Gobiconodon

Gobiconodon is an extinct genus of carnivorous mammal from the early Cretaceous. It weighed 10–12 pounds (4.5–5.4 kg) and measured 18–20 inches (460–510 mm). It was one of the largest mammals known from the Mesozoic. Like other gobiconodontids, it possesses several speciations towards carnivory, such as shearing molar teeth, large canine-like incisors and powerful jaw and forelimb musculature, indicating that it probably fed on vertebrate prey; rather uniquely among predatory mammals and other eutriconodonts, the lower canines were vestigial, with the first lower incisor pair having become massive and canine-like. Like the larger Repenomamus there might be some evidence of scavenging.[2]

Gobiconodon
Temporal range: Middle Jurassic-Late Cretaceous 166–94 Ma
Gobiconodon ostromi
Gobiconodon ostromi skeleton
GobiconodonDB15
Reconstruction
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Gobiconodonta
Family: Gobiconodontidae
Genus: Gobiconodon
Trofimov, 1978
Species
  • G. bathoniensis Sigogneau-Russell, 2016
  • G. borissiaki Trofimov, 1978 (type)
  • G. hoburensis (Trofimov, 1978) Kielan- Jaworowska & Dashzeveg, 1998
  • G. hopsoni Rougier et al., 2001
  • G. luoianus Yuan et al., 2009
  • G. ostromi Jenkins Jr. & Schaff, 1988
  • G. palaios Sigogneau-Russell, 2003
  • G. zofiae Li et al., 2003
  • G. haizhouensis Kusuhashi et al., 2015[1]
  • G. tomidai Kusuhashi et al., 2015[1]
Synonyms

Guchinodon hoburensis Trofimov, 1978 Neoconodon borissiaki (nomen nudum)

Species

Species Material Age Location Unit Notes
G. borissiaki [3] 10 upper and lower jaws[3] & 3 upper and lower jaws.[4] Holotype: PIN 3101/09 Aptian - Albian  Mongolia Khoboor Beds Neoconodon is a synonym.
1 fragmentary lower jaw[5] Neocomian - Albian  Russia Siberia
G. hoburensis [3] 21 upper and lower jaws. Holotype: PIN 3101/24 Aptian - Albian  Mongolia Russia Khoboor Beds; Siberia Guchinodon hoburensis is a synonym.[4] The smallest Gobiconodon.
G. hopsoni [6] 2 upper and lower jaws (PSS-MAE 140 (Holotype) & PSS-MAE 139) ?Vanginian - Neocomian  Mongolia Oshih Formation The largest Gobiconodon.
G. palaios [7] ?Berriasian  Morocco Anoual
Gobiconodon sp.[6] 2 fragmentary lower jaws ?Vanginian - Neocomian  Mongolia Oshih Formation
G. sp. A[8] Lower Cretaceous  Russia Ilek Formation
G. sp. B[8] Lower Cretaceous  Russia Ilek Formation
G. luoianus [9] Nearly complete skull (41H III-0320 (Holotype)) Aptian  China Yixian Formation
G. ostromi [10] 2 incomplete skeletons (MCZ 19965 (Holotype) & MCZ 19860) Aptian - Albian  USA Cloverly Formation
G. zofiae [11] Partial skull and lower jaws (IVPP V12585 (Holotype)) Hauterivian  China Yixian Formation
G. bathoniensis [12] Two upper left molars and last upper right molar Bathonian  UK Old Cements Work Quarry

