Global city

A global city, also called world city or sometimes alpha city or world center, is a city which is a primary node in the global economic network. The concept comes from geography and urban studies, and the idea that globalization is created, facilitated, and enacted in strategic geographic locales according to a hierarchy of importance to the operation of the global system of finance and trade.

The most complex node is the "global city", with links binding it to other cities having a direct and tangible effect on global socio-economic affairs.[1] The term "megacity" entered common use in the late 19th or early 20th centuries; one of the earliest documented uses of the term was by the University of Texas in 1904.[2] Initially the United Nations used the term to describe cities of 8 million or more inhabitants, but now uses the threshold of 10 million.[3]The term "global city", rather than "megacity", was popularized by sociologist Saskia Sassen in her 1991 work, The Global City: New York, London, Tokyo.[4] "World city", meaning a city heavily involved in global trade, appeared in the May 1886 description of Liverpool, by The Illustrated London News.[5] Patrick Geddes later used the term "world city" in 1915.[6] More recently, the term has focused on a city's financial power and high technology infrastructure, with other factors becoming less relevant.[7][8]


Global city status is considered beneficial and desirable. Competing groups have developed multiple alternative methods to classify and rank world cities and to distinguish them from non-world cities.[6] Although there is a consensus upon leading world cities,[9] the chosen criteria affect which other cities are included.[6] Selection criteria may be based on a yardstick value (e.g., if the producer-service sector is the largest sector then city X is a world city)[6] or on an imminent determination (if the producer-service sector of city X is greater than the combined producer-service sectors of N other cities then city X is a world city.)[6]

Cities can fall from ranking, as in the case of cities that have become less cosmopolitan and less internationally renowned in the current era.


Although criteria are variable and fluid, typical characteristics of world cities are:[10]

  • A variety of international financial services,[11] notably in finance, insurance, real estate, banking, accountancy, and marketing
  • Headquarters of several multinational corporations
  • The existence of financial headquarters, a stock exchange, and major financial institutions
  • Domination of the trade and economy of a large surrounding area
  • Major manufacturing centres with port and container facilities
  • Considerable decision-making power on a daily basis and at a global level
  • Centres of new ideas and innovation in business, economics, culture, and politics
  • Centres of media and communications for global networks
  • Dominance of the national region with great international significance
  • High percentage of residents employed in the services sector and information sector
  • High-quality educational institutions, including renowned universities, international student attendance,[12] and research facilities
  • Multi-functional infrastructure offering some of the best legal, medical, and entertainment facilities in the country
  • High diversity in language, culture, religion, and ideologies.


Global Economic Power Index

In 2015, the second Global Economic Power Index, a meta list compiled by Richard Florida, was published by The Atlantic (distinct from a namesake list[13] published by the Martin Prosperity Institute), with city composite rank based on five other lists.[13][14]

Global Power City Index

The Institute for Urban Strategies at The Mori Memorial Foundation in Tokyo issued a comprehensive study of global cities in 2018. They are ranked based on six categories: economy, research and development, cultural interaction, livability, environment, and accessibility, with 70 individual indicators among them. The top ten world cities are also ranked by subjective categories including manager, researcher, artist, visitor and resident.[15]

GaWC study

GaWC World Cities
A map showing the distribution of GaWC-ranked world cities (2010 data)

Jon Beaverstock, Richard G. Smith and Peter J. Taylor established the Globalization and World Cities Research Network (GaWC). A roster of world cities in the GaWC Research Bulletin 5 is ranked by their connectivity through four "advanced producer services": accountancy, advertising, banking/finance, and law.[9] The GaWC inventory identifies three levels of global cities and several sub-ranks,[16] although the authors caution that "concern for city rankings operates against the spirit of the GaWC project"[17] (emphasis in original).

