Global Competitiveness Report

The Global Competitiveness Report (GCR)[1] is a yearly report published by the World Economic Forum. Since 2004, the Global Competitiveness Report ranks countries based on the Global Competitiveness Index,[1] developed by Xavier Sala-i-Martin and Elsa V. Artadi.[2] Before that, the macroeconomic ranks were based on Jeffrey Sachs's Growth Development Index and the microeconomic ranks were based on Michael Porter's Business Competitiveness Index. The Global Competitiveness Index integrates the macroeconomic and the micro/business aspects of competitiveness into a single index.

The report "assesses the ability of countries to provide high levels of prosperity to their citizens". This in turn depends on how productively a country uses available resources. Therefore, the Global Competitiveness Index measures the set of institutions, policies, and factors that set the sustainable current and medium-term levels of economic prosperity."[3][4]

Description

Since 2004, the report ranks the world's nations according to the Global Competitiveness Index.[2] The report states that it is based on the latest theoretical and empirical research.[5] It is made up of over 110 variables, of which two thirds come from the Executive Opinion Survey, and one third comes from publicly available sources such as the United Nations. The variables are organized into twelve pillars,[6] with each pillar representing an area considered as an important determinant of competitiveness.

One part of the report is the Executive Opinion Survey which is a survey of a representative sample of business leaders in their respective countries. Respondent numbers have increased every year and is currently just over 13,500 in 142 countries (2010).[7]

The report notes that as a nation develops, wages tend to increase, and that in order to sustain this higher income, labor productivity must improve for the nation to be competitive. In addition, what creates productivity in Sweden is necessarily different from what drives it in Ghana. Thus, the GCI separates countries into three specific stages: factor-driven, efficiency-driven, and innovation-driven, each implying a growing degree of complexity in the operation of the economy.

The report has twelve pillars of competitiveness. These are:

  1. Institutions
  2. Appropriate infrastructure
  3. Stable macroeconomic framework
  4. Good health and primary education
  5. Higher education and training
  6. Efficient goods markets
  7. Efficient labor markets
  8. Developed financial markets
  9. Ability to harness existing technology
  10. Market sizeboth domestic and international
  11. Production of new and different goods using the most sophisticated production processes
  12. Innovation

In the factor-driven stage countries compete based on their factor endowments, primarily unskilled labor and natural resources. Companies compete on the basis of prices and sell basic products or commodities, with their low productivity reflected in low wages. To maintain competitiveness at this stage of development, competitiveness hinges mainly on well-functioning public and private institutions (pillar 1), appropriate infrastructure (pillar 2), a stable macroeconomic framework (pillar 3), and good health and primary education (pillar 4).

As wages rise with advancing development, countries move into the efficiency-driven stage of development, when they must begin to develop more efficient production processes and increase product quality. At this point, competitiveness becomes increasingly driven by higher education and training (pillar 5), efficient goods markets (pillar 6), efficient labor markets (pillar 7), developed financial markets (pillar 8), the ability to harness the benefits of existing technologies (pillar 9), and its market size, both domestic and international (pillar 10).

Finally, as countries move into the innovation-driven stage, they are only able to sustain higher wages and a higher standard of living if their businesses are able to compete by providing new or unique products. At this stage, companies must compete by producing new and different goods using the most sophisticated production processes (pillar 11) and through innovation (pillar 12).

Thus, the impact of each pillar on competitiveness varies across countries, in function of their stages of economic development. Therefore, in the calculation of the GCI, pillars are given different weights depending on the per capita income of the nation.[8] The weights used are the values that best explain growth in recent years[9] For example, the sophistication and innovation factors contribute 10% to the final score in factor and efficiency-driven economies, but 30% in innovation-driven economies. Intermediate values are used for economies in transition between stages.

The Global Competitiveness Index's annual reports are somewhat similar to the Ease of Doing Business Index and the Indices of Economic Freedom, which also look at factors affecting economic growth (but not as many as the Global Competitiveness Report).

