Global public good

In traditional usage, a global public good is a public good available on a more-or-less worldwide basis. There are many challenges to the traditional definition, which have far-reaching implications in the age of globalization.


In traditional usage, a pure global public good is a good that has the three following properties:[1]

  • It is non-rivalrous. Consumption of this good by anyone does not reduce the quantity available to other agents.
  • It is non-excludable. It is impossible to prevent anyone from consuming that good.
  • It is available more-or-less worldwide.

This concept is an extension of American economist Paul Samuelson's classic notion of public goods[2] to the economics of globalization.

The traditional theoretical concept of public goods does not distinguish with regard to the geographical region in which a good may be produced or consumed. However, the term "global public good" has been used to mean a public good which is non-rivalrous and non-excludable throughout the whole world, as opposed to a public good which exists in just one national area. Knowledge has been used as a classic example of a global public good.[3] In some academic literature, it has become associated with the concept of a common heritage of mankind.[4]

Challenges to the traditional definition

Significant challenges exist to the classical definition of "public goods", in general, that are also relevant to the definition of "global public goods". Kaul et al. (2003), suggest that there are actually three types of public goods.[5] First, there are public goods that cannot be made excludable, either because they are inherently indivisible or because the cost of division would be prohibitive. A simple example would be sunlight. Second, there are goods that are inherently public by design. Examples include a nation's judiciary system or basic education system. A third type, they argue, are goods that are public by default, either due to lack of foresight or knowledge in the design. An example of this type would be the ozone layer and damage done to the environment by chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) emissions before anyone understood the potential for damage.

Many of the challenges to traditional definitions have to do with how to handle externalities, which pose fundamental economic policy problems when individuals, households, governments or firms do not include, in their total cost accounting, the indirect costs of or the benefits from their economic transactions.[6] Private goods producers, for example, can lower their total costs, and therefore their prices, by externalizing (not including) certain costs, such as the costs of preventing air or water pollution that is a by-product of their production methods. Such a company, then, becomes a corporate free rider, driving up the cost of the "public goods" of clean air and water, which are often transnational resources.

The transnational nature of such resources points to another problem with a traditional definition of global public goods. Remedies to problems such as air and water pollution are typically legal remedies, and such laws often exist only in the context of geographically-bounded governmental systems.[7] In the case of global public goods—such as climate change mitigation, financial stability, security, knowledge production, and global public health—either international or supranational legal entities (both public and private) must be created to manage these goods.[8] As different types of global public goods often require different types of legal structures to manage them,[8] this can contribute to a proliferation of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and intergovernmental organizations (IGOs), such as has been the case in the recent past.

Thus, society can modify the non-rivalry and non-excludability of a good’s benefits such that goods often become private or public as a result of deliberate policy choices. New consideration in the face of these challenges can expand the definition to recognize that, in many cases, goods exist not in their original forms but as social constructs, largely determined by policies and other collective human actions.[5]


At a time when processes of globalization are encompassing increasingly more cultural and natural resources, the ways in which global public goods are created, designed, and managed have far-reaching implications. Issues of globalization, today, are precisely those that are beyond the policy endeavors of states, reflecting a mismatch between the scope of the problem and the authority of decision-making bodies attempting to address such issues.[9] Many goods that might be public by default would be best designated at the policy level as common goods (global-level common-pool resources or global commons), with appropriate regulation, until such time as levels of knowledge, foresight and governing structures might become available to designate such resources as either private or public goods.

Although not the only example, no better example can be found than the issue of potable water. Water has always been an important and life-sustaining drink to humans and is essential to the survival of all known organisms. Over large parts of the world, humans have inadequate access to potable water and use sources contaminated with disease vectors, pathogens or unacceptable levels of toxins or suspended solids. Drinking or using such water in food preparation leads to widespread waterborne diseases, causing acute and chronic illnesses or death and misery in many countries.[10] While the global water cycle is the subject of advanced scientific study and observation, it is still an incompletely understood process. If availability of water for human consumption is left solely to market forces, those who are most in need of water for subsistence-level survival are also those least likely to be able to purchase it at a market price. Since the water cycle and the natural flows of fresh water resources do not obey the limits of political boundaries, neither can these water resources be managed solely by local- or national-level public authorities. Privatization of such resources can be used as a method of avoiding contentious public policy-making processes, but is likely to produce inequities.[11][12][13] The history of the development of water supply and sanitation in Ecuador and resulting water conflicts there are an example.[14][15] Thoughtful design of transnational or international water management authorities over such global common-pool resources will play a large part in possible solutions to peak water problems.