References

  1. ^ a b Nao Kusuhashi; Yuan-Qing Wang; Chuan-Kui Li; Xun Jin (2015). "Two new species of Gobiconodon (Mammalia, Eutriconodonta, Gobiconodontidae) from the Lower Cretaceous Shahai and Fuxin formations, northeastern China". Historical Biology: An International Journal of Paleobiology. 28 (1–2): 14–26. doi:10.1080/08912963.2014.977881.
  2. ^ Zofia Kielan-Jaworowska, Richard L. Cifelli, Zhe-Xi Luo (2004). "Chapter 7: Eutriconodontans". Mammals from the Age of Dinosaurs: origins, evolution, and structure. New York: Columbia University Press. pp. 216–248. ISBN 0-231-11918-6.
  3. ^ a b c Trofimov, B. A. (1978). "The first triconodonts (Mammalia, Triconodonta) from Mongolia". Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR. 243 (1): 213–216.
  4. ^ a b Kielan-Jaworowska, Z.; Dashzeveg, D. (1998). "Early Cretaceous amphilestid ("triconodont") mammals from Mongolia" (PDF). Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. 43 (3): 413–438.
  5. ^ Maschenko, E. N.; Lopatin, A. V. (1998). "First record of an Early Cretaceous triconodont mammal in Siberia". Bull. Inst. R. Sci. Nat. Belg. 68: 233–236.
  6. ^ a b Rougier; Novacek; McKenna & Wible (2001). "Gobiconodonts from the Early Cretaceous of Oshih (Ashile), Mongolia" (PDF). American Museum Novitates. 3348: 1–30. doi:10.1206/0003-0082(2001)348<0001:GFTECO>2.0.CO;2. ISSN 0003-0082.
  7. ^ Sigogneau-Russell Denise (2003). "Diversity of triconodont mammals from the early Cretaceous of north Africa: Affinities of the amphilestids". Palaeovertebrata. 32 (1): 27–55.
  8. ^ a b Alexander O. Averianov; Pavel P. Skutschas; Alexey V. Lopatin; Sergei V. Leshchinskiy; Anton S. Rezvyi; Alexey V. Fayngerts (2005). "Diversity Early Cretaceous mammals from Bol'shoi Kemchug 3 locality in West Siberia, Russia" (PDF). Russian Journal of Theriology. 4 (1): 1–12.
  9. ^ Yuan Chongxi; Xu Li; Zhang Xingliao; Xi Yunhong; Wu Yanhua; Ji Qiang (2009). "A New Species of Gobiconodon (Mammalia) from Western Liaoning, China and its Implication for the Dental Formula of Gobiconodon". Acta Geologica Sinica. 83 (2): 207–211. doi:10.1111/j.1755-6724.2009.00035.x.
  10. ^ F. A. Jenkins; C. R. Schaff (1988). "The Early Cretaceous mammal Gobiconodon (Mammalia, Triconodonta) from the Cloverly Formation in Montana". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 8 (1): 1–24. doi:10.1080/02724634.1988.10011681. JSTOR 4523172.
  11. ^ Li Chuankui; Wang Yuanqing; Hu Yaoming; Meng Jin (2003). "A new species of Gobiconodon(Triconodonta, Mammalia)and its implication for theage of Jehol Biota" (PDF). Chinese Science Bulletin. 48 (11): 1129–1134. doi:10.1360/02wd0134.
  12. ^ Percy M. Butler; Denise Sigogneau-Russell (2016). "Diversity of triconodonts in the Middle Jurassic of Great Britain" (PDF). Palaeontologia Polonica 67: 35–65. doi:10.4202/pp.2016.67_035.
Carnassial

Carnassials are paired upper and lower teeth (either molars or premolars and molars) modified in such a way as to allow enlarged and often self-sharpening edges to pass by each other in a shearing manner. The modification arose separately in several groups of carnivorous mammals. Different pairs of teeth were involved in the separate modifications. In modern Carnivora, the carnassials are the modified fourth upper premolar and the first lower molar. These teeth are also referred to as sectorial teeth. Humans lack carnassial teeth.

Cloverly Formation

The Cloverly Formation is a geological formation of Early Cretaceous age (Aptian to Albian stage) that is present in parts of Montana, Wyoming, Colorado and Utah in the western United States. It was named for a post office on the eastern side of the Bighorn Basin in Wyoming by N.H. Darton in 1904. The sedimentary rocks of formation were deposited in floodplain environments and contain vertebrate fossils, including a diverse assemblage of dinosaur remains. In 1973, the Cloverly Formation Site was designated as a National Natural Landmark by the National Park Service.