2018–2019 rankings

This is the top 30 of the 2018–2019 report:[10]

  1.  United States 85.6 (+1)
  2.  Singapore 83.5 (+1)
  3.  Germany 82.8 (+2)
  4.   Switzerland 82.6 (−3)
  5.  Japan 82.5 (+4)
  6.  Netherlands 82.4 (−2)
  7.  Hong Kong 82.3 (−1)
  8.  United Kingdom 82 (—)
  9.  Sweden 81.7 (−2)
  10.  Denmark 80.6 (+2)
  11.  Finland 80.3 (−1)
  12.  Canada 79.9 (+2)
  13.  Taiwan 79.3 (+2)
  14.  Australia 78.9 (+7)
  15.  South Korea 78.8 (+11)
  16.  Norway 78.2 (−5)
  17.  France 78 (+5)
  18.  New Zealand 77.5 (−5)
  19.  Luxembourg 76.6 (—)
  20.  Israel 76.6 (−4)
  21.  Belgium 76.6 (−1)
  22.  Austria 76.3 (−4)
  23.  Ireland 75.7 (+1)
  24.  Iceland 74.5 (—)
  25.  Malaysia 74.4 (−2)
  26.  Spain 74.2 (+8)
  27.  United Arab Emirates 73.4 (−10)
  28.  China 72.6(−1)
  29.  Czech Republic 71.2 (+2)
  30.  Qatar 71 (−5)

2017–2018 rankings

This is the top 30 of the 2017–2018 report:[11]

  1.   Switzerland 5.86 (—)
  2.  United States 5.85 (+1)
  3.  Singapore 5.71 (−1)
  4.  Netherlands 5.66 (—)
  5.  Germany 5.65 (—)
  6.  Hong Kong 5.53 (+3)
  7.  Sweden 5.52 (−1)
  8.  United Kingdom 5.51 (−1)
  9.  Japan 5.49 (−1)
  10.  Finland 5.49 (—)
  11.  Norway 5.40 (—)
  12.  Denmark 5.39 (—)
  13.  New Zealand 5.37 (—)
  14.  Canada 5.35 (+1)
  15.  Taiwan 5.33 (−1)
  16.  Israel 5.31 (+8)
  17.  United Arab Emirates 5.30 (−1)
  18.  Austria 5.25 (+1)
  19.  Luxembourg 5.23 (+1)
  20.  Belgium 5.23 (−3)
  21.  Australia 5.19 (+1)
  22.  France 5.18 (−1)
  23.  Malaysia 5.17 (+2)
  24.  Ireland 5.16 (−1)
  25.  Qatar 5.11 (−7)
  26.  South Korea 5.07 (—)
  27.  China 5.00 (+1)
  28.  Iceland 4.99 (−1)
  29.  Estonia 4.85 (+1)
  30.  Saudi Arabia 4.83 (−1)

2016–2017 rankings

This is the top 30 of the 2016–2017 report:[12]

  1.   Switzerland 5.81 (—)
  2.  Singapore 5.72 (—)
  3.  United States 5.7 (—)
  4.  Netherlands 5.57 (+1)
  5.  Germany 5.57 (−1)
  6.  Sweden 5.53 (+3)
  7.  United Kingdom 5.49 (+3)
  8.  Japan 5.48 (−2)
  9.  Hong Kong 5.48 (−2)
  10.  Finland 5.44 (−2)
  11.  Norway 5.44 (—)
  12.  Denmark 5.35 (—)
  13.  New Zealand 5.31 (+3)
  14.  Taiwan 5.28 (+1)
  15.  Canada 5.27 (−2)
  16.  United Arab Emirates 5.26 (+1)
  17.  Belgium 5.25 (+2)
  18.  Qatar 5.23 (−4)
  19.  Austria 5.22 (+4)
  20.  Luxembourg 5.2 (—)
  21.  France 5.2 (+1)
  22.  Australia 5.19 (−1)
  23.  Ireland 5.18 (+1)
  24.  Israel 5.18 (+3)
  25.  Malaysia 5.16 (−7)
  26.  South Korea 5.03 (—)
  27.  Iceland 4.96 (+2)
  28.  China 4.95 (—)
  29.  Saudi Arabia 4.84 (−4)
  30.  Estonia 4.78 (—)

2015–2016 rankings

This is the top 30 of the 2015–2016 report:[13]