Moreover, there are a number of global public goods—or global-level common-pool resources—that are necessary conditions for continuing global trade and transactions.[16] Even if one takes a position that globalization has more negative impacts than positive, the economic interdependence of national-level economies has reached a kind of point of no return in terms of continued global economic stability. Thus, continuing global trade and transactions require global public goods such as widespread peace, international economic stability, functioning supranational trade authorities, stable financial and monetary systems, effective law enforcement, relatively healthy populations of consumers and laborers, etc.[16]

See also


  1. ^ Kaul, Inge, Isabelle Grunberg and Marc A. Stern (eds.) (1999). Global public goods: international cooperation in the 21st century. NY: Oxford University Press, Inc. ISBN 019-5130529 (PDF available.)
  2. ^ Samuelson, Paul A. (1954). "The Pure Theory of Public Expenditure". Review of Economics and Statistics. 36 (4): 387–389. doi:10.2307/1925895. JSTOR 1925895.
    See also Samuelson, Paul A. (1955). "Diagrammatic Exposition of a Theory of Public Expenditure". Review of Economics and Statistics. 37 (4): 350–356. doi:10.2307/1925849. JSTOR 1925849.
  3. ^ Joseph E. Stiglitz, "Knowledge as a Global Public Good." In Kaul, Inge, Isabelle Grunberg and Marc A. Stern (eds.) (1999). Global public goods: international cooperation in the 21st century. NY: Oxford University Press, Inc. ISBN 019-5130529
  4. ^ Baslar, Kemal (1998). The Concept of the Common Heritage of Mankind in International Law. Martinus Nijhoff Pubs. ISBN 978-90-411-0505-9
  5. ^ a b Kaul, Inge et al., (eds.) (2003). Providing Global Public Goods: Managing Globalization. New York: Published for the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) by Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0195157413
  6. ^ Helbling, Thomas (2010). "What Are Externalities?" Finance & Development, 47(4).
  7. ^ Bodansky, Daniel (2012 August). "What’s in a Concept? Global Public Goods, International Law, and Legitimacy." European Journal of International Law, 23(3) 651-668. doi 10.1093/ejil/chs035 Abstract.
  8. ^ a b Shaffer, Gregory (2012 August). "International Law and Global Public Goods in a Legal Pluralist World." European Journal of International Law, 23(3): 669–693. doi 10.1093/ejil/chs036 Abstract.
  9. ^ Kaul, Inge (2012). "Rethinking public goods and global public goods." Pp. 37-54 in Éric Brousseau, Tom Dedeurwaerdere, and Bernd Siebenhüner (eds.), Reflexive Governance for Global Public Goods. Cambridge, MS: The MIT Press. ISBN 978-0262516983
  10. ^ WHO and UNICEF Progress on Drinking-water and Sanitation: 2012 Update Archived 2012-03-28 at the Wayback Machine, WHO, Geneva and UNICEF, New York.
  11. ^ Harrisa, Leila M (2009). "Gender and emergent water governance: comparative overview of neoliberalized natures and gender dimensions of privatization, devolution and marketization". Gender, Place & Culture: A Journal of Feminist Geography. 16 (4): 387–408. doi:10.1080/09663690903003918.
  12. ^ Castro, José Esteban (January 2008). "Neoliberal water and sanitation policies as a failed development strategy: lessons from developing countries". Progress in Development Studies. 8 (1): 63–83. doi:10.1177/146499340700800107.
  13. ^ Prasad, Naren (November 2006). "Privatisation Results: Private Sector Participation in Water Services After 15 Years". Development Policy Review. 24 (6): 669–692. doi:10.1111/j.1467-7679.2006.00353.x.
  14. ^ Terry, Matt (2007)."Ecuador's Water Crisis: Damming the Water Capital of the World." International Rivers.
  15. ^ Hitz, Julia Apland (2010). "The Water Conflict in Ecuador." State of the planet: blogs from the Earth Institute, Columbia University.
  16. ^ a b Brock, Gillian (2009). Global Justice: a Cosmopolitan Account. NY: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0199230938

Further reading

External links


Arthritis is a term often used to mean any disorder that affects joints. Symptoms generally include joint pain and stiffness. Other symptoms may include redness, warmth, swelling, and decreased range of motion of the affected joints. In some types other organs are also affected. Onset can be gradual or sudden.There are over 100 types of arthritis. The most common forms are osteoarthritis (degenerative joint disease) and rheumatoid arthritis. Osteoarthritis usually occurs with age and affects the fingers, knees, and hips. Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disorder that often affects the hands and feet. Other types include gout, lupus, fibromyalgia, and septic arthritis. They are all types of rheumatic disease.Treatment may include resting the joint and alternating between applying ice and heat. Weight loss and exercise may also be useful. Pain medications such as ibuprofen and paracetamol (acetaminophen) may be used. In some a joint replacement may be useful.Osteoarthritis affects more than 3.8% of people while rheumatoid arthritis affects about 0.24% of people. Gout affects about 1–2% of the Western population at some point in their lives. In Australia about 15% of people are affected, while in the United States more than 20% have a type of arthritis. Overall the disease becomes more common with age. Arthritis is a common reason that people miss work and can result in a decreased quality of life. The term is derived from arthr- (meaning joint) and -itis (meaning inflammation).

