedabad, India, during the 2002 Gujarat riots. 97 Muslims were killed by a mob of approximately 5,000 people, organised by the Bajrang Dal, a wing of the Vishva Hindu Parishad, and supported by the Bharatiya Janata Party which was in power in the Gujarat State Government. The massacre at Naroda occurred during the bandh (strike) called by Vishwa Hindu Parishad a day after the Godhra train burning. The riot lasted over 10 hours, during which the mob looted, stabbed, sexually assaulted, gang-raped and burnt people individually and in groups. After the conflict, a curfew was imposed in the state and army troops were called in to contain further violence.

The communal violence at Naroda was deemed "the largest single case of mass murder" during the 2002 Gujarat riots; it accounted for the greatest number of deaths during a single event. Survivors faced socio-economic problems; many were left homeless, orphaned and injured. A number of shrines were destroyed and many schools were adversely affected, cancelled exams or closed entirely. The surviving victims were given shelter in relief camps provided by both the state and central government, and efforts were begun to restore destroyed properties and shrines. The state government formed a "Gujarat state commission of inquiry" for citizens to have a forum in which to make recommendations and suggest reforms. Mainstream media criticised the Gujarat government's handling of the riots; it was remarked that a number of reports were exaggerated, and "inflammatory headlines, stories and pictures" were published, resulting in anti-Muslim prejudice among the Hindu readership.

Allegations were made against the state police, state government and the chief minister Narendra Modi, citing that government authorities were involved and various police personnel played a role in the massacre: a number of eyewitnesses reported police officers favouring the mob by allegedly injuring or killing Muslims and damaging public and private property. However, none of the allegations were proven and the government and police were cleared of wrongdoing by a Special Investigation Team. The initial report on the case was filed by the Gujarat police, accusing 46 people, all of whom the Special Court deemed unreliable. In 2008, the Supreme Court of India formed a Special Investigation Team to investigate the case. In 2009, the team submitted its report, which accused 70 people of wrongdoing, 61 of whom were charged. On 29 August 2012, the Special Court convicted 32 people and acquitted 29 due to insufficient evidence. Among those convicted were Maya Kodnani – former Cabinet Minister for Women and Child Development of Gujarat and former Bharatiya Janata Party MLA from Naroda – who was sentenced to 28 years imprisonment, and Bajrang Dal's Babu Bajrangi, who received a life sentence.

New Karachi Town

New Karachi Town (Urdu: نیو کراچی ٹاؤن‬‎) is a town in the northern part of Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. New Karachi Town is located between the Lyari River, the Manghopir Hills and two major roads – Surjani Road to the north and Shahrah-e-Zahid Hussain to the south. To the north and west lies Gadap Town, and to the south lie the towns of Gulberg Town and North Nazimabad Town. The population of New Karachi Town was estimated to be more than 680,000 at the 1998 census. Muhajirs constitute an overwhelming majority of the population.

Panchmahal district

Panchmahal, also Panch Mahals, is a district in the eastern portion of Gujarat State western India. Panch-mahal means "five tehsils/talukas" (5 sub-divisions), and refers to the five sub-divisions that were transferred by the Maharaja Jivajirao Scindia of Gwalior State to the British: Godhra, Dahod, Halol, Kalol and Jhalod. The district had a population of 2,025,277 of which 12.51% were urban as of 2001. Headquarters: Godhra.

The district is located on eastern end of the state. It is bordered by Dahod District to the north-east & east, Vadodara District to the southwest and Chhota Udaipur District to southeast, Kheda District to the west and Mahi Sagar District to the north.

Rewa Kantha Agency

Rewa Kantha was a political agency of British India, managing the relations (indirect rule) of the British government's Bombay Presidency with a collection of princely states. It stretched for about 150 miles between the plain of Gujarat and the hills of Malwa, from the Tapti River to the Mahi River crossing the Rewa (or Narmada) River, from which it takes its name.The political agent, who was also District collector of the prant (British District) of the Panchmahal, resided at Godhra.

Sabarmati Express

The Sabarmati Express (19168/19167) is an express train which connects the city of Ahmedabad, India to Varanasi city in the northern state of Uttar Pradesh through Jhansi. The train may take up to two days to complete the journey. It travels through Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh via Ratlam Junction, Ujjain Junction, Guna Junction, Kanpur Central, Lucknow Charbagh, Ayodhya, Faizabad.

It enters Gujarat from Dahod railway station then Godhra, Vadodara and Ahmedabad.

Shri Govind Guru University

Shri Govind Guru University is a state university located at Godhra, Gujarat, India. It was established in 2015 by the Shri Govind Guru University Act, 2015 of the Government of Gujarat and approved by the University Grants Commission (UGC) in 2016. The university has jurisdiction over the districts of Panchmahal, Mahisagar, Dahod, Chhota Udaipur and Vadodara in eastern Gujarat with about 96 affiliated colleges.

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