Gobihadros is a genus of basal hadrosauroid dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous of Mongolia. It contains one species, Gobihadros mongoliensis. The holotype specimen was recovered from the Bayan Shireh Formation (Cenomanian-Santonian). Its length was estimated at just under 3 meters (10 feet) long.
|Skull of the referred specimen|
Tsogtbaatar et al., 2019
Tsogtbaatar et al., 2019
Between 1993 and 2004, the Mongolian Palaeontological Center and the Japanese Hayashibara Museum of Natural Sciences excavated sites at Bayshin Tsav. Material was discovered of a basal hadrosauroid new to science. Tsogtbaatar treated this species in his dissertation of 2008.
In 2019, the type species Gobihadros mongoliensis was named and described by Khishigjav Tsogtbaatar, David Bruce Weishampel, David Christopher Evans and Mahito Watabe. The generic name combines references to the Gobi Desert and the Hadrosauroidea. The specific name refers to the provenance from Mongolia. Because the describing article appeared in an electronic publication, Life Science Identifiers were needed to make the name valid. These were 38EE8AD7-AD50-44BF-B31D-B2675456556A for the genus and 2DB42EE7-6A64-4D64-AA19-E5D3453BF99C for the species.
The holotype, MPC-D100/746, was found in a layer of the Baynshire Formation dating from the Cenomanian-Santonian, roughly eighty-five million years old. It consists of a nearly complete skeleton with skull. While the postcranial skeleton was articulated, the skull was partly disintegrated. Numerous specimens have been referred to the species, the most important among them specimen MPC-D100/763, a complete articulated skull, with a hand. The specimens have partly been found in other sites in Mongolia. Combined, they make Gobihadros the most completely known basal hadrosauroid from Asia.
Gobihadros was a relatively small hadrosauroid. Specimen MPC-D100/763 had a body length of about three metres, but was not yet fully-grown.
The describing authors indicated some distinguishing traits. Gobihadros differs from all known other non-hadrosaurid hadrosauroids in possessing a double-layered tomial edge of the premaxilla and the presence of as much as three teeth per tooth position in the lower jaw. These are typical hadrosaurid traits and were concluded to have been acquired separately by the Hadrosauridae in a process of parallel evolution. Gobihadros differs from Bactrosaurus johnsoni, Probactrosaurus gobiensis, Eolambia caroljonesa, Claosaurus agilis and Tethyshadros insularis by an undulating upper profile of the ilium and a more sidewards projecting supra-acetabular crest. Gobihadros differs from T. insularis, Plesiohadros djadokhtaensis and the Hadrosauridae in possessing a conical spike-like claw of the first finger.
Gobihadros was placed in the Hadrosauroidea in 2019, in a basal position outside of the Hadrosauridae. Its exact affinities were unclear as it was recovered in a polytomy with many other such forms. Its existence was seen as affirming a pattern of subsequent American hadrosauroid invasions into Asia.
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