  1.   Switzerland 5.76 (—)
  2.  Singapore 5.68 (—)
  3.  United States 5.61 (—)
  4.  Germany 5.53 (+1)
  5.  Netherlands 5.50 (+3)
  6.  Japan 5.47 (—)
  7.  Hong Kong 5.46 (—)
  8.  Finland 5.45 (−4)
  9.  Sweden 5.43 (+1)
  10.  United Kingdom 5.43 (−1)
  11.  Norway 5.41 (—)
  12.  Denmark 5.33 (+1)
  13.  Canada 5.31 (+2)
  14.  Qatar 5.30 (+2)
  15.  Taiwan 5.28 (−1)
  16.  New Zealand 5.25 (+1)
  17.  United Arab Emirates 5.24 (−5)
  18.  Malaysia 5.23 (+2)
  19.  Belgium 5.20 (−1)
  20.  Luxembourg 5.20 (−1)
  21.  Australia 5.15 (+1)
  22.  France 5.13 (+1)
  23.  Austria 5.12 (−2)
  24.  Ireland 5.11 (+1)
  25.  Saudi Arabia 5.07 (−1)
  26.  South Korea 4.98 (—)
  27.  Israel 4.98 (—)
  28.  China 4.89 (—)
  29.  Iceland 4.83 (+1)
  30.  Estonia 4.71 (−1)

2014–2015 rankings

This is the top 30 of the 2014–2015 report:[1]

  1.   Switzerland 5.80 (—)
  2.  Singapore 5.65 (—)
  3.  United States 5.54 (+2)
  4.  Finland 5.50 (−1)
  5.  Germany 5.49 (−1)
  6.  Japan 5.47 (+3)
  7.  Hong Kong 5.46 (—)
  8.  Netherlands 5.45 (—)
  9.  United Kingdom 5.41 (+1)
  10.  Sweden 5.41 (−4)
  11.  Norway 5.35 (—)
  12.  United Arab Emirates 5.33 (+7)
  13.  Denmark 5.29 (+2)
  14.  Taiwan 5.25 (−2)
  15.  Canada 5.24 (−1)
  16.  Qatar 5.26 (−3)
  17.  New Zealand 5.20 (+1)
  18.  Belgium 5.18 (−1)
  19.  Luxembourg 5.17 (+3)
  20.  Malaysia 5.16 (+4)
  21.  Austria 5.16 (−5)
  22.  Australia 5.08 (−1)
  23.  France 5.08 (—)
  24.  Saudi Arabia 5.06 (−4)
  25.  Ireland 4.98 (+3)
  26.  South Korea 4.96 (−1)
  27.  Israel 4.95 (—)
  28.  China 4.89 (+1)
  29.  Estonia 4.71 (+3)
  30.  Iceland 4.71 (+1)

2013–2014 rankings

This is the top 30 of the 2013–2014 report:[14]

  1.   Switzerland 5.67 (—)
  2.  Singapore 5.61 (—)
  3.  Finland 5.54 (—)
  4.  Germany 5.51 (+2)
  5.  United States 5.48 (+2)
  6.  Sweden 5.48 (−2)
  7.  Hong Kong 5.47 (+2)
  8.  Netherlands 5.42 (−3)
  9.  Japan 5.40 (+1)
  10.  United Kingdom 5.37 (−2)
  11.  Norway 5.33 (+4)
  12.  Taiwan 5.29 (+1)
  13.  Qatar 5.24 (−2)
  14.  Canada 5.20 (—)
  15.  Denmark 5.18 (−3)
  16.  Austria 5.15 (—)
  17.  Belgium 5.13 (—)
  18.  New Zealand 5.11 (+5)
  19.  United Arab Emirates 5.11 (+5)
  20.  Saudi Arabia 5.10 (−2)
  21.  Australia 5.09 (−1)
  22.  Luxembourg 5.09 (—)
  23.  France 5.05 (−2)
  24.  Malaysia 5.03 (+1)
  25.  South Korea 5.01 (−6)
  26.  Brunei 4.95 (+2)
  27.  Israel 4.94 (−1)
  28.  Ireland 4.92 (−1)
  29.  China 4.84 (—)
  30.  Puerto Rico 4.67 (+1)

2012–2013 rankings

This is the top 30 of the 2012–2013 report:[15]

