In Islam, God (Arabic: الله, romanized: Allāh, contraction of الْإِلٰه al-ilāh, lit. "the God") is the absolute one, the all-powerful and all-knowing ruler of the universe, and the creator of everything in existence. Islam emphasizes that God is strictly singular (tawḥīd ): unique (wāḥid ), inherently One (aḥad ), also all-merciful and omnipotent. God is neither a material nor a spiritual being. According to Islamic teachings, beyond the Throne and according to the Quran, "No vision can grasp him, but His grasp is over all vision: He is above all comprehension, yet is acquainted with all things."
Chapter 112 of the Quran, titled Al-'Ikhlās (The Sincerity) reads:
"He is God, [who is] One.
God, the Eternal Refuge.
He neither begets nor is born,
Nor is there to Him any equivalent."
In Islam there is only one God and there are 99 names of that one God (al-asmāʼ al-ḥusná lit. meaning: "The best names"), each of which evokes a distinct attribute of God. All these names refer to Allah, the supreme and all-comprehensive god. Among the 99 names of God, the most familiar and frequent are "the Compassionate" (Ar-Raḥmān) and "the Merciful" (Ar-Raḥīm). Creation and ordering of the universe is seen as an act of prime mercy for which all creatures praise God's attributes and bear witness to God's unity.
Allah is the Arabic word referring to God in Abrahamic religions. In the English language, the word generally refers to God in Islam. The word is thought to be derived by contraction from al-ilāh, which means "the god", and is related to El and Elah, the Hebrew and Aramaic words for God. It is distinguished from ilāh (Arabic: إله), the Arabic word meaning deity, which could refer to any of the gods worshipped in pre-Islamic Arabia.
God is described and referred to in the Quran and hadith by 99 names that reflect his attributes. The Quran refers to the attributes of God as "most beautiful names". According to Gerhard Böwering,
They are traditionally enumerated as 99 in number to which is added as the highest Name (al-ism al-ʾaʿẓam), the Supreme Name of Allāh. The locus classicus for listing the Divine Names in the literature of Qurʾānic commentary is 17:110 “Call upon Allah, or call upon The Merciful; whichsoever you call upon, to Allah belong the most beautiful Names,” and also 59:22-24, which includes a cluster of more than a dozen Divine epithets."— Gerhard Böwering, God and God's Attributes
Non-Arab Muslims may or may not use different names as much as Allah, for instance "God" in English.
There are numerous conventional phrases and expressions invoking God.
(Quran or Sunnah)
|allāhu ʾakbaru||9:72, 29:45, 40:10|
|God is greater (than anything you see, hear, or do)|
|subḥāna llāhi||23:91, 28:68, 37:159, 52:43, 59:23|
|Glory to God|
|al-ḥamdu li-llāhi||1:2, 6:1, 29:63, 31:25, 34:1, 35:1, 35:34, 39:29, 39:74, 39:75, 40:65|
|Praise be to God|
|lā ʾilāha ʾillā llāhu||37:38, 47:19|
|لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلّٰا اللّٰهُ|
|(There is) no god but Allah|
|muḥammadun rasūlu llāhi||48:29|
|مُحَمَّدٌ رَسُولُ اللّٰهِ|
|Muhammad is the messenger of God|
|bi-smi llāhi r-raḥmāni r-raḥīmi||1:1|
|بِسْمِ اللّٰهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحْيم |
|in the name of God, the Beneficent, the Merciful|
|ʾin shāʾa llāhu||2:70, 12:99, 18:69, 28:27, 48:27|
|إِنْ شَاءَ اللّٰهُ|
|if God is willing|
|mā shāʾa llāhu||6:128, 7:188, 10:49, 18:39, 87:7|
|مَا شَاءَ اللّٰهُ|
|God wills that|
|ṣallā llāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallama|
|صَلَّىٰ اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِہِ وَسَلَّمَ |
|God bless him and give him salvation|
|raḥimahu llāhu / raḥimaka llāhu|
|رَحِمَهُ اللّٰهُ / رَحِمَكَ اللّٰهُ|
|May God have mercy upon him / you|
|ʾastaġfiru llāhi||12:98, 19:47|
|I seek forgiveness from God|
|ʾlā ḥawla wa lā quwwata illā bi-llāhi||Riyad as-Salihin 16:36|
|لا حول ولا قوة إلا بالله|
|There is no might nor power except in God|
|Inna Lillahi wa inna ilaihi raji'un|
|ʾinnā li-llāhi wa-ʾinnā ʾilayhi rājiʿūna||2:156, 2:46, 2:156|
|إِنَّا لِلّٰهِ وَإِنَّا إِلَيْهِ رَاجِعُونَ|
|Indeed, (we belong) to God and indeed to Him we shall return|
|jazaka llāhu ḫayran||Riyad as-Salihin 17:32, Tirmidhi 27:141, Bukhari 7:3|
|جَزَاكَ اللّٰهُ خَيْرًا|
|May God reward you well|
|ʾaʿūḏu bi-llāhi mina š-šayṭāni r-rajīmi||Riyad as-Salihin 1:46|