The 2004 rankings added several new indicators while continuing to rank city economics more heavily than political or cultural factors. The 2008 roster, similar to the 1998 version, is sorted into categories of Alpha world cities (with four sub-categories), Beta world cities (three sub-categories), Gamma world cities (three sub-categories) and additional cities with High sufficiency or Sufficiency presence. The cities in the top two classifications in the 2018 edition are:[18]

Alpha ++

Alpha +

Global Cities Index

In 2008, the American journal Foreign Policy, in conjunction with the consulting firm A.T. Kearney and the Chicago Council on Global Affairs, published a ranking of global cities, based on consultation with Saskia Sassen, Witold Rybczynski, and others.[19] Foreign Policy noted that "the world’s biggest, most interconnected cities help set global agendas, weather transnational dangers, and serve as the hubs of global integration. They are the engines of growth for their countries and the gateways to the resources of their regions."[20] The ranking is based on 27 metrics across five dimensions: business activity, human capital, information exchange, cultural experience, and political engagement and was updated in 2010, 2012, 2014, 2015, 2016, and 2017. Since 2015 it has been published together with a separate index called the Global Cities Outlook: a projection of a city’s potential based on rate of change in 13 indicators across four dimensions: personal well-being, economics, innovation, and governance.[21]

The Wealth Report

"The Wealth Report" (a global perspective on prime property and wealth) is made by the London-based estate agent Knight Frank LLP together with the Citi Private Bank. The report includes a "Global Cities Survey", evaluating which cities are considered the most important to the world’s HNWIs (high-net-worth individuals, having over $25 million of investable assets). For the Global Cities Survey, Citi Private Bank’s wealth advisors, and Knight Frank’s luxury property specialists were asked to name the cities that they felt were the most important to HNWIs, in regard to: "economic activity", "political power", "knowledge and influence" and "quality of life".[22][23]

Global City Competitiveness Index

In 2012, the Economist Intelligence Unit (The Economist Group), ranked the competitiveness of global cities according to their demonstrated ability to attract capital, businesses, talent and visitors.[24]

See also


  1. ^ Sassen, Saskia - The global city: strategic site/new frontier Archived 18 October 2006 at the Wayback Machine
  2. ^ "Hemisfile: perspectives on political and economic trends in the Americas". 5–8. Institute of the Americas. 1904: 12. Retrieved 16 July 2015.
  3. ^ "Population Reports: Special topics" (15–19). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University. 1981: 38.
  4. ^ Sassen, Saskia - The Global City: New York, London, Tokyo. Archived 16 March 2015 at the Wayback Machine (1991) - Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-07063-6
  5. ^ "UK History". 18 December 2009. Archived from the original on 23 June 2012. Retrieved 9 May 2012.
  6. ^ a b c d e Doel, M. & Hubbard, P., (2002), "Taking World Cities Literally: Marketing the City in a Global Space of flows", City, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 351–68. Subscription required
  7. ^ "Asian Cities Pay Hidden Price for Global Status". The Diplomat. 15 February 2015. Archived from the original on 1 February 2016. Retrieved 25 January 2016.
  8. ^ "The World's Most Influential Cities". Forbes. 14 August 2014. Archived from the original on 5 September 2017. Retrieved 29 August 2017.
  9. ^ a b GaWC Research Bulletin 5 Archived 25 August 2011 at WebCite, GaWC, Loughborough University, 28 July 1999
  10. ^ Pashley, Rosemary. "HSC Geography". Pascal Press, 2000, p.164
  11. ^ J.V. Beaverstock, World City Networks 'From Below' Archived 8 March 2006 at the Wayback Machine, GaWC, Loughborough University, 29 September 2010
  12. ^ K. O'Connor, International Students and Global Cities Archived 5 February 2006 at the Wayback Machine, GaWC, Loughborough University, 17 February 2005
  13. ^ a b Richard Florida (3 March 2015). "Sorry, London: New York Is the World's Most Economically Powerful City". The Atlantic Monthly Group. Archived from the original on 14 March 2015. Retrieved 16 March 2015. Our new ranking puts the Big Apple firmly on top.
  14. ^ "The Top 10 most powerful cities in the world". Yahoo! India Finance. 11 May 2012. Archived from the original on 18 March 2013. Retrieved 19 June 2013.
  15. ^ "Global Power City Index 2018". Tokyo, Japan: Institute for Urban Strategies at The Mori Memorial Foundation. 18 October 2018. Archived from the original on 18 October 2018.
  16. ^ "The World According to GaWC Archived 30 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine". GaWC. Retrieved 21 November 2012.
  17. ^ Taylor, P.J. "Measuring the World City Network: New Results and Developments". Archived from the original on 29 September 2018. Retrieved 1 November 2018.
  18. ^ "The World According to GaWC 2018". GaWC. 13 November 2018. Archived from the original on 3 May 2017. Retrieved 29 November 2018.
  19. ^ "2012 Global Cities Index and Emerging Cities Outlook". Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 October 2013. Retrieved 9 May 2012.
  20. ^ The main parameters are "Business activity" (30%), "Human capital" (30%), "Information exchange" (15%), "Cultural experience" (15%) and "Political engagement" (10%)."The 2008 Global Cities Index". Foreign Policy (November/December 2008). 21 October 2008. Archived from the original on 7 January 2010. Retrieved 31 October 2008.
  21. ^ "A.T. Kearney: Global Cities 2017". Archived from the original on 12 March 2017. Retrieved 22 February 2017.
  22. ^ "The Wealth Report 2015". Knight Frank LLP. Archived from the original on 18 June 2015. Retrieved 18 June 2015.
  23. ^ "Global Cities Survey" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 March 2015. Retrieved 18 June 2015.
  24. ^ "Benchmarking global city competitiveness" (PDF). Economist Intelligence Unit. Economist Intelligence Unit. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 July 2014.