Centre for Reviews and Dissemination

The Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (CRD) is a health services research centre based at the University of York, England. CRD was established in January 1994, and aims to provide research-based information for evidence-based medicine. CRD carries out systematic reviews and meta-analyses of healthcare interventions, and disseminates the results of research to decision-makers in the NHS.

CRD produces three databases:

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE)

NHS Economic Evaluation Database (NHS EED)

Health Technology Assessment Database (HTA Database)These are freely available from the CRD database website [1] and as part of the Cochrane Library.

CRD also publishes a number of regular reports including Effective Health Care and Effectiveness Matters.

CRD is funded by the UK Department of Health's NHS Research and Development Programme, as well as from a number of other sources.

Common heritage of mankind

Common heritage of mankind (also termed the common heritage of humanity, common heritage of humankind or common heritage principle) is a principle of international law that holds that defined territorial areas and elements of humanity's common heritage (cultural and natural) should be held in trust for future generations and be protected from exploitation by individual nation states or corporations.

David Woodward (economist)

David Woodward (born 1959, West Molesey, Surrey) is a British economist and economic advisor. He graduated from Keble College, Oxford in philosophy, politics and economics in 1982. After graduating, he joined the Foreign and Commonwealth Office in London, where he worked as an economic advisor working on debt, structural adjustment and other development issues, with emphasis on Latin America and South East Asia.

He later spent two years in Washington, D.C., working in the office of the UK's executive director to the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank. After returning to Britain, he worked as a research coordinator on debt for Save the Children and (after several years as an independent consultant) as a policy officer for Asia for The Catholic Institute for International Relations (now Progressio). He then spent two and a half years as a development economist with the World Health Organization, and several years as an independent consultant, before joining the New Economics Foundation, where he was head of the New Global Economy Programme for three years.

He is again an independent writer and researcher, focusing primarily on global economic governance, the interface between development, the environment and health, and alternatives to the neoliberal model of development.

David Woodward currently lives in the Netherlands with his wife.


Woodward, D. (1992) Debt, Adjustment and Poverty in Developing Countries. London: Pinter Publishers/Save the Children (UK):

Volume I: National and International Dimensions of Debt and Adjustment in Developing Countries.

Volume II: The Impact of Debt and Adjustment at the Household Level in Developing Countries.

Woodward, D. (2001) The Next Crisis? Direct and Equity Investment in Developing Countries. London: [Zed Books].

Smith, R., Beaglehole, R., Woodward, D. and Drager, N. (eds.) (2003) Global Public Goods for Health: Health Economic and Public Health Perspectives. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Articles in Academic Journals

Drager, N., Woodward, D., Beaglehole, R. and Lipson, D. (2001) "Globalization and the Health of the Poor". Development, 44(1): pp. 73–76

Woodward, D., Drager, N., Beaglehole, R. and Lipson, D. (2001) "Globalization and Health: a Framework for Analysis and Action" Bulletin of the World Health Organization 79(9): pp. 875–881

Smith, R., Woodward, D., Acharya, A., Beaglehole, R. and Drager, N. (2004) "Communicable Disease Control: A ‘Global Public Good’ Perspective". Health Policy and Planning 19(5): pp. 271–278

Woodward. D. (2005) "The GATS and Trade in Health Services: Implications for HealthCare in Developing Countries". Review of International Political Economy 12(3): pp. 511–534

McCoy, D. Narayan, R. Baum, F., Sanders, D., Serag, H., Salvage, J., Rowson, M., Schrecker, T., Woodward, D., Labonte, R., Sengupta, A., Qizphe, A. and Schuftan, C. (2006) "A new Director General for WHO—an opportunity for bold and inspirational leadership". The Lancet 368(9553): pp. 2179–2183, 16 December 2006

Woodward, D. (2007) "Vote buying in the UN Security Council". The Lancet 369 (9555): 12–13, 6 January 2007

Woodward, D. and Labonte, R. (2008) "Reducing Poverty Sustainably, in a Carbon-Constrained Future". The Lancet 372(9634): 186–188, 19 July 2008

Woodward, D. (forthcoming) "Of 'Misguided Notions' and Misguiding Nations: the Growth Report, Poverty and Climate Change". Political QuarterlyChapters/papers in edited volumes, etc.

