Gluon

A gluon (/ˈɡluːɒn/) is an elementary particle that acts as the exchange particle (or gauge boson) for the strong force between quarks. It is analogous to the exchange of photons in the electromagnetic force between two charged particles.[6] In layman's terms, they "glue" quarks together, forming hadrons such as protons and neutrons.

In technical terms, gluons are vector gauge bosons that mediate strong interactions of quarks in quantum chromodynamics (QCD). Gluons themselves carry the color charge of the strong interaction. This is unlike the photon, which mediates the electromagnetic interaction but lacks an electric charge. Gluons therefore participate in the strong interaction in addition to mediating it, making QCD significantly harder to analyze than QED (quantum electrodynamics).

Gluon
Feynmann Diagram Gluon Radiation
Diagram 1: In Feynman diagrams, emitted gluons are represented as helices. This diagram depicts the annihilation of an electron and positron.
CompositionElementary particle
StatisticsBosonic
InteractionsStrong interaction
Symbolg
TheorizedMurray Gell-Mann (1962)[1]
Discoverede+e → Υ(9.46) → 3g: 1978 at DORIS (DESY) by PLUTO experiments (see diagram 2 and recollection[2])

and

e+e → qqg: 1979 at PETRA (DESY) by TASSO, MARK-J, JADE and PLUTO experiments (see diagram 1 and review[3])
Types8
Mass0 (theoretical value)[4]
< 1.3 meV/ (experimental limit) [5][4]
Electric chargee[4]
Color chargeoctet (8 linearly independent types)
Spin1

Properties

The gluon is a vector boson; like the photon, it has a spin of 1. While massive spin-1 particles have three polarization states, massless gauge bosons like the gluon have only two polarization states because gauge invariance requires the polarization to be transverse. In quantum field theory, unbroken gauge invariance requires that gauge bosons have zero mass (experiments limit the gluon's rest mass to less than a few meV/c2). The gluon has negative intrinsic parity.

Counting gluons

Unlike the single photon of QED or the three W and Z bosons of the weak interaction, there are eight independent types of gluon in QCD.

This may be difficult to understand intuitively. Quarks carry three types of color charge; antiquarks carry three types of anticolor. Gluons may be thought of as carrying both color and anticolor. This gives nine possible combinations of color and anticolor in gluons. The following is a list of those combinations (and their schematic names):

  • red-antired (), red-antigreen (), red-antiblue ()
  • green-antired (), green-antigreen (), green-antiblue ()
  • blue-antired, (), blue-antigreen (), blue-antiblue ()
Feynman Diagram Y-3g
Diagram 2: e+e → Υ(9.46) → 3g

These are not the actual color states of observed gluons, but rather effective states. To correctly understand how they are combined, it is necessary to consider the mathematics of color charge in more detail.

Color singlet states

It is often said that the stable strongly interacting particles (such as the proton and the neutron, i.e. hadrons) observed in nature are "colorless", but more precisely they are in a "color singlet" state, which is mathematically analogous to a spin singlet state.[7] Such states allow interaction with other color singlets, but not with other color states; because long-range gluon interactions do not exist, this illustrates that gluons in the singlet state do not exist either.[7]

The color singlet state is:[7]

In words, if one could measure the color of the state, there would be equal probabilities of it being red-antired, blue-antiblue, or green-antigreen.

Eight gluon colors

There are eight remaining independent color states, which correspond to the "eight types" or "eight colors" of gluons. Because states can be mixed together as discussed above, there are many ways of presenting these states, which are known as the "color octet". One commonly used list is:[7]

      

These are equivalent to the Gell-Mann matrices. The critical feature of these particular eight states is that they are linearly independent, and also independent of the singlet state, hence 32 − 1 or 23. There is no way to add any combination of these states to produce any other, and it is also impossible to add them to make rr, gg, or bb[8] the forbidden singlet state. There are many other possible choices, but all are mathematically equivalent, at least equally complicated, and give the same physical results.

Group theory details

Technically, QCD is a gauge theory with SU(3) gauge symmetry. Quarks are introduced as spinors in Nf flavors, each in the fundamental representation (triplet, denoted 3) of the color gauge group, SU(3). The gluons are vectors in the adjoint representation (octets, denoted 8) of color SU(3). For a general gauge group, the number of force-carriers (like photons or gluons) is always equal to the dimension of the adjoint representation. For the simple case of SU(N), the dimension of this representation is N2 − 1.

In terms of group theory, the assertion that there are no color singlet gluons is simply the statement that quantum chromodynamics has an SU(3) rather than a U(3) symmetry. There is no known a priori reason for one group to be preferred over the other, but as discussed above, the experimental evidence supports SU(3).[7] The U(1) group for electromagnetic field combines with a slightly more complicated group known as SU(2) – S stands for "special" – which means the corresponding matrices have determinant 1 in addition to being unitary.