|أَعُوْذُ بِاللّٰهِ مِنَ الشَّيْطٰانِ الرَّجِيْمِ|
|I seek refuge with God from Satan, the accursed|
|Fī sabīli llāh|
|fī sabīli llāhi||2:154, 2:190, 2:195, 2:218, 2:244, 2:246, etc.|
|فِي سَبِيلِ اللّٰهِ|
|in the cause (way) of God|
|yarḥamuka llāhu||Bukhari 78:248, Riyad as-Salihin 6:35|
|May God have mercy on you|
|Honorifics often said or written alongside Allah|
|subḥānahu wa-taʿālā||6:100, 10:18, 16:1, 17:43, 30:40, 39:67|
|May He be praised and exalted|
|May His glory be glorified|
|the Glorified/Exalted/Mighty and Sublime|
Islam's most fundamental concept is a strict monotheism called tawhid, affirming that God is one and incomparable (wāḥid). The basic creed of Islam, the Shahada (recited under oath to enter the religion), involves لا إله إلا الله (lā ʾilāha ʾillallāh), or, "I testify there is no god other than God."
According to Vincent J. Cornell, the Quran also provides a monist image of God by describing the reality as a unified whole, with God being a single concept that would describe or ascribe all existing things: "He is the First and the Last, the Evident and the Immanent: and He has full knowledge of all things."
Tawhid constitutes the foremost article of the Muslim profession. The deification or worship of anyone or anything other than God (shirk) is the biggest sin in Islam. The entirety of the Islamic teaching rests on the principle of Tawhid.
God is the creator of the universe and all the creatures in it.
Praise be to Allah, the Creator of the heavens and the earth, Who appointeth the angels messengers having wings two, three and four. He multiplieth in creation what He will. Lo! Allah is Able to do all things.
We have built the heaven with might, and We it is Who make the vast extent (thereof).
Verily We created man from a product of wet earth; Then placed him as a drop (of seed) in a safe lodging; Then fashioned We the drop a clot, then fashioned We the clot a little lump, then fashioned We the little lump bones, then clothed the bones with flesh, and then produced it as another creation. So blessed be Allah, the Best of creators!
The most commonly used names in the primary sources are Al-Rahman, meaning "Most Compassionate" and Al-Rahim, meaning "Most Merciful". The former compasses the whole creation, therefore apply to God's mercy, that gives every necessary condition to make life possible. The latter apply to God's mercy, that gives favor for good deeds. Thus Al-Rahman includes both the believers and the unbelievers, but Al-Rahim the believers. God is said to love forgiving, with a hadith stating God would replace a sinless people with one who sinned but still asked repentance. Also the word Rahman comes from the word Rahm which means the womb of the mother so it is a comparison between God's mercy to the mercy of a mother with her child.
His mercy takes many forms from as he say in the Quran "and My Mercy embraces all things.” [7:156] this is shown by a in Muslim narrated from Abu Hurairah said the Prophet said : “Allah has one hundred parts of mercy, of which He sent down one between the jinn, mankind, the animals and the insects, by means of which they are compassionate and merciful to one another, and by means of which wild animals are kind to their offspring. And Allah has kept back ninety-nine parts of mercy with which to be merciful to His slaves of the Day of Resurrection.” Also God's mercy according to Islamic theology is what gets a person into paradise. According to hadith in Sahih Al Bukhari “No one’s deeds will ever admit him to Paradise.” They said, “Not even you, O Messenger of Allah?” He said, “No, not even me unless Allah showers me with His Mercy. So try to be near to perfection. And no one should wish for death; he is either doing good so he will do more of that, or he is doing wrong so he may repent.”
God is fully aware of everything that can be known. This includes private thoughts and feelings. The Qur'an asserts that one can not hide anything from God:
And, [O Muhammad], you are not [engaged] in any matter or recite any of the Qur'an and you [people] do not do any deed except that We are witness over you when you are involved in it. And not absent from your Lord is any [part] of an atom's weight within the earth or within the heaven or [anything] smaller than that or greater but that it is in a clear register.