Woodward, D. (1993) "The Costs to the North of the Current Approach to Adjustment". One World Action: The British Economy and Third World Debt. London: One World Action

Woodward, D. (1995) Direct and Portfolio Investment: Advantages and Disadvantages. EURODAD: World Credit Tables, 1994–95. European Network on Debt and Development, Brussels

Woodward, D. (1996) "IMF Gold Sales as a Source of Funds for Multilateral Debt Reduction". EURODAD: World Credit Tables, 1996. European Network on Debt and Development, Brussels

Woodward, D. (1996) "Debt Sustainability and the Debt Overhang in Highly-Indebted Poor Countries: some Comments on the IMF's Views". EURODAD: World Credit Tables, 1996. European Network on Debt and Development, Brussels

Woodward, D. (1996) "Effects of Globalization and Liberalization on Poverty: Concepts and Issues". UNCTAD: Globalisation and Liberalisation: Effects of International Economic Relations on Poverty. Geneva: UNCTAD. Inter-Agency Thematic Contribution to the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty

Woodward, D. (1998) "The HIPC Initiative: Beyond the Basics". EURODAD: Taking Stock of Debt: Creditor Policy in the Face of Debtor Poverty. Brussels: European Network on Debt and Development

Woodward, D., Drager, N., Beaglehole, R. and Lipson, D. (2002) "Globalization, Global Public Goods and Health". Vieira, C. and Drager, N. (Eds.) Trade in Health Services: Global, Regional and Country Perspectives. Washington D.C. Pan-American Health Organization

Woodward, D. and Smith, R. (2003) "Global Public Goods for Health: Concepts and Issues". Smith, R., Beaglehole, R., Woodward, D. and Drager, N. (eds.) (2003) Global Public Goods for Health: Health Economic and Public Health Perspectives. Oxford: Oxford University Press

Smith, R. and Woodward, D. (2003) "Global Public Goods for Health: Use and Limitations". Smith, R., Beaglehole, R., Woodward, D. and Drager, N. (eds.) (2003) "Global Public Goods for Health: Health Economic and Public Health Perspectives". Oxford: Oxford University Press

Smith, R., Beaglehole, R., Woodward, D. and Drager, N. (2003) "Global Public Goods for Health: from Theory to Policy". Smith et al. (2003), as above

Woodward, D. and Simms, A. (2007) "Growth Is Failing the Poor: the Unbalanced Distribution of the Benefits and Costs of Global Economic Growth". Jomo, K.S. and Baudot, J. (eds.) Flat World, Big Gaps: Economic Liberalization, Globalization, Poverty and Inequality. London: Zed Books/UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs

Lee, K., Koivusalo, M., Ollila, E., Labonté, R., Schuftan, C. and Woodward, D. (2009) "Global Governance for Health". Labonte, R., Schrecker, T., Packer, C. and Runnels, V. (eds.) Globalisation and Health: Pathways, Evidence and Policy. London: Routledge

Smith, R., Woodward, D., Acharya, A., Beaglehole, R. and Drager, N. (2009) "Communicable Disease Control: a ‘Global Public Good’". J. Kirton (ed.) Global Health. The Library of Essays on Global Governance. AshgateWorking/discussion papers, etc.

Woodward, D. (1992) "Present Pain, Future Hope”?: Debt, Adjustment and Poverty in Developing Countries". Overseas Department Working Paper No. 1, Save the Children (UK), London

Woodward, D. (1992) Debt, Adjustment and Food Security. Overseas Department Working Paper No. 3, Save the Children (UK), London

Woodward, D. (1993) Structural Adjustment Policies: What Are They? Are They Working? Briefing Paper, Catholic Institute for International Relations, London

Costello, A., Watson, F. and Woodward, D. (1994) Human Face or Human Façade? Adjustment and the Health of Mothers and Children. Occasional Paper, Institute of Child Health, London

Woodward, D. and Pryke, J. (1994) The GATT Agreement on Agriculture: will it Help Developing Countries? Seminar Background Paper, Catholic Institute for International Relations, London

Woodward, D., Eduardo, T. and Berlin, G. (1994) Refugees, Rehabilitation, Resources: Issues in Basic Education Planning in Mozambique, World University Service (UK), London and Instituto Nacional do Desenvolvimento da Educação, Maputo

Woodward, D. (1994) Reform of the EU Sugar Régime: Implications for Developing Country Sugar Exporters. Occasional Paper, Catholic Institute for International Relations, London

Pryke, J. and Woodward, D. (1995) The Common Agricultural Policy: Sustainable or Bankrupt? Conference Background Paper, Catholic Institute for International Relations, London

Woodward, D. (1997) User Charges for Health Service in Developing Countries: an Approach to Analysing the Effects on Utilisation and Health Outcomes. Occasional Paper, Institute of Child Health, London

Woodward, D. (1998) The IMF, the World Bank and Economic Policy in Bosnia. Working Paper, Oxfam (UK/I), Oxford

Woodward, D. (1998) "Globalisation, Uneven Development and Poverty: Recent Trends and Policy Implications" Poverty Working Paper No. 4, United Nations Development Programme]

Woodward, D. (1998) Drowning by Numbers: the IMF, the World Bank and North-South Financial Flows. Bretton Woods Project

Northover, H., Woodward, D. and Joyner, K. (1998) A Human Development Approach to Debt Relief for the World's Poor. North-South Issues, No. 21, Trocaire, Dublin CAFOD website

Woodward, D. (1999) Time to Change the Prescription: a Policy Response to the Asian Financial Crisis. Special Briefing, Catholic Institute for International Relations, London