Confinement

Since gluons themselves carry color charge, they participate in strong interactions. These gluon-gluon interactions constrain color fields to string-like objects called "flux tubes", which exert constant force when stretched. Due to this force, quarks are confined within composite particles called hadrons. This effectively limits the range of the strong interaction to 1×10−15 meters, roughly the size of an atomic nucleus. Beyond a certain distance, the energy of the flux tube binding two quarks increases linearly. At a large enough distance, it becomes energetically more favorable to pull a quark-antiquark pair out of the vacuum rather than increase the length of the flux tube.

Gluons also share this property of being confined within hadrons. One consequence is that gluons are not directly involved in the nuclear forces between hadrons. The force mediators for these are other hadrons called mesons.

Although in the normal phase of QCD single gluons may not travel freely, it is predicted that there exist hadrons that are formed entirely of gluons — called glueballs. There are also conjectures about other exotic hadrons in which real gluons (as opposed to virtual ones found in ordinary hadrons) would be primary constituents. Beyond the normal phase of QCD (at extreme temperatures and pressures), quark–gluon plasma forms. In such a plasma there are no hadrons; quarks and gluons become free particles.

Experimental observations

Quarks and gluons (colored) manifest themselves by fragmenting into more quarks and gluons, which in turn hadronize into normal (colorless) particles, correlated in jets. As shown in 1978 summer conferences,[2] the PLUTO detector at the electron-positron collider DORIS (DESY) produced the first evidence that the hadronic decays of the very narrow resonance Υ(9.46) could be interpreted as three-jet event topologies produced by three gluons. Later, published analyses by the same experiment confirmed this interpretation and also the spin 1 nature of the gluon[9][10] (see also the recollection[2] and PLUTO experiments).

In summer 1979, at higher energies at the electron-positron collider PETRA (DESY), again three-jet topologies were observed, now interpreted as qq gluon bremsstrahlung, now clearly visible, by TASSO,[11] MARK-J[12] and PLUTO experiments[13] (later in 1980 also by JADE[14]). The spin 1 of the gluon was confirmed in 1980 by TASSO[15] and PLUTO experiments[16] (see also the review[3]). In 1991 a subsequent experiment at the LEP storage ring at CERN again confirmed this result.[17]

The gluons play an important role in the elementary strong interactions between quarks and gluons, described by QCD and studied particularly at the electron-proton collider HERA at DESY. The number and momentum distribution of the gluons in the proton (gluon density) have been measured by two experiments, H1 and ZEUS,[18] in the years 1996-2007. The gluon contribution to the proton spin has been studied by the HERMES experiment at HERA.[19] The gluon density in the proton (when behaving hadronically) also has been measured.[20]

Color confinement is verified by the failure of free quark searches (searches of fractional charges). Quarks are normally produced in pairs (quark + antiquark) to compensate the quantum color and flavor numbers; however at Fermilab single production of top quarks has been shown (technically this still involves a pair production, but quark and antiquark are of different flavor).[21] No glueball has been demonstrated.

Deconfinement was claimed in 2000 at CERN SPS[22] in heavy-ion collisions, and it implies a new state of matter: quark–gluon plasma, less interacting than in the nucleus, almost as in a liquid. It was found at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven in the years 2004–2010 by four contemporaneous experiments.[23] A quark–gluon plasma state has been confirmed at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) by the three experiments ALICE, ATLAS and CMS in 2010.[24]

The Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility at Jefferson Lab, also called the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, in Newport News, Virginia, is one of 10 Department of Energy facilities doing research on gluons. The Virginia lab is competing with another facility on Long Island, New York, Brookhaven National Laboratory, for funds to build a new electron-ion collider.[25]