External links

Bonifacio Global City

Bonifacio Global City (also known as BGC, Global City, or The Fort) is a financial and lifestyle district in Metro Manila, Philippines. It is located 11 km (6.8 mi) south-east of the center of Manila. The district experienced commercial growth following the sale of military land by the Bases Conversion and Development Authority (BCDA). The entire district used to be the part of the main Philippine Army camp.

It is under the administration of the city government of Taguig. The local governments of Makati and Pateros also claim jurisdiction.

In February 7, 1995, Bonifacio Land Development Corporation (BLDC) started planning a major urban development—Bonifacio Global City. BLDC made a successful bid to become BCDA's partner in the development of the district. The Ayala Corporation through Ayala Land, Inc., and Evergreen Holdings, Inc. of the Campos Group purchased a controlling stake in BLDC from Metro Pacific in 2003. BCDA and the two companies now control Fort Bonifacio Development Corporation, which oversees the master planning of Bonifacio Global City.

Bonifacio Global City station

Bonifacio Global City station is a planned station on the Metro Manila Subway Line 9 . Like all other Line 9 stations, BGC station is underground. The station will serve the central portion of the Bonifacio Global City business district in Taguig City. The station is planned to be located underneath McKinley Parkway, at the rotonda between Serendra and Market! Market!

The station is slated to open in 2025, when the line commences full operations

Bonifacio Transport Corporation

Bonifacio Transport Corp., or more commonly known as BGC Bus or formerly The Fort Bus, is an intercity bus company in Metro Manila, Philippines operated under Fort Bonifacio Development Corporation (FBDC), an affiliate company under Ayala Corporation, one of the largest conglomerate company established during the Spanish era. It plies routes from EDSA in Makati to Bonifacio Global City in Taguig via McKinley Road.

This bus company was regarded as the first non-EDSA Metro Manila bus that traverses from one business district to another.

Enderun Colleges

Enderun Colleges is a private non-sectarian undergraduate college situated at the Bonifacio Global City in Taguig, Metro Manila, Philippines.