Woodward, D. (1999) Contagion and Cure: Tackling the Crisis in Global Finance. Comment, Catholic Institute for International Relations, London

Woodward, D. (2000) Health, Global Public Goods and Externalities: some General Issues. Discussion Paper, Department of Health and Development, World Health Organization

Woodward, D. (2001) Globalization and Health: an Analytical Framework. Discussion Paper, Department of Health and Development, World Health Organization, Geneva

Woodward, D. (2001) Food Security, Nutrition and Health: Implications of Trade Liberalisation and the WTO Agreements. Discussion Paper, Department of Health and Development, World Health Organization, Geneva

Woodward, D. (2001) Trade Barriers and Prices of Essential Health Sector Inputs Background Paper WG4:9, Commission on Macroeconomics and Health

Woodward, D. (2003) Financial Effects of Foreign Direct Investment in the Context of a Possible WTO Agreement on Investment. Trade and Development Working Paper No. 21, Third World Network, Penang.

Woodward, D. and Simms, A. (2006) "Growth Isn't Working: the Uneven Distribution of Costs and Benefits from Economic Growth" nef (new economics foundation), January 2006

Woodward, D. and Simms, A. (2006) "Growth Is Failing the Poor: the Unbalanced Distribution of the Benefits and Costs of Global Economic Growth" UN Department of Social and Economic Affairs, March 2006

Woodward, D. (2007) IMF Voting Reform: Need, Opportunity and Options Paper for the G24 Technical Meeting, 12 March 2007

Woodward, D. (undated) Democratizing the IMF Policy Briefing No. 2, G24 (based on IMF Voting Reform, as above)

Woodward, D. (forthcoming) "How Poor is "Poor?" – Towards a Rights-Based Poverty Line" @ nef (new economics foundation)Electronically published papers

Woodward, D. (2003) Trading Health for Profit: the Implications of the GATS and Trade in Health Services for Health in Developing Countries [1] UK Partnership for Global Health

Woodward, D. (2007) "Economic models: is there an alternative to neoliberalism?" nef (new economics foundation), Development and Environment Group; BOND, March 2007

Woodward, D. (2009) "The IMF: Governance". Backgrounder, #2, EG4 Health, March 2009Evidence to parliamentary committees, etc.

Woodward, D. (1997) "Memorandum from Mr David Woodward" and "Examination of Witness". House of Commons Treasury Committee: International Monetary Fund (HC68)

Woodward, D. (1998) "Memorandum from Mr David Woodward, Freelance Development Consultant" and "Examination of Witnesses". In House of Commons International Development Committee: Third Report: Debt Relief (HC563)

Woodward, D. (2005) "The IMF and World Bank in the 21st Century: the Need for Change" Written submission to the European Parliament on “Strategic Reforms of the IMF” on behalf of Jubilee Research, nef, 9 May 2005

Woodward, D. (2006) "Written Submission to the Treasury Select Committee Inquiry into 'Globalisation: The Role of the IMF’" Jubilee Research @ nef (new economics foundation), January 2006

Woodward, D. (2006) "Supplementary Evidence to the Treasury Select Committee Inquiry: ‘Globalisation: The Role of the IMF’" Jubilee Research @ nef (new economics foundation), 27 April 2006

Woodward, D. (2008) International Development Committee (UK Parliament) Inquiry: 'Sustainable Development in a Changing Climate'. Submission by David Woodward (as an independent consultant), 28 November 2008Shorter articles published in print media

Woodward, D. (1994) "Adjustment in Africa: it's Hurting but is it Working?" Series of commissioned articles for Africa Analysis, 21 January – 18 March 1994

Woodward, D. (2005) "Sticking Plaster Solutions". Parliamentary Monitor, November 2005 (International Finance Facility)

Woodward, D. (2007) "Imagine if our Leaders were Chosen on World Bank Lines". The Guardian, 14 June 2007

Deforestation in Borneo

Deforestation in Borneo has taken place on an industrial scale since the 1960s. Borneo, the third largest island in the world, divided between Indonesia, Malaysia and Brunei, was once covered by dense tropical and subtropical rainforests.

In the 1980s and 1990s the forests of Borneo were leveled at a rate unprecedented in human history, burned, logged and cleared, and commonly replaced with agriculture. The deforestation continued through the 2000s at a slower pace, alongside the expansion of palm oil plantations. Half of the annual global tropical timber procurement is from Borneo. Palm oil plantations are rapidly encroaching on the last remnants of primary rainforest. Much of the forest clearance is illegal.

The World Wildlife Fund divides Borneo into a number of distinct ecoregions including the Borneo lowland rain forests which cover most of the island, with an area of 427,500 square kilometres (165,100 sq mi), the Borneo peat swamp forests, the Kerangas or Sundaland heath forests, the Southwest Borneo freshwater swamp forests, and the Sunda Shelf mangroves. The Borneo mountain rainforests lie in the central highlands of the island, above the 1,000 metres (3,300 ft) elevation. These areas represent habitat for many endangered species; for example, orangutans, elephants and rare endemics such as the elusive Hose's civet. The Bornean orangutan has been a critically endangered species since 2016.