  1.   Switzerland 5.72 (—)
  2.  Singapore 5.67 (—)
  3.  Finland 5.55 (+1)
  4.  Sweden 5.53 (−1)
  5.  Netherlands 5.50 (+2)
  6.  Germany 5.48 (—)
  7.  United States 5.47 (−2)
  8.  United Kingdom 5.45 (+2)
  9.  Hong Kong 5.41 (+2)
  10.  Japan 5.40 (−1)
  11.  Qatar 5.38 (+3)
  12.  Denmark 5.29 (−4)
  13.  Taiwan 5.28 (—)
  14.  Canada 5.27 (−2)
  15.  Norway 5.27 (+1)
  16.  Austria 5.22 (+3)
  17.  Belgium 5.21 (−2)
  18.  Saudi Arabia 5.19 (+1)
  19.  South Korea 5.12 (+5)
  20.  Australia 5.12 (—)
  21.  France 5.11 (−3)
  22.  Luxembourg 5.09 (+1)
  23.  New Zealand 5.09 (+2)
  24.  United Arab Emirates 5.07 (+3)
  25.  Malaysia 5.06 (−4)
  26.  Israel 5.02 (−4)
  27.  Ireland 4.91 (+2)
  28.  Brunei 4.87 (—)
  29.  China 4.83 (−3)
  30.  Iceland 4.74 (—)

2011–2012 rankings

This is the top 30 of the 2011–2012 report:[16][17]

  1.   Switzerland 5.75 (—)
  2.  Singapore 5.63 (+1)
  3.  Sweden 5.61 (−1)
  4.  Finland 5.47 (+3)
  5.  United States 5.43 (−1)
  6.  Germany 5.41 (−1)
  7.  Netherlands 5.41 (+1)
  8.  Denmark 5.40 (+1)
  9.  Japan 5.40 (−3)
  10.  United Kingdom 5.39 (+2)
  11.  Hong Kong 5.36 (—)
  12.  Canada 5.33 (−2)
  13.  Taiwan 5.26 (—)
  14.  Qatar 5.24 (+3)
  15.  Belgium 5.20 (+4)
  16.  Norway 5.18 (−2)
  17.  Saudi Arabia 5.17 (+4)
  18.  France 5.14 (−3)
  19.  Austria 5.14 (−1)
  20.  Australia 5.11 (−4)
  21.  Malaysia 5.08 (+5)
  22.  Israel 5.07 (+2)
  23.  Luxembourg 5.03 (−3)
  24.  South Korea 5.02 (−2)
  25.  New Zealand 4.93 (−2)
  26.  China 4.90 (+1)
  27.  United Arab Emirates 4.89 (−2)
  28.  Brunei 4.78 (—)
  29.  Ireland 4.77 (—)
  30.  Iceland 4.75 (+1)

2010–2011 rankings

This is the top 30 of the 2010–2011 report:[18]

  1.   Switzerland 5.63 (—)
  2.  Sweden 5.56 (+2)
  3.  Singapore 5.48 (—)
  4.  United States 5.43 (–2)
  5.  Germany 5.39 (+2)
  6.  Japan 5.37 (+2)
  7.  Finland 5.37 (–1)
  8.  Netherlands 5.33 (+2)
  9.  Denmark 5.32 (–4)
  10.  Canada 5.30 (–1)
  11.  Hong Kong 5.27 (—)
  12.  United Kingdom 5.25 (+1)
  13.  Taiwan 5.21 (–1)
  14.  Norway 5.14 (—)
  15.  France 5.13 (+1)
  16.  Australia 5.11 (–1)
  17.  Qatar 5.10 (—)
  18.  Austria 5.09 (–1)
  19.  Belgium 5.07 (–1)
  20.  Luxembourg 5.05 (+1)
  21.  Saudi Arabia 4.95 (+6)
  22.  South Korea 4.93 (—)
  23.  New Zealand 4.92 (–3)
  24.  Israel 4.91 (+3)
  25.  United Arab Emirates 4.89 (–2)
  26.  Malaysia 4.88 (–2)
  27.  China 4.84 (+2)
  28.  Brunei 4.75 (+4)
  29.  Ireland 4.74 (–4)
  30.  Chile 4.69 (—)

2009–2010 rankings

This is the top 30 of the 2009–2010 report:[19]