It was established in 2005, then in its former campus in Wynsum Corporate Plaza in Ortigas Center. In 2008, it moved to its permanent 1.7-hectare campus in McKinley Hill, Bonifacio Global City, Metro Manila.Enderun takes its name from Enderun, the palace school established in Turkey during the Ottoman Empire where the most promising children were educated in, among other things, public administration.Enderun Colleges’ bachelor's degree programs are accredited by the Commission on Higher Education (CHED).

Fort Bonifacio

Fort Bonifacio (formerly named as Fort McKinley), is the national headquarters of the Philippine Army (AFP) and is located in Metro Manila, Philippines. It is located near the national headquarters of the Philippine Air Force (AFP). The camp is named after Andres Bonifacio, the revolutionary leader of the Katipunan during the Philippine Revolution.

Global City Innovative College

Global City Innovative College is a private college at the heart of Makati City / Metro Manila. It began in 2002 when a group of entrepreneurs joined to establish the first collegiate education center in what was then the Fort Bonifacio Special Economic Zone. It is non-denominational, co-educational, and primarily serves the students in its area. Known as "the Yellow Building," the school was located along 31st Street at the corner of 2nd Avenue near Metro Manila's main thoroughfare, EDSA.

Course offerings include BS Business Administration, BS Hospitality Management , BS Accountancy, BS Tourism, BS Information Technology, BS Medical Technology and other Technical/ Vocational short courses. It is accredited by the Commission on Higher Education and the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority. GCIC now offers the Senior High School (SHS) program as approved by the Department of Education (DepEd).

Globe Telecom

Globe Telecom, commonly shortened as Globe, is a major provider of telecommunications services in the Philippines. It operates one of the largest mobile, fixed line, and broadband networks in the country. Globe Telecom's mobile subscriber base reached 60.7 million as of end-December 2017, down 3% from the 62.8 million subscribers reported a year ago.The company's principal shareholders are Ayala Corporation and Singapore Telecommunications. It is listed on the Philippine Stock Exchange under the ticker symbol GLO and had a market capitalization of US$3.8 billion as of the end of June 2018.

Globe's main competitors in the fixed-line telephone market are PLDT and Digitel. BayanTel used to be one of its competitors prior to its acquisition by Globe. In the mobile phone market, its main competitors are the Smart and Talk N Text brands of Smart Communications and Sun Cellular, a wholly owned subsidiary.

In 2016, Globe introduced its Globe Lifestyle brand as a way to connect to its customers through fashion. It also launched two entertainment divisions: Globe Studios, which focuses on film and television production, and Globe Live, which focuses on live concerts and musical events.

Kalayaan Flyover

The Kalayaan Flyover, also known as the EDSA–Kalayaan Flyover, is a four-lane flyover connecting Gil Puyat Avenue, Epifanio de los Santos Avenue (EDSA) and Kalayaan Avenue in Metro Manila, the Philippines. Located primarily in Makati with a short portion in Taguig, it facilitates access from the Makati Central Business District to the Bonifacio Global City and, ultimately, to Circumferential Road 5 (C-5).

Preparation work for the flyover began in 1997, when the Bases Conversion and Development Authority (BCDA) announced the construction of two new primary access points to the Bonifacio Global City, with the flyover serving as the main western access point to the area. Designed by Katahira & Engineers Asia, actual construction of the flyover began in late 1997 with the construction of the segment between Gil Puyat Avenue and EDSA, contracted to the Uy-Pajara Construction Company. Work on the segment between Kalayaan Avenue and the Bonifacio Global City meanwhile began in April 1999, with the work being contracted to F.F. Cruz and Co., one of the Philippines' largest construction companies. Capable of holding up to 4,000 vehicles at one time, the flyover would reduce travel times between Makati and the Bonifacio Global City to five minutes by providing a direct connection between the two business districts instead of needing to route vehicles through EDSA.The 1.5-kilometer (0.93 mi) flyover was inaugurated by President Joseph Estrada and other government officials on January 25, 2000. Although promoted as a public project, it has been rumored that the ₱950 million spent for the flyover's construction did not come from public funds, but rather was underwritten by the First Pacific group through their local subsidiary, Metro Pacific.Despite being a flyover, the entire road is designated as National Route 191 (N191) of the Philippine highway network.