As well as Borneo's importance in biodiversity conservation and as a carbon sink, the forests have significance for water security and food sovereignty for local communities of indigenous peoples.

Digital rights

The term digital rights describes the human rights that allow individuals to access, use, create, and publish digital media or to access and use computers, other electronic devices, or communications networks. The term is particularly related to the protection and realization of existing rights, such as the right to privacy or freedom of expression, in the context of new digital technologies, especially the Internet. Right to Internet access is recognized as a right by the laws of several countries.

Economics of global warming

The economics of global warming concerns the economic aspects of global warming; this can inform policies that governments might consider in response. A number of factors make this a difficult problem from both economic and political perspectives: it is a long-term, intergenerational problem; benefits and costs are distributed unequally both within and across countries; and scientific and public opinions may diverge.

One of the most important greenhouse gases is carbon dioxide (CO2). Around 20% of carbon dioxide which is emitted due to human activities can remain in the atmosphere for many thousands of years. The long time scales and uncertainty associated with global warming have led analysts to develop "scenarios" of future environmental, social and economic changes. These scenarios can help governments understand the potential consequences of their decisions.

The impacts of climate change include the loss of biodiversity, sea level rise, increased frequency and severity of some extreme weather events, and acidification of the oceans. Economists have attempted to quantify these impacts in monetary terms, but these assessments can be controversial.The two main policy responses to global warming are to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (climate change mitigation) and to adapt to the impacts of global warming (e.g., by building levees in response to sea level rise). Another policy response which has recently received greater attention is geoengineering of the climate system (e.g. injecting aerosols into the atmosphere to reflect sunlight away from the Earth's surface).One of the responses to the uncertainties of global warming is to adopt a strategy of sequential decision making. This strategy recognizes that decisions on global warming need to be made with incomplete information, and that decisions in the near term will have potentially long-term impacts. Governments might choose to use risk management as part of their policy response to global warming. For instance, a risk-based approach can be applied to climate impacts which are difficult to quantify in economic terms, e.g., the impacts of global warming on indigenous peoples.

Analysts have assessed global warming in relation to sustainable development. Sustainable development considers how future generations might be affected by the actions of the current generation. In some areas, policies designed to address global warming may contribute positively towards other development objectives. In other areas, the cost of global warming policies may divert resources away from other socially and environmentally beneficial investments (the opportunity costs of climate change policy).

Environmental governance

Environmental governance is a concept in political ecology and environmental policy that advocates sustainability (sustainable development) as the supreme consideration for managing all human activities—political, social and economic. Governance includes government, business and civil society, and emphasizes whole system management. To capture this diverse range of elements, environmental governance often employs alternative systems of governance, for example watershed-based management.It views natural resources and the environment as global public goods, belonging to the category of goods that are not diminished when they are shared. This means that everyone benefits from for example, a breathable atmosphere, stable climate and stable biodiversity.

Public goods are non-rivalrous—a natural resource enjoyed by one person can still be enjoyed by others—and non-excludable—it is impossible to prevent someone consuming the good (breathing). Nevertheless, public goods are recognized as beneficial and therefore have value. The notion of a global public good thus emerges, with a slight distinction: it covers necessities that must not be destroyed by one person or state.

The non-rivalrous character of such goods calls for a management approach that restricts public and private actors from damaging them. One approach is to attribute an economic value to the resource. Water is possibly the best example of this type of good.

As of 2013 environmental governance is far from meeting these imperatives. “Despite a great awareness of environmental questions from developed and developing countries, there is environmental degradation and the appearance of new environmental problems. This situation is caused by the parlous state of global environmental governance, wherein current global environmental governance is unable to address environmental issues due to many factors. These include fragmented governance within the United Nations, lack of involvement from financial institutions, proliferation of environmental agreements often in conflict with trade measures; all these various problems disturb the proper functioning of global environmental governance. Moreover, divisions among northern countries and the persistent gap between developed and developing countries also have to be taken into account to comprehend the institutional failures of the current global environmental governance."

Erik Bluemel

Erik Brandon Bluemel (March 2, 1977 – May 6, 2009) was an Assistant Professor at the University of Denver Sturm College of Law and a scholar in the fields of environmental law, indigenous peoples law, and global administrative law. He held a J.D. from New York University School of Law, an L.L.M. from Georgetown University Law Center, and a B.A. in political economy from the University of California-Berkeley. Professor Bluemel died from injuries sustained after a bicycle accident in the early morning on May 6, 2009.


In economics, a good or service is called excludable if it is possible to prevent people (consumers) who have not paid for it from having access to it. By comparison, a good or service is non-excludable if non-paying consumers cannot be prevented from accessing it.