  1.   Switzerland 5.60 (+1)
  2.  United States 5.59 (–1)
  3.  Singapore 5.55 (+2)
  4.  Sweden 5.51 (—)
  5.  Denmark 5.46 (–2)
  6.  Finland 5.43 (—)
  7.  Germany 5.37 (—)
  8.  Japan 5.37 (+1)
  9.  Canada 5.33 (+1)
  10.  Netherlands 5.32 (–2)
  11.  Hong Kong 5.22 (—)
  12.  Taiwan 5.20 (+5)
  13.  United Kingdom 5.19 (–1)
  14.  Norway 5.17 (+1)
  15.  Australia 5.15 (+3)
  16.  France 5.13 (—)
  17.  Austria 5.13 (–3)
  18.  Belgium 5.09 (+1)
  19.  South Korea 5.00 (–6)
  20.  New Zealand 4.98 (+4)
  21.  Luxembourg 4.96 (+4)
  22.  Qatar 4.95 (+4)
  23.  United Arab Emirates 4.92 (+8)
  24.  Malaysia 4.87 (–3)
  25.  Ireland 4.84 (–3)
  26.  Iceland 4.80 (–6)
  27.  Israel 4.80 (–4)
  28.  Saudi Arabia 4.75 (–1)
  29.  China 4.74 (+1)
  30.  Chile 4.70 (+2)

2008–2009 rankings

This is the top 30 of the 2008–2009 report:[20]

  1.  United States 5.74
  2.   Switzerland 5.61
  3.  Denmark 5.58
  4.  Sweden 5.53
  5.  Singapore 5.53
  6.  Finland 5.50
  7.  Germany 5.46
  8.  Netherlands 5.41
  9.  Japan 5.38
  10.  Canada 5.37
  11.  Hong Kong 5.33
  12.  United Kingdom 5.30
  13.  South Korea 5.28
  14.  Austria 5.23
  15.  Norway 5.22
  16.  France 5.22
  17.  Taiwan 5.22
  18.  Australia 5.20
  19.  Belgium 5.14
  20.  Iceland 5.05
  21.  Malaysia 5.04
  22.  Ireland 4.99
  23.  Israel 4.97
  24.  New Zealand 4.93
  25.  Luxembourg 4.85
  26.  Qatar 4.83
  27.  Saudi Arabia 4.72
  28.  Chile 4.72
  29.  Spain 4.72
  30.  China 4.70

You can find the computation and structure of the GCI pp. 49–50 of the Global Competitiveness Report 2013-2014, Full Data Edition.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c "Global Competitiveness Report 2014-2015 - Reports - World Economic Forum". Global Competitiveness Report 2014-2015.
  2. ^ a b "Sala-i-Martin, Xavier and Elsa V. Artadi, "The Global Competitiveness Index", Global Competitiveness Report, Global Economic Forum 2004
  3. ^ "Global Competitiveness Network: Frequently Asked Questions". Archived from the original on 2009-03-26. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
  4. ^ "Global Competitiveness".
  5. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-10-27. Retrieved 2006-09-27.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  6. ^ See appendix in Page 47 of the 2011-12 report. http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_GCR_Report_2011-12.pdf
  7. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-03-26. Retrieved 2009-04-17.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  8. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-10-27. Retrieved 2006-09-28.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  9. ^ http://www.columbia.edu/~xs23/papers/WEC_00220_00701_Snowdon.pdf
  10. ^ "The Global Competitiveness Report 2018". Retrieved 17 October 2018.
  11. ^ "Global Competitiveness Report 2017-2018" (PDF). World Economic Forum.
  12. ^ "Global Competitiveness Report 2016-2017" (PDF). World Economic Forum.
  13. ^ "Global Competitiveness Report 2015-2016". Global Competitiveness Report 2015-2016.
  14. ^ http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_GlobalCompetitivenessReport_2013-14.pdf
  15. ^ http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_GlobalCompetitivenessReport_2012-13.pdf
  16. ^ "US Competitiveness Ranking Continues to Fall; Emerging Markets Are Closing the Gap | World Economic Forum - US Competitiveness Ranking Continues to Fall; Emerging Markets Are Closing the Gap". Weforum.org. 2011-09-07. Archived from the original on 2013-05-01. Retrieved 2013-04-29.
  17. ^ "World Economic Forum - Home" (PDF). www3.weforum.org. Retrieved 2 April 2018.
  18. ^ World Economic Forum. "Table 4: The Global Competitiveness Index 2010–2011 rankings and 2009–2010 comparisons" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-09-22. Retrieved 2010-09-10.
  19. ^ World Economic Forum. "Table 4: The Global Competitiveness Index 2009–2010 rankings and 2008–2009 comparisons" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-10-30. Retrieved 2009-09-09.
  20. ^ World Economic Forum. "The Global Competitiveness Index rankings and 2007–2008 comparisons" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-03-24. Retrieved 2009-09-10.