And indeed We have created man, and We know what his ownself whispers to him. And We are nearer to him than his jugular vein.— Quran, Sura Qaf: 50:16
Muslims believe that God is the only true reality and the creation including its creatures are just a derivative reality created out of love and mercy by God's command, "..."Be," and it is." and that the purpose of existence is to worship or to know God. It is believed that God created everything for a divine purpose; the universe governed by fixed laws that ensure the harmonious working of all things. Humans must live in accordance with these laws to live to find peace and reproduce God's benevolence in their own society to live in accordance with the nature of all things, known as surrender to God in the Islamic sense. As in the other Abrahamic religions, God is believed to communicate with his creation via revelations given to prophets to remind people of God. The Quran in particular is believed by Muslims to be the verbatim word of God as revealed to Muhammad. Hadith are the records of Muhammad's sayings and example, and Hadith Qudsi is a sub-category of hadith, which Muslims regard as the words of God repeated by Muhammad. According to Ali ibn Mohammed al-Jurjani, the Hadith Qudsi differ from the Quran in that the former are "expressed in Muhammad's words", whereas the latter are the "direct words of God". There are no intermediaries, such as clergy, to contact God who states in the Quran, "It was We Who created man, and We know what dark suggestions his soul makes to him: for We are nearer to him than (his) jugular vein." People may enter a particular relationship with God any time and in different circumstances through the divine names or attributes. Thus God is also a personal God who responds whenever a person in need or distress calls Him. Muhammad al-Bukhari, in his Ṣaḥīḥ Bukhārī, narrates a ḥadīth qudsī that God says, "I am as My servant thinks (expects) I am." When Sufis claim union with God, it is not that they become one in essence, rather the will of the Sufi is fully congruent to God.
According to Isma'ilism, God is absolutely transcendent and unknowable; beyond matter, energy, space, time, change, imaginings, intellect, positive as well as negative qualities. All attributes of God named in rituals, scriptures or prayers refers not to qualities God possesses, but to qualities emanated from God, thus these are the attributes God gave as the source of all qualities, but God does not consist on one of these qualities. Since God is beyond all wordings, Isma'ilism also denies the concept of God as the first cause.
The Muʿtazilites reject the anthropomorphic attributes of God because an eternal being "must be unique". Accordingly, attributes would make God comparable. The descriptions of God in the Quran are considered to be allegories. Nevertheless, the Muʿtazilites thought, God contains oneness (tawhid) and justice. Other characteristics like knowledge are not attributed to God; rather they describe his essence. Otherwise eternal attributes of God would give rise to multiplicity entities existing eternal besides God.
Ash'ari and Maturidi are in agreement about God's attributes are eternal but neither hold to be metaphorically (unlike Mu'tazilla) nor literally. Therefore, God has hands but they do not resemble humans hands. Although God's existence is considered to be possibly known by reason, human mind can not fully understand God's attributes. For example, when humans in paradise see God, they do not see God in the way humans are able to see on Earth. Ashʿari asserts, since God is the creator of everything that exists and creation does not affect nor alter God, the Throne of God is not a dwelling place for God. Accordingly, God is above his Throne means, God exist unattached of any place.
Since God in Islam is transcendental and sovereign but also immanent and omnipresent, the Sufi view holds that in reality, only God exists. Thus everything in creation is reflecting an attribute of God's names. Yet these forms are not God themselves. The Sufi Saint Ibn Arabi stated: There is nothing but God. This statement was mistakenly equalized to Pantheism by critics, however, Ibn Arabi always made a clear distinction between the creation and the creator. Since God is the Absolute Reality, the created worlds and their inhabitants are merely illusions. They just exist because of Gods command Kun, but everything that would be, was already known by God.
Salafism and Wahhabism refuse interpretations on Quran to avoid altering of its message, thus taking the descriptions of God literally and oppose widespread theological concepts including the Ash'ari view. Therefore, descriptions such as "God's hands" or "sitting on (above) a throne, should be taken at their linguistic meaning, without asking how, as we don't know how, but we know what they are based on linguistic meaning.
Islamic theology identifies God as described in the Quran as the same God of Israel who covenanted with Abraham. It rejects the belief once held by pre-Islamic Arabians that God has daughters. Islam and Judaism alike reject the Trinity of Christianity. But the Islamic concept of God is less personal than in the Judeo-Christian tradition,  and is known only from natural signs and can only be spoken about in parables.