See also

References

  1. ^ M. Gell-Mann (1962). "Symmetries of Baryons and Mesons". Physical Review. 125 (3): 1067–1084. Bibcode:1962PhRv..125.1067G. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.125.1067.
  2. ^ a b c B.R. Stella and H.-J. Meyer (2011). "Υ(9.46 GeV) and the gluon discovery (a critical recollection of PLUTO results)". European Physical Journal H. 36 (2): 203–243. arXiv:1008.1869v3. Bibcode:2011EPJH...36..203S. doi:10.1140/epjh/e2011-10029-3.
  3. ^ a b P. Söding (2010). "On the discovery of the gluon". European Physical Journal H. 35 (1): 3–28. Bibcode:2010EPJH...35....3S. doi:10.1140/epjh/e2010-00002-5.
  4. ^ a b c W.-M. Yao; et al. (Particle Data Group) (2006). "Review of Particle Physics" (PDF). Journal of Physics G. 33 (1): 1. arXiv:astro-ph/0601168. Bibcode:2006JPhG...33....1Y. doi:10.1088/0954-3899/33/1/001.
  5. ^ F. Yndurain (1995). "Limits on the mass of the gluon". Physics Letters B. 345 (4): 524. Bibcode:1995PhLB..345..524Y. doi:10.1016/0370-2693(94)01677-5.
  6. ^ C.R. Nave. "The Color Force". HyperPhysics. Georgia State University, Department of Physics. Retrieved 2012-04-02.
  7. ^ a b c d e David Griffiths (1987). Introduction to Elementary Particles. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 280–281. ISBN 978-0-471-60386-3.
  8. ^ J. Baez. "Why are there eight gluons and not nine?". Retrieved 2009-09-13.
  9. ^ Ch. Berger; et al. (PLUTO collaboration) (1979). "Jet analysis of the Υ(9.46) decay into charged hadrons". Physics Letters B. 82 (3–4): 449. Bibcode:1979PhLB...82..449B. doi:10.1016/0370-2693(79)90265-X.
  10. ^ Ch. Berger; et al. (PLUTO collaboration) (1981). "Topology of the Υ decay". Zeitschrift für Physik C. 8 (2): 101. Bibcode:1981ZPhyC...8..101B. doi:10.1007/BF01547873.
  11. ^ R. Brandelik; et al. (TASSO collaboration) (1979). "Evidence for Planar Events in e+e Annihilation at High Energies". Physics Letters B. 86 (2): 243–249. Bibcode:1979PhLB...86..243B. doi:10.1016/0370-2693(79)90830-X.
  12. ^ D.P. Barber; et al. (MARK-J collaboration) (1979). "Discovery of Three-Jet Events and a Test of Quantum Chromodynamics at PETRA". Physical Review Letters. 43 (12): 830. Bibcode:1979PhRvL..43..830B. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.43.830.
  13. ^ Ch. Berger; et al. (PLUTO collaboration) (1979). "Evidence for Gluon Bremsstrahlung in e+e Annihilations at High Energies". Physics Letters B. 86 (3–4): 418. Bibcode:1979PhLB...86..418B. doi:10.1016/0370-2693(79)90869-4.
  14. ^ W. Bartel; et al. (JADE collaboration) (1980). "Observation of planar three-jet events in e+e annihilation and evidence for gluon bremsstrahlung". Physics Letters B. 91 (1): 142. Bibcode:1980PhLB...91..142B. doi:10.1016/0370-2693(80)90680-2.
  15. ^ R. Brandelik; et al. (TASSO collaboration) (1980). "Evidence for a spin-1 gluon in three-jet events". Physics Letters B. 97 (3–4): 453. Bibcode:1980PhLB...97..453B. doi:10.1016/0370-2693(80)90639-5.
  16. ^ Ch. Berger; et al. (PLUTO collaboration) (1980). "A study of multi-jet events in e+e annihilation". Physics Letters B. 97 (3–4): 459. Bibcode:1980PhLB...97..459B. doi:10.1016/0370-2693(80)90640-1.
  17. ^ G. Alexander; et al. (OPAL collaboration) (1991). "Measurement of Three-Jet Distributions Sensitive to the Gluon Spin in e+e Annihilations at √s = 91 GeV". Zeitschrift für Physik C. 52 (4): 543. Bibcode:1991ZPhyC..52..543A. doi:10.1007/BF01562326.
  18. ^ L. Lindeman; et al. (H1 and ZEUS collaborations) (1997). "Proton structure functions and gluon density at HERA". Nuclear Physics B: Proceedings Supplements. 64 (1): 179–183. Bibcode:1998NuPhS..64..179L. doi:10.1016/S0920-5632(97)01057-8.
  19. ^ "The spinning world at DESY". www-hermes.desy.de. Retrieved 26 March 2018.
  20. ^ C. Adloff; et al. (H1 collaboration) (1999). "Charged particle cross sections in the photoproduction and extraction of the gluon density in the photon". European Physical Journal C. 10 (3): 363–372. arXiv:hep-ex/9810020. Bibcode:1999EPJC...10..363H. doi:10.1007/s100520050761.
  21. ^ M. Chalmers (6 March 2009). "Top result for Tevatron". Physics World. Retrieved 2012-04-02.
  22. ^ M.C. Abreu; et al. (NA50 collaboration) (2000). "Evidence for deconfinement of quark and antiquark from the J/Ψ suppression pattern measured in Pb-Pb collisions at the CERN SpS". Physics Letters B. 477 (1–3): 28–36. Bibcode:2000PhLB..477...28A. doi:10.1016/S0370-2693(00)00237-9.
  23. ^ D. Overbye (15 February 2010). "In Brookhaven Collider, Scientists Briefly Break a Law of Nature". The New York Times. Retrieved 2012-04-02.
  24. ^ "LHC experiments bring new insight into primordial universe" (Press release). CERN. 26 November 2010. Retrieved 2016-11-20.
  25. ^ Nolan, Jim (October 19, 2015). "State hopes for big economic bang as Jeff Lab bids for ion collider". Richmond Times-Dispatch. pp. A1, A7. Retrieved 19 October 2015. Those clues can give scientists a better understanding of what holds the universe together.