François-Xavier Verschave

François-Xavier Verschave (28 October 1945 – 29 June 2005) was primarily known as one of the founders of the French NGO Survie ("Survival"), over which he presided since 1995, and as coiner of the term Françafrique, an expression designating the specific form of neocolonialism which has been endured by the former French Colonies.

Verschave also researched the concept of global public goods and the economic theories of famous historian Fernand Braudel. Survie was created in 1983 by the Manifeste des 54 prix Nobel ("Manifesto of 54 Nobel Prizes") as an NGO advocating against underdevelopment.


Global public good, in economics, a public good available worldwide

GNU Privacy Guard, cryptography software

Goals against average (GAA), also known as goals per game, sports statistic

Grains per gallon, water hardness measurement

The Good Pub Guide, recommends pubs in the UK

Generalized Petersen graph, a type of mathematical graphCompaniesGuinness Peat Group, an investment holding company

Grammophon-Philips Group, a previous name for record company PolyGram

Greenwood Publishing Group, an educational and academic publisher in the USA

Gas Powered Games, and their GPGNet online matchmaking service

Knowledge divide

The knowledge divide is the gap in the standards of living between those who can find, create, manage, process, and disseminate information or knowledge, and those who are impaired in this process. According to a 2005 UNESCO World Report, the rise in the 21st century of a global information society has resulted in the emergence of knowledge as a valuable resource, increasingly determining who has access to power and profit. The rapid dissemination of information on a potentially global scale as a result of new information media and the globally uneven ability to assimilate knowledge and information has resulted in potentially expanding gaps in knowledge between individuals and nations.

New Zealand Emissions Trading Scheme

The New Zealand Emissions Trading Scheme (NZ ETS) is a partial-coverage all-free allocation uncapped highly internationally linked emissions trading scheme. The NZ ETS was first legislated in the Climate Change Response (Emissions Trading) Amendment Act 2008 in September 2008 under the Fifth Labour Government of New Zealand and then amended in November 2009 and in November 2012 by the Fifth National Government of New Zealand.

The NZ ETS covers forestry (a net sink), energy (42% of total 2012 emissions), industry (7% of total 2012 emissions) and waste (5% of total 2012 emissions) but not pastoral agriculture (46% of 2012 total emissions). Participants in the NZ ETS must surrender one emission unit (either an international 'Kyoto' unit or a New Zealand-issued unit) for every two tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent emissions reported or they may choose to buy NZ units from the government at a fixed price of NZ$25. The one-for-two transitional measure will be phased out evenly across relevant sectors over three years from 1 January 2017. The old 50 percent surrender obligation increased to 67 percent from 1 January 2017, and will increase to 83 percent from 1 January 2018, and a full surrender obligation from 1 January 2019 for all sectors in the NZ ETS. This phased approach was intended to allow businesses time to plan and adjust, and therefore to support a more stable market.Individual sectors of the economy have different entry dates when their obligations to report emissions and surrender emission units took effect. Forestry, which contributed net removals of 17.5 Mts of CO2e in 2010 (19% of NZ's 2008 emissions,) entered the NZ ETS on 1 January 2008. The stationary energy, industrial processes and liquid fossil fuel sectors entered the NZ ETS on 1 July 2010. The waste sector (landfill operators) entered on 1 January 2013. From November 2009, methane and nitrous oxide emissions from pastoral agriculture were scheduled to be included in the NZ ETS from 1 January 2015. However, agriculture was indefinitely excluded from the NZ ETS in 2013.The NZ ETS is highly linked to international carbon markets as it allows the importing of most of the Kyoto Protocol emission units. It also creates a specific domestic unit; the 'New Zealand Unit' (NZU), which will be issued by free allocation to emitters, with no auctions intended in the short term. The NZU is equivalent to 1 tonne of carbon dioxide. Free allocation of NZUs will vary by sector. The commercial fishery sector (who are not participants) will receive a free allocation of units on a historic basis. Owners of pre-1990 forests will receive a fixed free allocation of units. Free allocation to emissions-intensive industry, will be provided on an output-intensity basis. For this sector, there is no set limit on the number of units that may be allocated. The number of units allocated to eligible emitters will be based on the average emissions per unit of output within a defined 'activity'. Bertram and Terry (2010, p 16) state that as the NZ ETS does not 'cap' emissions, the NZ ETS is not a cap and trade scheme as understood in the economics literature.Some stakeholders have criticized the New Zealand Emissions Trading Scheme for its generous free allocations of emission units and the lack of a carbon price signal (the Parliamentary Commissioner for the Environment), and for being ineffective in reducing emissions (Greenpeace Aotearoa New Zealand).The NZ ETS was reviewed in late 2011 by an independent panel, which reported to the public in September 2011. In response, the NZ ETS was amended in November 2012.