Encouraged by the Quran (7:180; 17:110; 20:8), Muslims selected ninety-nine attributes of God, describing His perfection, from the Quran and traditions. Referred to as “the most beautiful names of God,” they describe a range of characteristics that balances the power of God (the Creator, the Sovereign, and the All-Knowing) with His love and mercy (the All-Loving, the Most Gracious, and the All-Forgiving). The names are frequently memorized and used in supplications. Preceded by the words Abd or Amat (male or female servant), they are often used in proper names (e.g., Abd al-Rahman, “servant of the Merciful”).
Allah is believed to be the transcendent, all-powerful, and all-knowing creator, sustainer, ordainer, and judge of the universe.
Adl (Arabic: عدل, ʻAdl) is an Arabic word meaning 'justice', and is also one of the names of God in Islam.
Adel, and Adeel are male names derived from Adl and are common throughout the Muslim and Arab worlds.Akhirah
ʾĀkhirah (Arabic: الآخرة) is an Islamic term referring to the afterlife. It is repeatedly referenced in chapters of the Quran concerning the Last Judgment, an important part of Islamic eschatology. Traditionally, it is considered to be one of the six main beliefs of Muslims, the others including: Tawhid (unitarianism), belief in the angels, belief in the Revealed Books (Scrolls of Abraham, Tawrat, Zabur, Injil and Quran), belief in the prophets and messengers, and belief in predestination.
According to the Islamic beliefs, God will play the role of the qadi, weighing the deeds of each individual. He will decide whether that person's ʾākhirah lies in Jahannam (Hell) or Jannah (Heaven) on the basis of the weight of either good or bad deeds in comparison with one another. The judgment doesn't depend upon the amount of deeds as much as it does on the will behind the deed, deeds are judged on the basis of the will behind it.
Jannah and Jahannam both have various levels. The placement of a person may depend upon the extent of his or her good deeds. It is also said that God may forgive a sin against Himself but not against another human. No religion except Islam shall be accepted. The Bible, Gospels, Psalms and some other previous religious texts are said to be from God in Islam, but they are believed to have been edited to a great extent over time by people according to their own will. God has promised to keep the Quran safe from any such changes.According to Islam, death is not the end of the life, but it is a transferral from this world to everlasting world. With the withdrawal of the spirit from the body, the soul's life in the Barzakh begins until the Day of Resurrection. According to the deeds of the believer and disbeliever, their Barzakh differs.Al-Ghafir
See Ghafur for the Quranic sura.
Al-Ghāfur (الغافر) is one of the titles of God in Islam, translated as "The Forgiver". It is derived from the root gh-f-r (غَفَرَ). The basic meaning of the root is "to cover, to shield, to protect", besides "to forgive".
Al-Ghafūr (الغفور) and Al-Ghaffār (الغفار) are two of the 99 Names of God in Islam derived from the same root. Their traditional translations are "The All-Forgiving" and "The Forgiving".
The root gh-f-r has given rise to three names in the Qur'an: Ghaffar, Ghaffur and Ghâfir. However, only Ghaffar and Ghaffur were included in the list of 99 names narrated by Tirmidhi.Al-Haqq
Haqq (Arabic: حقّ ḥaqq) is the Arabic word for truth. In Islamic contexts, it is also interpreted as right and reality. Al-Haqq, 'the truth, is one of the names of God in the Qur'an. It is often used to refer to God as the Ultimate Reality in Islam.Al-Rashid
Al-Rashid, ar-Rashid ("the Righteous"), Al-Rasheed or Al Rasheed may refer to:
Ar-Rashīd, one of the names of God in Islam, meaning "Guide to the Right Path"Aziz
Aziz (Arabic: عزيز, ʿazīz, [ʕaziːz]) was originally a Northwest Semitic Phoenician-Aramaic-Hebrew-Arabic word, but is now much more commonly (but not exclusively) known as a Central Semitic Arabic male name. The feminine form of both the adjective and the given name is Aziza.
Aziz in Arabic is derived from the root ʕ-z-z with a meaning of "strong, powerful" and the adjective has acquired its meaning of "dear, darling, precious". It is a cognate of Hebrew oz meaning "might, strength, power". The Semitic word refers to the "power and glory" of deities and kings. In the Latinised form "Azizus" it is attested as the name of one of the Priest-Kings who ruled Emesa (the modern Homs, Syria) as clients of the Roman Empire.
Al-Aziz is one of the names of God in Islam, and the word is also used as a royal title borne by the high nobles of Egypt, being a title borne by the prophet Joseph in the Quranic Surah-e-Yusuf, and also by the Biblical Potiphar, referred to in the Quran as Aziz.
