Gnome-Rhône Mistral Major

The Gnome-Rhône 14K Mistral Major was a 14-cylinder, two-row, air-cooled radial engine. It was Gnome-Rhône's major aircraft engine prior to World War II, and matured into a highly sought-after design that would see licensed production throughout Europe and Japan. Thousands of Mistral Major engines were produced, used on a wide variety of aircraft.

Mistral Major
Gnome-Rhone 14 Mistral Major engines 1943
Gnome-Rhône 14Ks in a hangar in North Africa, 1943
Type Radial engine
Manufacturer Gnome et Rhône
First run 1929

Design and development

In 1921 Gnome-Rhône purchased a license for the highly successful Bristol Jupiter engine and produced it until about 1930, alongside the smaller Bristol Titan. Starting in 1926, however, they used the basic design of the Titan to produce a family of new engines, the so-called "K series". These started with the 5K Titan, followed by the 7K Titan Major and 9K Mistral. By 1930, 6,000 of these engines had been delivered.

However, the aircraft industry at that time was rapidly evolving and producing much larger aircraft that demanded larger engines to power them. Gnome-Rhône responded by developing the 7K into a two-row version that became the 14K Mistral Major. The first test examples were running in 1929.

As the Jupiter had set the pattern for one-row radials in the 1920s, the Mistral Major became a canonical design for twin-row radials of the 1930s. It was widely licensed and formed the basis for many successful designs. Among the licensees were Industria Aeronautică Română in Romania, Manfred Weiss in Hungary, Alvis of the UK, Tumansky in the USSR, Walter of Czechoslovakia, and Isotta Fraschini and Piaggio in Italy. Nakajima in Japan also licensed it, but did not put it into production, developing their own designs based on features taken from the Mistral and other designs.

Variants

French Variants
  • Kbr:
  • Kbrs:
  • Kdr: Non-supercharged with reduction gearing
  • Kds: Direct drive with supercharger
  • Kdrs: Supercharged with reduction gearing
  • Kes:
  • Kirs:
  • Knrs:
  • Krsd:
  • Kors: Opposite rotation
Licensed Variants

Applications

Aircraft powered by G-R 14K derivatives

Specifications (Gnome-Rhône 14Kd)

Data from [1][2]

General characteristics

  • Type: Fourteen-cylinder two-row air-cooled radial engine
  • Bore: 146 mm (5.748 in)
  • Stroke: 165 mm (6.496 in)
  • Displacement: 38.673 l (2,360.0 cu in)
  • Length: Kds - 1,317 mm (51.85 in)
    Kdr - 0.5 reduction gear - 1,528 mm (60.16 in)
    Kdr - 0.666· reduction gear - 1,530 mm (60.24 in)
    Kdrs - 0.5 reduction gear - 1,554 mm (61.18 in)
    Kdrs - 0.666· reduction gear - 1,556 mm (61.26 in)
  • Diameter: 1,288 mm (50.71 in)
  • Dry weight: Kdr 0.5 reduction gear - 503 kg (1,109 lb)
    Kdr 0.666· reduction gear - 508 kg (1,120 lb)
    Kdrs 0.5 reduction gear - 523 kg (1,153 lb)
    Kdrs 0.666· reduction gear - 528 kg (1,164 lb)
    Kds 502 kg (1,107 lb)

Components

Performance

  • Power output: Kdr - 600 kW (800 hp) at sea level
    Kdrs - 580 kW (780 hp) at 1,500 m (4,900 ft) at 2,400 rpm
    Kdrs - 510 kW (680 hp) at 4,000 m (13,000 ft) at 2,400 rpm
    Kds - 560 kW (750 hp) at 1,500 m (4,900 ft) at 2,300 rpm
    Kds - 480 kW (650 hp) at 4,000 m (13,000 ft) at 2,300 rpm
  • Specific power: Kdr 15.5 kW/l (0.34 hp/in³)
  • Compression ratio: 5.5:1
  • Specific fuel consumption: 328 g/(kW•h) (0.54 lb/(hp•h))
  • Oil consumption: 20 g/(kW•h) (0.53 oz/(hp•h))
  • Power-to-weight ratio: 1.52 kW/kg (0.92 hp/lb)

Gallery

Piaggio-P.XI

A Piaggio P.XI engine at the Malmohus Technical Museum, Malmo, Sweden.