Kalayaan station (Line 9)

Kalayaan station is a planned station on the Metro Manila Subway Line 9 . Like all other Line 9 stations, the station is underground. The station is situated along the border of Makati and Taguig, with entrances on both sides. The station is planned to be located underneath the junction of Kalayaan Avenue, a major road in West Rembo, Makati where the station derives its name, and a sparsely used section of 11th Avenue inside Bonifacio Global City in Taguig.

The station will serve both the residents of Makati along Kalayaan Avenue and establishments along the northern portion of Bonifacio Global City, particularly Uptown Mall and the surrounding Uptown Bonifacio township.

The station is slated to open in 2025, when the line commences full operations

Kidzania Manila

KidZania Manila is an indoor family entertainment center in Bonifacio Global City, Taguig City, Metro Manila, Philippines. It is a franchise of KidZania, a Mexican chain of family entertainment centers which allows children aged 4 to 17 to work in adult jobs and earn currency. KidZania Manila was opened to the general public on August 7, 2015 making it the 11th KidZania in Asia and the 20th in the world.

List of BGC Bus routes

The BGC Bus transport system is the primary transport system at the Bonifacio Global City in Taguig, Metro Manila, Philippines. The public transport system is primarily maintained by the Bonifacio Transport Corporation. HM Transport also operates some routes.

On August 7, 2017, express bus routes were introduced.Routes to other Ayala Land developments are also available. On March 7,2016, the Arca South- BGC route was opened.The company is also operating an express bus service from Market Market to Nuvali in Santa Rosa, Laguna, and a morning rush hour service along Ayala Avenue in the Makati Central Business District.

List of international schools in Metro Manila

The following is a list of international schools located only inside the Metro Manila region, and the international curricula offered, including local schools which offer a foreign education system.

Aguinaldo International School Manila (Ermita, Manila)

The Beacon School (Taguig)

Britesparks International School (Quezon City)

British School Manila (Bonifacio Global City)

Chinese International School Manila (Bonifacio Global City)

CIE British School (Centre for International Education) (Makati)

Domuschola International School (Pasig)

European International School (Parañaque)

German European School Manila PYP, DSD (Parañaque)

Lycée Français de Manille (Parañaque)

Everest Academy Manila (Bonifacio Global City)

Fountain International School (San Juan)

Global Leaders International School (Bonifacio Global City)

Grace Christian High School (Quezon City)

Immaculate Conception Academy-Greenhills (San Juan)

International School Manila (Bonifacio Global City)

Jubilee Christian Academy (Quezon City)

Keys School Manila (Mandaluyong)

The King's School, Manila (Parañaque)

Korean International School Philippines (Bonifacio Global City)

Leaders International Christian School of Manila (Bonifacio Global City)

Mahatma Gandhi International School, Pasay City

Manila Japanese School (Bonifacio Global City)

MIT International School (Muntinlupa)

Multiple Intelligence International School (Quezon City)

Reedley International School Manila (Pasig)

Remnant International Christian School (Quezon City)

Singapore School Manila (Parañaque)

Southville International School affiliated with Foreign Universities (SISFU) (Las Piñas)

Southville International School and Colleges (Las Piñas)

South SEED LPDH College (Las Piñas)

South Mansfield College (Muntinlupa)

Saint Gabriel International School (Pasig)

Saint Jude Catholic School (Manila)

St. Paul College, Pasig

Saint Pedro Poveda College (Quezon City)

Veritas English Teaching & Learning Institute (Muntinlupa)

Victory Christian International School (Pasig)

Xavier School (San Juan)

Market! Market!