External links

Central Bank of Barbados

The Central Bank of Barbados (CBB) is the national monetary authority responsible for providing advice to government of Barbados on banking and other financial and monetary matters. The Central Bank of Barbados, was established by Act of parliament on 2 May 1972. Prior to the establishment of CBB, Barbados' monetary policies were governed through its membership in the Eastern Caribbean Currency Authority (ECCA). The Central Bank operates as the banknote issuing authority for Barbadian currency.

The name of the Central Bank's building is the Tom Adams Financial Centre, which is a ten-storey building located on Spry Street in Bridgetown. As part of the complex, there is a 491-seat theatre/auditorium known as the Frank Collymore Hall. The building was constructed between 1982 and 1986 and it was opened September 18th 1986.The Global Competitiveness Report for 2008–09 ranked the soundness of Barbados's commercial banks as 21st out of 134 global jurisdictions assessed.

Corruption in Denmark

According to the 2018 Corruption Perceptions Index from Transparency International, Denmark ranks first place out of 180 countries and it has consistently been in the top-4 since the publication of the first report in 1995.Moreover, Transparency International's Global Corruption Barometer 2013 shows that the public does not consider corruption a major problem in Danish society, and bribes paid to access public benefits and services are virtually non-existent.The business environment regarding the ethical behaviour of companies' interaction with public officials, politicians and other enterprises, as well as the financial auditing and reporting standards among companies, are very strong, according to the Global Competitiveness Report 2013–2014.The OECD has pointed out in 2013, though, that it had "serious concerns about the lack of enforcement" of bribery paid by Danish companies abroad.

Corruption in Germany

Transparency International’s Global Corruption Barometer 2013 reveals that political parties and businesses are the most corrupt institutions in Germany.

Transparency International's 2017 Corruption Perception Index ranks the country 12th place out of 180 countries. The same report also indicates that petty corruption is not as uncommon as in other European countries. The survey shows that 11% of the respondents claim to have been asked to pay a bribe at one point in their life and only few of those said that they had refused to pay the bribe.According to Freedom House's report, Germany’s ability to ensure integrity and to prevent corruption in state bodies is generally sufficient due to a strong institutional setup.Regarding business and corruption, business executives from World Economic Forum Global Competitiveness Report 2013-2014 consider tax regulations and restrictive labour regulations as the most problematic factors for doing business. They also report that trust in the ethical standards of politicians is relatively high, and that irregular payments and bribes only rarely take place in relation to public services.

Corruption in Iceland

Corruption in Iceland describes the prevention and occurrence of corruption in Iceland.

Corruption in Jordan

Corruption in Jordan is a social and economic issue.

Corruption in Luxembourg

Corruption in Luxembourg is examined on this page.

Corruption in Malaysia

According to a 2013 public survey in Malaysia by Transparency International, a majority of the surveyed households perceived Malaysian political parties to be highly corrupt. A quarter of the surveyed households consider the government's efforts in the fight against corruption to be ineffective.Transparency International's 2017 Corruption Perception Index ranks the country 62nd place out of 180 countries.Business executives surveyed in the World Economic Forum's Global Competitiveness Report 2013-2014 reveal that unethical behaviours of companies constitute a disadvantage for doing business in Malaysia. Government contracts are sometimes awarded to well-connected companies, and the policies of awarding huge infrastructure projects to selected Bumiputera companies without open tender continue to exist.

Corruption in the Netherlands

Corruption is rare in the Netherlands in all major areas—judiciary, police, business, politics—as the country is considered as one of the least corrupt within the European Union. In the 2017 edition of Transparency International’s Corruption Perceptions Index, the Netherlands ranked eighth least corrupt country worldwide.