It is used in existing Semitic languages such as Arabic, Assyrian Neo Aramaic, Mandic, Hebrew, and also in non-Semitic languages like Turkish, Kurdish, Azerbaijani, Persian, Urdu, Pashtu, Dari, Kazakh, Kyrgyz, Turkmen, Uzbek, Uyghur, Balochi, Bengali, Somali, Indonesian, and Malaysian.
Aziz is a common masculine given name, especially in the Muslim world but it has also continued to be used by indigenous non-Muslim peoples in the Middle East, e.g. Assyrians, and Mandeans.Hadi
Hadi (Arabic: هادي) is an Arabic/Persian/Turkish masculine given name.
Hadi comes from the Arabic triconsonantal root of ه د ي , Is a name derived from the word Hidayah (Arabic: هداية, Hidāyah)
Al-Hadi is one of the 99 Names of God in Islam meaning The Guide.Hakim
Hakim or Al-Hakim may refer to:
Al-Ḥakīm (Arabic: الحكيم), one of the names of God in Islam, meaning "The All-Wise".
Hakim (name), an Arabic masculine name, including a list of people bearing this name
Hakim (title), Arabic titles used in Arabic and Asian countries
Al Hakum (Iraq), a former biological weapons facility in Iraq
Hakim Rifle, an Egyptian rifle
Hakim Stout, a beer made in Ethiopia by Harar BreweryHamid
Hamad refers to two different but related Arabic given names, both of which come from the Arabic triconsonantal root of Ḥ-M-D (ح م د):
Ḥāmed - حامد - also spelled Haamed, Hamid or Hamed, and in Turkish Hamed; it means "Lauder" or “one who praises”.
Ḥamīd - حمید - also spelled Hamid, or Hameed, in Turkish is Hamit, and in Azeri is Həmid or Һәмид; it means “lauded” or “praiseworthy”.Karim
Kareem (alternatively spelled Karim, (Kahreem) or Kerim) (Arabic: کریم) is a common given name and surname of Arabic origin that means generous or noble. It should not be confused with Al-Karim (Arabic: الکریم), which is one of the 99 names of Allah, meaning The Most Generous.
Karim is also a spelling of the similar, though much less common, name (Arabic: كرم), which is commonly spelled as Karam, Karem or Kerem. Another derivative name of (Arabic: أکرم) is Akram, meaning more generous.Khuda
Khuda or Khoda (Persian: خدا) is the Persian word for "Lord" or "God". Originally, it was used in reference to Ahura Mazda (the name of God in Zoroastrianism). Other Iranian languages also use it.Mumin
Mumin or Momin (Arabic: مؤمن, romanized: muʾmin; feminine مؤمنة muʾmina) is an Arabic Islamic term, frequently referenced in the Quran, meaning "believer". It denotes a person who has complete submission to the Will of Allah and has faith firmly established in his heart, i.e. a "faithful Muslim". Also, it is used as a name and one of the names of God in Islam.Names of God in Islam
According to a hadith, there are at least 99 Names of Allah, known as the ʾasmāʾu llāhi l-ḥusnā (Arabic: أسماء الله الحسنى Beautiful Names of Allah). The names are also called 99 Attributes of Allah.Rahman
Rahman (Arabic: رَحْمَٰنِ or رَحْمَانِ) may refer to:
Rahman, one of the names of God in Islam
Ar-Rahman, the 55th sura of the Qur'anTashbih
Tashbih (Arabic: تشبيه) is an Islamic religious concept meaning closeness. In Islamic theology, two opposite terms are attributed to Allah, tashbih and tanzih, or distance and transcendence.
However, the fuller meaning of tashbih is 'affirming similarity', i.e. affirming Allah's nearness to humanity. This concept is eternally juxtaposed with Allah's tanzih (transcendence, or 'declaring incompatibility').
The literal meaning of the word is "to declare something similar to something else". This definition affirms that Allah has some similarity to his creations: "Nothing is like Him." (Sura 42:11) but His attributes require some similarity to the world, as people associate compassion, mercy and wrath with our interpretation of such adjectives.
The two, opposing aspects affect every aspect of a Muslim's belief, action and relationship with Allah. Tashbih is associated with Allah's Right Hand (mercy) in contrast to tanzih being associated with his Left Hand (wrath).
The Divine Names of Allah associated with tashbih are those that indicate nearness, closeness and mercy: Compassionate, Merciful, Desiring, Forgiver, Creator and Loving.
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