Tumanski M-85 Keski-Suomen ilmailumuseo

A Tumansky M-85 at the Aviation Museum of Central Finland.

Walter Mistral K 14-I (1934-37)

Walter Mistral Major.

Walter Mistral K-14 MLP 01

A Walter Mistral Major at the Polish Aviation Museum in Krakow.

See also

Related development

Related lists

References

  1. ^ Tsygulev (1939). Aviacionnye motory voennykh vozdushnykh sil inostrannykh gosudarstv (Авиационные моторы военных воздушных сил иностранных государств) (in Russian). Moscow: Gosudarstvennoe voennoe izdatelstvo Narkomata Oborony Soyuza SSR. Archived from the original on 2009-03-24.
  2. ^ Moteurs Gnome-Rhône series K (PDF) (in Spanish). Paris: Société Des Moteurs Gnome-Rhône. Retrieved 3 October 2014.
  • Danel, Raymond and Cuny, Jean. L'aviation française de bombardement et de renseignement 1918-1940 Docavia n°12, Editions Larivière
Aircraft industry of Serbia

Kingdom of Serbia became part of the new state, Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. which was formed on 1 December 1918. Even though the industry was on a very low level of development, the state was among the first 10 countries in the world which developed their own aircraft production. Originally, only the parts produced in foreign factories were assembled, but very soon the production of domestic components began, so as the engineering. The forerunner of the domestic aircraft industry was the Airplane workshop (Aeroplanska radionica), which was established in 1920, at the airfield in Novi Sad. The assembling of the trial series of Hansa-Brandenburg C.I. The series was named SBr, as this type of plane was known in Serbia as srednji Brandenburg ("middle Brandenburg").From 1923 to 1941, there were 7 aircraft factories in Serbia, 4 of which were located in the capital, Belgrade, and 2 airplane engines factories. Also, some planes were produced in the aircraft workshops, aero clubs and private workshops. There were also factories for the aircraft equipment and workshops for the repairs and overhauls of the aircraft, engines and components. A major boost to the industry was a decision by the state from 1926 to acquire over 800 fighters and several hundreds of trainers and school planes. Additional foreign licenses were obtained. The advance of the industry was halted in 1932 when the state stopped with the further acquirement of the aircraft due to the Great Depression. The production rebound from 1937 onwards.According to the State union of the aircraft industries of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, the state's aircraft industry and the auxiliary industries employed 300 engineers and technicians, 500 employees and 6,000 workers. In total, 1,729 military and civilian aircraft were produced in Serbia between two World Wars. Of those, none were cargo or reconnaissance aircraft. One of the most important people in the technical development of the aircraft design was engineer Milenko Mitrović "Spirta", who developed numerous designs for the airplanes in the 1928-40 period.

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The Dornier was designed with two engines mounted on a "shoulder wing" structure and possessed a twin tail fin configuration. The type was popular among its crews due to its handling, especially at low altitude, which made the Do 17 harder to hit than other German bombers.

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Production of the Dornier ended in mid-1940, in favour of the newer and more powerful Junkers Ju 88. The successor of the Do 17 was the much more powerful Dornier Do 217, which started to appear in strength in 1942. Even so, the Do 17 continued service in the Luftwaffe in various roles until the end of the war, as a glider tug, research and trainer aircraft. A considerable number of surviving examples were sent to other Axis nations as well as countries like Finland. Few Dornier Do 17s survived the war and the last was scrapped in Finland in 1952.

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