Daliansaurus

Daliansaurus (meaning "Dalian reptile") is a genus of small troodontid theropod dinosaur, measuring approximately 1 metre (3 ft 3 in) long, from the Early Cretaceous of China. It contains a single species, D. liaoningensis, named in 2017 by Shen and colleagues from a nearly complete skeleton preserved in three dimensions. Daliansaurus is unusual in possessing an enlarged claw on the fourth digit of the foot, in addition to the "sickle claw" found on the second digit of the feet of most paravians. It also has long metatarsal bones, and apparently possesses bird-like uncinate processes (a first among troodontids). In the Lujiatun Beds of the Yixian Formation, a volcanically-influenced region with a cold climate, Daliansaurus lived alongside its closest relatives - Sinovenator, Sinusonasus, and Mei, with which it forms the group Sinovenatorinae.

Eutriconodonta

Eutriconodonta is an order of early mammals. Eutriconodonts existed in Asia, Africa, Europe, North and South America during the Jurassic and the Cretaceous periods. The order was named by Kermack et al. in 1973 as a replacement name for the paraphyletic Triconodonta.Traditionally seen as the classical Mesozoic small mammalian insectivores, discoveries over the years have shown them to be among the best examples of the diversity of mammals in this time period, including a vast variety of bodyplans, ecological niches and locomotion methods.

Gobiconodonta

Gobiconodonta is an order of extinct mammals known from the Early Jurassic (such as Huasteconodon) to early Late Cretaceous. They are generally held to be part of Eutriconodonta.

Gobiconodontidae

Gobiconodontidae is a family of extinct mammals that ranged from the mid-Jurassic to the early Late Cretaceous, though most common during the Early Cretaceous. The Gobiconodontids form a diverse lineage of carnivorous non-therian mammals, and include some of the best preserved Mesozoic mammal specimens.

Holotheria

Holotheria are a diverse group of mammals that are descendants of the last common ancestor of Kuehneotherium and Theria (the group that includes marsupials and placental mammals).

Ilek Formation

The Ilek Formation is a Lower Cretaceous geologic formation in Western Siberia. Many different fossils have been recovered from the formation. It overlies the Late Jurassic Tyazhin Formation and underlies the Albian Kiya Formation.The formation was described by L. A. Ragozin in 1935. It consists of sands with sandstone concretions, layers of silts, clays and marls. Age of the formation, according to a crude 1962 estimate, is Valanginian(?) - Hauterivian - Barremian. Its thickness varies greatly, reaching 746 m in Teguldet borehole.

Juchilestes

Juchilestes is an amphidontid mammal genus from the early Cretaceous (early Aptian stage, 123.2 ± 1.0 Ma). It lived in what is now the Beipiao of western Liaoning, eastern China. It is known from the holotype D2607, which consists of three-dimensionally preserved, partial skull with mandibles and some teeth. It was found in 2004 from the Lujiatun Site of the Yixian Formation (Jehol Biota). It was first named by Chun-Ling Gao, Gregory P. Wilson, Zhe-Xi Luo, A. Murat Maga, Qingjin Meng and Xuri Wang in 2010 and the type species is Juchilestes liaoningensis.

Jugulator (mammal)

Jugulator is a genus of extinct mammal from the Cretaceous of North America. A eutriconodont, it is known from the Cedar Mountain Formation, and is both a large sized and possibly ecologically specialised taxon, showcasing the diversity of mammals in the Mesozoic.