Education in Costa Rica

Education in Costa Rica is divided in 3 cycles: pre-education (before age 7), primary education (from 6-7 to 12-13), and secondary school (from 12-13 to 17-18), which leads to higher education. School year starts between the second and third week of February, stops at the last week of June, it continues again between the third and fourth week of July and finishes between the last week of November (private kindergartens, schools and high schools) and the second week of December (public kindergartens, schools and high schools). Preschool and basic education are free to the public. Elementary and secondary school are both divided in two cycles. Since 1869, education is free and compulsory (article 78 of the constitution).

Costa Rica education system is ranked 20th in the "Global Competitiveness Report 2013–14", and is described as of "high quality". The literacy rate in Costa Rica is 94.9%. It is 2 points over the average for Latin-America and Caribbean countries.

International rankings of Botswana

The following are international rankings of Botswana.

International rankings of Cameroon

These are the international rankings of Cameroon

International rankings of Kazakhstan

These are the international rankings of Kazakhstan.

International rankings of Senegal

These are the international rankings of Senegal.

International rankings of Vietnam

The following are international rankings of Vietnam.

International rankings of the United States

The following are links to international rankings of the United States

World Economic Forum 2018–2019 Global Competitiveness Report, ranked 1 out of 144 countries

Economist Intelligence Unit 2013 Where to be born Index, ranked 16 out of 80 countries

World Economic Forum 2016 Global Enabling Trade Report ranked 22

The Heritage Foundation and The Wall Street Journal 2018 Index of Economic Freedom ranked 18 out of 178 economies

Fraser Institute Economic Freedom of the World 2013 Annual Report (Economic Freedom Ratings for 2011) ranked 16 out of 152 countries and territories

List of companies of Denmark

Denmark is a Scandinavian country in Europe. The country has a developed mixed economy that is classed as a high-income economy by the World Bank. It ranks 18th in the world in terms of GDP (PPP) per capita and 6th in nominal GDP per capita. Denmark's economy stands out as one of the most free in the Index of Economic Freedom and the Economic Freedom of the World. It is the 13th most competitive economy in the world, and 8th in Europe, according to the World Economic Forum in its Global Competitiveness Report 2014–2015.For further information on the types of business entities in this country and their abbreviations, see "Business entities in Denmark".

List of companies of Tunisia

Tunisia, officially the Tunisian Republic, though often called the Republic of Tunisia in English, is the smallest country in North Africa by land area. Tunisia is in the process of economic reform and liberalization after decades of heavy state direction and participation in the economy. Prudent economic and fiscal planning have resulted in moderate but sustained growth for over a decade. Tunisia's economic growth historically has depended on oil, phosphates, agri-food products, car parts manufacturing, and tourism. In the World Economic Forum 2008/2009 Global Competitiveness Report, the country ranks first in Africa and 36th globally for economic competitiveness, well ahead of Portugal (43), Italy (49) and Greece (67). With a GDP (PPP) per capita of $9795 Tunisia is among the wealthiest countries in Africa. Based on HDI, Tunisia ranks 5th in Africa.

Odinsa

Odinsa S.A is a Colombian construction and infrastructure development and publicly traded company (the largest engineering association in Colombia). It engages in road, highway, airport (about 18% of total sales) and railway construction in addition to real estate and private/public grant projects (through concessions). Real estate projects are developed through the subsidiary Odinsa Holding Inc. The company also does business outside of Colombia, mostly in the Dominican Republic and other parts of the Caribbean. In 2002 it participated in a Social Interest Housing Project (50% interest) which built 450 homes.Odinsa is considered one of the eight "leading operators of transportation infrastructure worldwide". On September 14, 2010, it had a market cap of US$549.45 million (based on exchange rate of 1908.51 COP/1 USD).

According to the 2010 Global Competitiveness Report, Colombia's public infrastructure quality (railroads, ports and especially roads) is among the worst in South America, meaning that companies like Odinsa should continue to be in high demand (the company had a backlog of 1.2 billion USD in 2010 - up 20% over the previous year). It has benefited from the government's relaxation of control restrictions on foreign investment in the country.

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