Philippines and the United Nations

The Republic of the Philippines and the United Nations have been affiliated since the conception of the organization. The then Commonwealth of the Philippines was one of the signatories of the 1942 UN Declaration, from which the U.N. Charter of 1945 was based on. The Philippines was also among the 51 original member states, and one of only four Asian nations, that signed this charter, which marked the beginning of the UN operations.

Since then, the Philippines has been active participants of the UN through various programs and commitments. Some of which include the Millennium Development Goals, the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of their Families, the Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs, among others. The Philippines consistently send peacekeepers to the U.N. The United Nations are also staffed by a large percentage of Filipinos. At the same time, the U.N. provides the Philippines with assistance in the event of calamities, and help the country raise funds for various causes.Recently, the United Nations have been alarmed by the state of human rights in the country. During the 59th session of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights last September 2016, held in Geneva, Switzerland, the Philippines was due for its periodic review. In this review, some issues that the U.N. committee brought up included the war on drugs of the administration, overcrowding in Philippine prisons, and forced eviction of informal settlers. Earlier this year, the U.N. also urged the Philippines not to reinstate the death penalty as it is in violation of the country’s commitment under international law.

Public good

In economics, a public good is a good that is both non-excludable and non-rivalrous in that individuals cannot be excluded from use or could be enjoyed without paying for it, and where use by one individual does not reduce availability to others or the goods can be effectively consumed simultaneously by more than one person. This is in contrast to a common good which is non-excludable but is rivalrous to a certain degree.

Public goods include knowledge, official statistics, national security, common language(s), flood control systems, lighthouses, and street lighting. Public goods that are available everywhere are sometimes referred to as global public goods. Examples of public good knowledge is mens, womens and youth health awareness, environmental issues, maintaining biodiversity, sharing and interpreting contemporary history with a cultural lexicon, particularly about protected cultural heritage sites and monuments, popular and entertaining tourist attractions, libraries and universities.

Many public goods may at times be subject to excessive use resulting in negative externalities affecting all users; for example air pollution and traffic congestion. Public goods problems are often closely related to the "free-rider" problem, in which people not paying for the good may continue to access it. Thus, the good may be under-produced, overused or degraded. Public goods may also become subject to restrictions on access and may then be considered to be club goods; exclusion mechanisms include toll roads, congestion pricing, and pay television with so encoded signal unencrypted only by a paid subscriber.

There is a good deal of debate and literature on how to measure the significance of public goods problems in an economy, and to identify the best remedies.

There is an important conceptual difference between the sense of "a" public good, or public "goods" in economics, and the more generalized idea of "the public good" (or common good, or public interest), "a shorthand signal for shared benefit at a societal level".In a non-economic sense, the term is often used to describe something that is useful for the public generally, such as education, although this is not a "public good" in the economic sense. However, services like education exhibit jointness of supply, i.e. the situation in which the cost of supplying a good to many users is the same, or nearly the same, as supplying it to one user. Public goods also exhibit jointness of supply, albeit with no diminishment of the benefits with increased consumption.

Tobin tax

A Tobin tax was originally defined as a tax on all spot conversions of one currency into another. It was suggested by James Tobin, an economist who won the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences. Tobin's tax was originally intended to penalize short-term financial round-trip excursions into another currency. By the late 1990s, however, the term Tobin tax was being incorrectly used to apply to all forms of short term transaction taxation, whether across currencies or not. Another term for these broader tax schemes is Robin Hood tax, due to tax revenues from the (presumably richer) speculator funding general revenue (of whom the primary beneficiaries are less wealthy). More exact terms, however, apply to different scopes of tax.


wikiHow is an online wiki-style community consisting of an extensive database of how-to guides. Founded in 2005 by Internet entrepreneur Jack Herrick, the website aims to create the world's most helpful how-to instructions to enable everyone in the world to learn how to do anything.wikiHow is a hybrid organization, a for-profit company run for a social mission. wikiHow is an open source and open content project. The modified MediaWiki software is freely released and the content is released under a Creative Commons (BY-NC-SA) license.In February 2005, wikiHow had over 35.5 million unique visitors. As of August 2017, wikiHow contains more than 190,000 free how-to articles and over 1.6 million registered users. On April 11, 2010, a wikiHow article titled "How to Lose Weight Fast" reached 5 million page views, a first for the site. "How to Take a Screenshot in Microsoft Windows" is the site's most popular article. According to wikiHow, four babies have been born in emergency situations referencing instruction from wikiHow articles.

World Summit on the Information Society

The World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) was a two-phase United Nations-sponsored summit on information, communication and, in broad terms, the information society that took place in 2003 in Geneva and in 2005 in Tunis. One of its chief aims was to bridge the global digital divide separating rich countries from poor countries by spreading access to the Internet in the developing world. The conferences established 17 May as World Information Society Day.

The WSIS+10 Process marked the ten-year milestone since the 2005 Summit. In 2015, the stocktaking process culminated with a High-Level meeting of the UN General Assembly on 15–16 December in New York.

Types of goods

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