Further reading

Color charge

Color charge is a property of quarks and gluons that is related to the particles' strong interactions in the theory of quantum chromodynamics (QCD).

The "color charge" of quarks and gluons is completely unrelated to the everyday meaning of color. The term color and the labels red, green, and blue became popular simply because of the loose analogy to the primary colors. Richard Feynman referred to his colleagues as "idiot physicists" for choosing the confusing name.Particles have corresponding antiparticles. A particle with red, green, or blue charge has a corresponding antiparticle in which the color charge must be the anticolor of red, green, and blue, respectively, for the color charge to be conserved in particle-antiparticle creation and annihilation. Particle physicists call these antired, antigreen, and antiblue. All three colors mixed together, or any one of these colors and its complement (or negative), is "colorless" or "white" and has a net color charge of zero. Free particles have a color charge of zero: baryons are composed of three quarks, but the individual quarks can have red, green, or blue charges, or negatives; mesons are made from a quark and antiquark, the quark can be any color, and the antiquark will have the negative of that color. This color charge differs from electric charge in that electric charge has only one kind of value. However color charge is also similar to electric charge in that color charge also has a negative charge corresponding to each kind of value.

Shortly after the existence of quarks was first proposed in 1964, Oscar W. Greenberg introduced the notion of color charge to explain how quarks could coexist inside some hadrons in otherwise identical quantum states without violating the Pauli exclusion principle. The theory of quantum chromodynamics has been under development since the 1970s and constitutes an important component of the Standard Model of particle physics.

Color confinement

In quantum chromodynamics (QCD), color confinement, often simply called confinement, is the phenomenon that color charged particles (such as quarks and gluons) cannot be isolated, and therefore cannot be directly observed in normal conditions below the Hagedorn temperature of approximately 2 trillion kelvin (corresponding to energies of approximately 130–140 MeV per particle). Quarks and gluons must clump together to form hadrons. The two main types of hadron are the mesons (one quark, one antiquark) and the baryons (three quarks). In addition, colorless glueballs formed only of gluons are also consistent with confinement, though difficult to identify experimentally. Quarks and gluons cannot be separated from their parent hadron without producing new hadrons.

Exotic hadron

Exotic hadrons are subatomic particles composed of quarks and gluons, but which - unlike "well-known" hadrons such as protons , neutrons and mesons - consist of more than three valence quarks. By contrast, "ordinary" hadrons contain just two or three quarks. Hadrons with explicit valence gluon content would also be considered exotic. In theory, there is no limit on the number of quarks in a hadron, as long as the hadron's color charge is white, or color-neutral.Consistent with ordinary hadrons, exotic hadrons are classified as being either fermions, like ordinary baryons, or bosons, like ordinary mesons. According to this classification scheme, pentaquarks, containing five valence quarks, are exotic baryons, while tetraquarks (four valence quarks) and hexaquarks (six quarks, consisting of either a dibaryon or three quark-antiquark pairs) would be considered exotic mesons. Tetraquark and pentaquark particles are believed to have been observed and are being investigated; Hexaquarks have not yet been confirmed as observed.

Exotic hadrons can be searched for by looking for S-matrix poles with quantum numbers forbidden to ordinary hadrons. Experimental signatures for such exotic hadrons have been seen by at least 2003 but remain a topic of controversy in particle physics.

Jaffe and Low suggested that the exotic hadrons manifest themselves as poles of the P matrix, and not of the S matrix. Experimental P-matrix poles are determined reliably in both the meson-meson channels and nucleon-nucleon channels.

Glueball

In particle physics, a glueball (also gluonium, gluon-ball) is a hypothetical composite particle. It consists solely of gluon particles, without valence quarks. Such a state is possible because gluons carry color charge and experience the strong interaction between themselves. Glueballs are extremely difficult to identify in particle accelerators, because they mix with ordinary meson states.

Theoretical calculations show that glueballs should exist at energy ranges accessible with current collider technology. However, due to the aforementioned difficulty (among others), they have so far not been observed and identified with certainty, although phenomenological calculations have suggested that an experimentally identified glueball candidate, denoted , has properties consistent with those expected of a Standard Model glueball.

The prediction that glueballs exist is one of the most important predictions of the Standard Model of particle physics that has not yet been confirmed experimentally. Glueballs are the only particles predicted by the Standard Model with total angular momentum (J) (sometimes called "intrinsic spin") that could be either 2 or 3 in their ground states.

Gluino

In supersymmetry, a gluino (symbol g͂) is the hypothetical supersymmetric partner of a gluon.