Market! Market! (unofficially renamed as Ayala Malls Market! Market!) is a real estate development owned by Ayala Land, a real estate subsidiary of Ayala Corporation and part of the Ayala Mall chain. It is located at Mabini Avenue corner McKinley Parkway, Bonifacio Global City, Taguig City, Metro Manila, Philippines, part of the Bonifacio Global City a Central Business District.


A metropolis () is a large city or conurbation which is a significant economic, political, and cultural center for a country or region, and an important hub for regional or international connections, commerce, and communications. The term is Ancient Greek (μητρόπολις) and means the "mother city" of a colony (in the ancient sense), that is, the city which sent out settlers. This was later generalized to a city regarded as a center of a specified activity, or any large, important city in a nation.

A big city belonging to a larger urban agglomeration, but which is not the core of that agglomeration, is not generally considered a metropolis but a part of it. The plural of the word is metropolises, although the Latin plural is metropoles, from the Greek metropoleis (μητρoπόλεις).

For urban centers outside metropolitan areas that generate a similar attraction at smaller scale for their region, the concept of the regiopolis ("regio" for short) was introduced by German academics in 2006.

Philippine Stock Exchange

The Philippine Stock Exchange, Inc. (Filipino: Pamilihang Sapi ng Pilipinas; PSE: PSE) is the national stock exchange of the Philippines. The exchange was created in 1992 from the merger of the Manila Stock Exchange and the Makati Stock Exchange. Including previous forms, the exchange has been in operation since 1927.

The main index for PSE is the PSE Composite Index (PSEi) composed of thirty (30) listed companies. The selection of companies in the PSEi is based on a specific set of criteria. There are also six additional sector-based indices. The PSE is overseen by a 15-member Board of Directors, chaired by José T. Pardo.


Sandvik AB is a Swedish company founded in 1862 by Göran Fredrik Göransson. Sandvik is a high-technology engineering group in tools and tooling systems for metal cutting, equipment, tools and services for the mining and construction industries, products in advanced stainless steel and special alloys as well as products for industrial heating. Sandvik has about 42,000 employees and sales in more than 160 countries. Invoiced sales is approximately SEK 100 billion (2018).

Sandvik was the first company to commercially exploit the Bessemer Steel process. The first blast furnace was installed by an English engineer and is now on display in a park in Sandviken, Sweden.

SkyTrain (Metro Manila)

SkyTrain is an approved monorail line meant to serve the city of Makati and Bonifacio Global City area in Taguig, Metro Manila.


Taguig, officially the City of Taguig, (Tagalog: Lungsod ng Taguig, pronounced [taˈɡiɡ]), is a 1st class highly urbanized city in Metro Manila, Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 804,915 people. The city is known for the Bonifacio Global City, one of the leading financial and lifestyle districts of the country, and Arca South, a planned unit development located at the site of the former Food Terminal Incorporated (FTI) in Western Bicutan. Taguig is also the home of SM Aura Premier, Market! Market!, the Department of Science and Technology, Manila American Cemetery, and the Heroes' Cemetery.

Taguig is located on the western shore of Laguna de Bay and is bordered by Muntinlupa to the south, Parañaque to the southwest, Pasay to the west, Cainta and Taytay on the northeast, and Makati, Pateros, and Pasig to the north. The Taguig River, a tributary of the Pasig River, cuts through the northern half of the city while the Napindan River, another tributary of the Pasig, forms the common border of Taguig with Pasig.

Zhujiang New City Tower

Zhujiang New City Tower (Chinese: 珠江新城), also known as Global City Square, is a skyscraper in the Tianhe District of Guangzhou City, Guangdong Province, China. Upon completion in 2015, it became the fourth tallest building in Guangzhou at 318.9 metres (1,046 ft) and contains 180,649 square metres (1,944,490 sq ft) of floor space.

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