Liaoconodon

Liaoconodon is an extinct genus of early mammal from the early Cretaceous (early Aptian stage, approximately 120 Ma). It is a eutriconodont which lived in what is now the Jianchang of Liaoning Province, eastern China. It is known from the holotype IVPP V 16051, which consists of nearly complete skeleton and skull. It was found in the Jiufotang Formation (Jehol Biota) near Xiaotaizi, Lamadong. It was first named by Jin Meng, Yuanqing Wang and Chuankui Li in 2011 and the type species is Liaoconodon hui.Studies on its anatomy show that it was a semi-aquatic mammal, having a long body and paddle-like limbs.

Liaoningvenator

Liaoningvenator (meaning "Liaoning hunter") is a genus of troodontid theropod dinosaur from the Early Cretaceous of China. It contains a single species, L. curriei, named after paleontologist Phillip J. Currie in 2017 by Shen Cai-Zhi and colleagues from an articulated, nearly complete skeleton, one of the most complete troodontid specimens known. Shen and colleagues found indicative traits that placed Liaoningvenator within the Troodontidae. These traits included its numerous, small, and closely packed teeth, as well as the vertebrae towards the end of its tail having shallow grooves in place of neural spines on their top surfaces.

Within the Troodontidae, the closest relative of Liaoningvenator was Eosinopteryx, and it was also closely related to Anchiornis and Xiaotingia; while these have traditionally been placed outside the Troodontidae, the phylogenetic analysis conducted by Shen and colleagues offered evidence supporting the alternative identification of these paravians as troodontids. Compared to its close relatives, however, Liaoningvenator had relatively long legs, in particular the femora. As the fifth troodontid known from geographically and temporally comparable strata, Liaoningvenator increases the diversity of Chinese troodontids.

List of the Mesozoic life of Montana

This list of the Mesozoic life of Montana contains the various prehistoric life-forms whose fossilized remains have been reported from within the US state of Montana and are between 252.17 and 66 million years of age.

List of the Mesozoic life of Wyoming

This list of the Mesozoic life of Wyoming contains the various prehistoric life-forms whose fossilized remains have been reported from within the US state of Wyoming and are between 252.17 and 66 million years of age.

List of the prehistoric life of Montana

This list of the prehistoric life of Montana contains the various prehistoric life-forms whose fossilized remains have been reported from within the US state of Montana.

Oosh Formation

The Öösh Formation is a geological formation in Mongolia whose strata date back to the Early Cretaceous. Dinosaur remains are among the fossils that have been recovered from the formation.

Repenomamus

Repenomamus is a genus of cat-sized to badger-sized gobiconodontid mammal containing two species, Repenomamus robustus and Repenomamus giganticus. Both species are known from fossils found in China that date to the early Cretaceous period, about 125-123.2 million years ago. R. robustus is one of several Mesozoic mammals for which there is good evidence that it fed on vertebrates, including dinosaurs, though it is not possible to determine if it actively hunted live dinosaurs or scavenged dead ones. R. giganticus is among the largest mammals known from the Mesozoic era.

Spinolestes

Spinolestes is an extinct mammal genus from the Early Cretaceous of Spain. A gobiconodontid eutriconodont, it is notable for the remarkable degree of preservation, offering profound insights to the biology of non-therian mammals.

Tagarosuchus

Tagarosuchus is an extinct genus of Early Cretaceous protosuchian-grade crocodyliform. Fossils of Tagarosuchus have been found from southern Siberia, including a nearly complete skull found near the village of Shestakovo in Kemerovo Oblast. Tagarosuchus was named in 1999, with the type species being T. kulemzini. Remains have been recovered from the Aptian-Albian Ilek Formation.

A diverse vertebrate assemblage has been uncovered from the Shestakovo locality. Tagarosuchus would have coexisted with

paramacellodid, scincomorphan, and xenosaurid lizards, the shartegosuchid crocodyliform Kyasuchus, the tritylodontid cynodont Xenocretosuchus, the triconodont mammal Gobiconodon, the ceratopsian dinosaur Psittacosaurus, troodontid theropod dinosaurs, and sauropods, all of which have been described from the locality in the past few decades.

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