In supersymmetric theories, gluinos are Majorana fermions and interact via the strong force as a color octet. Gluinos have a lepton number 0, baryon number 0, and spin 1/2.

Experimentally, gluinos have been the one of the most most promising SUSY particle candidates to be discovered since the production cross-section is the highest among SUSYs in the energy-frontier hadron colliders such as Tevatron and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The experimental signatures are typically a pair-produced gluinos and their cascade decays. In models of supersymmetry that conserve R-parity, gluinos eventually decay into the undetected lightest supersymmetric particle with many quarks (looking as jets) and the standard model gauge bosons or higgs bosons. In the R-parity violating scenarios, gluinos can either decay promptly into multiple jets, or be long-lived leaving anomalous sign of "displaced decay vertices" from the interaction point where their are generated.

Though there have been no sign of gluinos observed so far, the strongest limit has been set by LHC (ATLAS/CMS) where up to minimum 1TeV / maximum 2TeV in gluino mass has been excluded.

Gluon condensate

In quantum chromodynamics (QCD), the gluon condensate is a non-perturbative property of the QCD vacuum which could be partly responsible for giving masses to light mesons.

If the gluon field tensor is represented as Gμν, then the gluon condensate is the vacuum expectation value . It is not clear yet whether this condensate is related to any of the known phase changes[which?] in quark matter. There have been scattered studies of other types of gluon condensates, involving a different number of gluon fields.

For more on the context in which this quantity occurs, see the article on the QCD vacuum.

Gluon field

In theoretical particle physics, the gluon field is a four vector field characterizing the propagation of gluons in the strong interaction between quarks. It plays the same role in quantum chromodynamics as the electromagnetic four-potential in quantum electrodynamics – the gluon field constructs the gluon field strength tensor.

Throughout, Latin indices take values 1, 2, ..., 8 for the eight gluon color charges, while Greek indices take values 0 for timelike components and 1, 2, 3 for spacelike components of four-dimensional vectors and tensors in spacetime. Throughout all equations, the summation convention is used on all color and tensor indices, unless explicitly stated otherwise.

Gluon field strength tensor

In theoretical particle physics, the gluon field strength tensor is a second order tensor field characterizing the gluon interaction between quarks.

The strong interaction is one of the fundamental interactions of nature, and the quantum field theory (QFT) to describe it is called quantum chromodynamics (QCD). Quarks interact with each other by the strong force due to their color charge, mediated by gluons. Gluons themselves possess color charge and can mutually interact.

The gluon field strength tensor is a rank 2 tensor field on the spacetime with values in the adjoint bundle of the chromodynamical SU(3) gauge group (see vector bundle for necessary definitions). Throughout, Latin indices (typically a, b, c, n) take values 1, 2, ..., 8 for the eight gluon color charges, while Greek indices (typically α, β, μ, ν) take values 0 for timelike components and 1, 2, 3 for spacelike components of four-vectors and four-dimensional spacetime tensors. Throughout all equations, the summation convention is used on all color and tensor indices, unless explicitly stated there is no sum to be taken.

Lattice QCD

Lattice QCD is a well-established non-perturbative approach to solving the quantum chromodynamics (QCD) theory of quarks and gluons. It is a lattice gauge theory formulated on a grid or lattice of points in space and time. When the size of the lattice is taken infinitely large and its sites infinitesimally close to each other, the continuum QCD is recovered.Analytic or perturbative solutions in low-energy QCD are hard or impossible to obtain due to the highly nonlinear nature of the strong force and the large coupling constant at low energies. This formulation of QCD in discrete rather than continuous spacetime naturally introduces a momentum cut-off at the order 1/a, where a is the lattice spacing, which regularizes the theory. As a result, lattice QCD is mathematically well-defined. Most importantly, lattice QCD provides a framework for investigation of non-perturbative phenomena such as confinement and quark–gluon plasma formation, which are intractable by means of analytic field theories.

In lattice QCD, fields representing quarks are defined at lattice sites (which leads to fermion doubling), while the gluon fields are defined on the links connecting neighboring sites. This approximation approaches continuum QCD as the spacing between lattice sites is reduced to zero. Because the computational cost of numerical simulations can increase dramatically as the lattice spacing decreases, results are often extrapolated to a = 0 by repeated calculations at different lattice spacings a that are large enough to be tractable.

Numerical lattice QCD calculations using Monte Carlo methods can be extremely computationally intensive, requiring the use of the largest available supercomputers. To reduce the computational burden, the so-called quenched approximation can be used, in which the quark fields are treated as non-dynamic "frozen" variables. While this was common in early lattice QCD calculations, "dynamical" fermions are now standard. These simulations typically utilize algorithms based upon molecular dynamics or microcanonical ensemble algorithms.At present, lattice QCD is primarily applicable at low densities where the numerical sign problem does not interfere with calculations. Lattice QCD predicts that confined quarks will become released to quark-gluon plasma around energies of 150 MeV. Monte Carlo methods are free from the sign problem when applied to the case of QCD with gauge group SU(2) (QC2D).

Lattice QCD has already made successful contact with many experiments. For example, the mass of the proton has been determined theoretically with an error of less than 2 percent.Lattice QCD has also been used as a benchmark for high-performance computing, an approach originally developed in the context of the IBM Blue Gene supercomputer.

Massless particle

In particle physics, a massless particle is an elementary particle whose invariant mass is zero. The two known massless particles are both gauge bosons: the photon (carrier of electromagnetism) and the gluon (carrier of the strong force). However, gluons are never observed as free particles, since they are confined within hadrons. Neutrinos were originally thought to be massless. However, because neutrinos change flavor as they travel, at least two of the types of neutrinos must have mass. The discovery of this phenomenon, known as neutrino oscillation, led to Canadian scientist Arthur B. McDonald and Japanese scientist Takaaki Kajita sharing the 2015 Nobel prize in physics.

NA49 experiment

The NA49 experiment was a particle physics experiment that took place in the North Area of the Super Proton Synchrotron at CERN. It used a large-acceptance hadron detector (a time projection chamber) to investigate reactions induced by the collision of various heavy ions (such as those of lead) on targets made of a variety of elements. This was used to investigate the properties of quark–gluon plasma.

The NA49 experiment was the follow-up to the NA35 experiment, and was approved on 18 September 1991. The experiment was completed on 19 October 2002, and was succeeded by the NA61 experiment (SHINE). The spokesperson for the experiment is Peter Seyboth.

Nucleon spin structure

Nucleon spin structure describes the partonic structure of nucleon (proton and neutron) intrinsic angular momentum (spin). The key question is how the nucleon's spin, whose magnitude is 1/2ħ, is carried by its constituent partons (quarks and gluons). It was originally expected before the 1980s that quarks carry all of the nucleon spin, but later experiments contradict this expectation. In the late 1980s, the European Muon Collaboration (EMC) conducted experiments that suggested the spin carried by quarks is not sufficient to account for the total spin of the nucleons. This finding astonished particle physicists at that time, and the problem of where the missing spin lies is sometimes referred to as the proton spin crisis.

Experimental research on these topics has been continued by the Spin Muon Collaboration (SMC) and the COMPASS experiment at CERN, experiments E142, E143, E154 and E155 at SLAC, HERMES at DESY, experiments at JLab and RHIC, and others. Global analysis of data from all major experiments confirmed the original EMC discovery and showed that the quark spin did contribute about 30% to the total spin of the nucleon. A major topic of modern particle physics is to find the missing angular momentum, which is believed to be carried either by gluon spin, or by gluon and quark orbital angular momentum. This fact is expressed by the sum rule,

The gluon spin components are being measured by many experiments. Quark and gluon angular momenta will be studied by measuring so-called generalized parton distributions (GPD) through deeply virtual compton scattering (DVCS) experiments, conducted at CERN (COMPASS) and at Jefferson Lab, among other laboratories.

QCD matter

Quark matter or QCD matter (quantum chromodynamic) refers to any of a number of theorized phases of matter whose degrees of freedom include quarks and gluons. These theoretical phases would occur at extremely high temperatures and/or densities, billions of times higher than can be produced in equilibrium in laboratories. Under such extreme conditions, the familiar structure of matter, where the basic constituents are nuclei (consisting of nucleons which are bound states of quarks) and electrons, is disrupted. In quark matter it is more appropriate to treat the quarks themselves as the basic degrees of freedom.

In the standard model of particle physics, the strong force is described by the theory of QCD. At ordinary temperatures or densities this force just confines the quarks into composite particles (hadrons) of size around 10−15 m = 1 femtometer = 1 fm (corresponding to the QCD energy scale ΛQCD ≈ 200 MeV) and its effects are not noticeable at longer distances. However, when the temperature reaches the QCD energy scale (T of order 1012 kelvins) or the density rises to the point where the average inter-quark separation is less than 1 fm (quark chemical potential μ around 400 MeV), the hadrons are melted into their constituent quarks, and the strong interaction becomes the dominant feature of the physics. Such phases are called quark matter or QCD matter.

The strength of the color force makes the properties of quark matter unlike gas or plasma, instead leading to a state of matter more reminiscent of a liquid. At high densities, quark matter is a Fermi liquid, but is predicted to exhibit color superconductivity at high densities and temperatures below 1012 K.

Quantum chromodynamics binding energy

Quantum chromodynamics binding energy (QCD binding energy), gluon binding energy or chromodynamic binding energy is the energy binding quarks together into hadrons. It is the energy of the field of the strong force, which is mediated by gluons. QCD binding energy contributes most of the hadron's mass.

Quark

A quark () is a type of elementary particle and a fundamental constituent of matter. Quarks combine to form composite particles called hadrons, the most stable of which are protons and neutrons, the components of atomic nuclei. Due to a phenomenon known as color confinement, quarks are never directly observed or found in isolation; they can be found only within hadrons, which include baryons (such as protons and neutrons) and mesons. For this reason, much of what is known about quarks has been drawn from observations of hadrons.

Quarks have various intrinsic properties, including electric charge, mass, color charge, and spin. They are the only elementary particles in the Standard Model of particle physics to experience all four fundamental interactions, also known as fundamental forces (electromagnetism, gravitation, strong interaction, and weak interaction), as well as the only known particles whose electric charges are not integer multiples of the elementary charge.

There are six types, known as flavors, of quarks: up, down, strange, charm, bottom, and top. Up and down quarks have the lowest masses of all quarks. The heavier quarks rapidly change into up and down quarks through a process of particle decay: the transformation from a higher mass state to a lower mass state. Because of this, up and down quarks are generally stable and the most common in the universe, whereas strange, charm, bottom, and top quarks can only be produced in high energy collisions (such as those involving cosmic rays and in particle accelerators). For every quark flavor there is a corresponding type of antiparticle, known as an antiquark, that differs from the quark only in that some of its properties (such as the electric charge) have equal magnitude but opposite sign.

The quark model was independently proposed by physicists Murray Gell-Mann and George Zweig in 1964. Quarks were introduced as parts of an ordering scheme for hadrons, and there was little evidence for their physical existence until deep inelastic scattering experiments at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center in 1968. Accelerator experiments have provided evidence for all six flavors. The top quark, first observed at Fermilab in 1995, was the last to be discovered.

Quark–gluon plasma

A quark–gluon plasma (QGP) or quark soup is a state of matter in quantum chromodynamics (QCD) which exists at extremely high temperature and/or density. This state is thought to consist of asymptotically free strong-interacting quarks and gluons, which are ordinarily confined by color confinement inside atomic nuclei or other hadrons. This is in analogy with the conventional plasma where nuclei and electrons, confined inside atoms by electrostatic forces at ambient conditions, can move freely. Artificial quark matter, which has been produced at Brookhaven National Laboratory's Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and CERN's Large Hadron Collider, can only be produced in minute quantities and is unstable and impossible to contain, and will radioactively decay within a fraction of a second into stable particles through hadronization; the produced hadrons or their decay products and gamma rays can then be detected. In the quark matter phase diagram, QGP is placed in the high-temperature, high-density regime, whereas ordinary matter is a cold and rarefied mixture of nuclei and vacuum, and the hypothetical quark stars would consist of relatively cold, but dense quark matter. It is believed that up to a few milliseconds after the Big Bang, known as the quark epoch, the Universe was in a quark–gluon plasma state.

The strength of the color force means that unlike the gas-like plasma, quark–gluon plasma behaves as a near-ideal Fermi liquid, although research on flow characteristics is ongoing. Liquid or even near-perfect liquid flow with almost no frictional resistance or viscosity was claimed by research teams at RHIC and LHC's Compact Muon Solenoid detector. QGP differs from a "free" collision event by several features; for example, its particle content is indicative of a temporary chemical equilibrium producing an excess of middle-energy strange quarks vs. a nonequilibrium distribution mixing light and heavy quarks ("strangeness production"), and it does not allow particle jets to pass through ("jet quenching").

Experiments at CERN's Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) first tried to create the QGP in the 1980s and 1990s: the results led CERN to announce indirect evidence for a "new state of matter" in 2000. In 2010, scientists at Brookhaven National Laboratory's Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider announced they had created quark–gluon plasma by colliding gold ions at nearly the speed of light, reaching temperatures of 4 trillion degrees Celsius. Current experiments (2017) at the Brookhaven National Laboratory's Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) on Long Island (NY, USA) and at CERN's recent Large Hadron Collider near Geneva (Switzerland) are continuing this effort, by colliding relativistically accelerated gold and other ion species (at RHIC) or lead (at LHC) with each other or with protons. Three experiments running on CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC), on the spectrometers ALICE, ATLAS and CMS, have continued studying the properties of QGP. CERN temporarily ceased colliding protons, and began colliding lead ions for the ALICE experiment in 2011, in order to create a QGP. A new record breaking temperature was set by ALICE: A Large Ion Collider Experiment at CERN on August, 2012 in the ranges of 5.5 trillion (5.5×1012) kelvin as claimed in their Nature PR.

Strangeness production

Strangeness production is a signature and a diagnostic tool of quark–gluon plasma (or QGP) formation and properties. Unlike up and down quarks, from which everyday matter is made, strange quarks are formed in pair-production processes in collisions between constituents of the plasma. The dominant mechanism of production involves gluons only present when matter has become a quark–gluon plasma. When quark–gluon plasma disassembles into hadrons in a breakup process, the high availability of strange antiquarks helps to produce antimatter containing multiple strange quarks, which is otherwise rarely made. Similar considerations are at present made for the heavier charm flavor, which is made at the beginning of the collision process in the first interactions and is only abundant in the high-energy environments of CERN's Large Hadron Collider.

Strong interaction

In particle physics, the strong interaction is the mechanism responsible for the strong nuclear force (also called the strong force, nuclear strong force, or colour force), and is one of the four known fundamental interactions, with the others being electromagnetism, the weak interaction, and gravitation. At the range of 10−15 m (1 femtometer), the strong force is approximately 137 times as strong as electromagnetism, a million times as strong as the weak interaction, and 1038 times as strong as gravitation. The strong nuclear force holds most ordinary matter together because it confines quarks into hadron particles such as the proton and neutron. In addition, the strong force binds neutrons and protons to create atomic nuclei. Most of the mass of a common proton or neutron is the result of the strong force field energy; the individual quarks provide only about 1% of the mass of a proton.

The strong interaction is observable at two ranges and mediated by two force carriers. On a larger scale (about 1 to 3 fm), it is the force (carried by mesons) that binds protons and neutrons (nucleons) together to form the nucleus of an atom. On the smaller scale (less than about 0.8 fm, the radius of a nucleon), it is the force (carried by gluons) that holds quarks together to form protons, neutrons, and other hadron particles. In the latter context, it is often known as the color force. The strong force inherently has such a high strength that hadrons bound by the strong force can produce new massive particles. Thus, if hadrons are struck by high-energy particles, they give rise to new hadrons instead of emitting freely moving radiation (gluons). This property of the strong force is called color confinement, and it prevents the free "emission" of the strong force: instead, in practice, jets of massive particles are produced.

In the context of atomic nuclei, the same strong interaction force (that binds quarks within a nucleon) also binds protons and neutrons together to form a nucleus. In this capacity it is called the nuclear force (or residual strong force). So the residuum from the strong interaction within protons and neutrons also binds nuclei together. As such, the residual strong interaction obeys a quite different distance-dependent behavior between nucleons, from when it is acting to bind quarks within nucleons. Differences in the binding energy of the nuclear force between different nuclei power nuclear fusion and nuclear fission. Nuclear fusion accounts for most energy production in the Sun and other stars. Nuclear fission allows for decay of radioactive elements and isotopes, although it is often mediated by the weak interaction. Artificially, the energy associated with the nuclear force is partially released in nuclear power and nuclear weapons, both in uranium or plutonium-based fission weapons and in fusion weapons like the hydrogen bomb.The strong interaction is mediated by the exchange of massless particles called gluons that act between quarks, antiquarks, and other gluons. Gluons are thought to interact with quarks and other gluons by way of a type of charge called color charge. Color charge is analogous to electromagnetic charge, but it comes in three types (±red, ±green, ±blue) rather than one, which results in a different type of force, with different rules of behavior. These rules are detailed in the theory of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), which is the theory of quark-gluon interactions.

Three-jet event

In particle physics, a three-jet event is an event with many particles in final state that appear to be clustered in three jets. A single jet consists of particles that fly off in roughly the same direction. One can draw three cones from the interaction point, corresponding to the jets, and most particles created in the reaction will appear to belong to one of these cones. These events are currently the most direct available evidence for the existence of gluons, and were first observed by the TASSO experiment at the PETRA accelerator at the DESY laboratory.Since jets are ordinarily produced when quarks hadronize, and quarks are produced only in pairs, an additional particle is required to explain events containing an odd number of jets. Quantum chromodynamics indicates that this particle is a particularly energetic gluon, radiated by one of the quarks, which hadronizes much as a quark does.

A particularly striking feature of these events, which were first observed at DESY and studied in great detail by experiments at the LEP collider, is their consistency with the Lund string model. The model indicates that "strings" of low-energy gluons will form most strongly between the quarks and the high-energy gluons, and that the "breaking" of these strings into new quark–antiquark pairs (part of the hadronization process) will result in some "stray" hadrons between the jets (and in the same plane). Since the quark-gluon interaction is stronger than the quark-quark interaction, such hadrons will be observed much less frequently between the two quark jets. As a result, the model predicts that stray hadrons will not appear between two of the jets, but will appear between each of them and the third. This is precisely what is observed.

As a check, physicists have also considered events with a photon produced in a similar process. In this case, the quark–quark interaction is the only strong interaction, so a "string" forms between the two quarks, and stray hadrons now appear between the corresponding jets. This difference between the three-jet events and the two-jet events with a high-energy photon, which indicates that the third jet has unique properties under the strong interaction, can only be explained by the original particle in that jet being a gluon.

The line of reasoning is illustrated below. The drawings are not Feynman diagrams; they are "snapshots" in time and show two spatial dimensions.

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