Glenn L. Martin Company

The Glenn L. Martin Company was an American aircraft and aerospace manufacturing company founded by aviation pioneer Glenn L. Martin. The Martin Company produced many important aircraft for the defense of the US and allies, especially during World War II and the Cold War. During the 1950s and 60s, the Martin Company moved from the aircraft industry into the guided missile, space exploration, and space utilization industries.

In 1961, the Martin Company merged with American-Marietta Corporation, a large sand and gravel mining company, forming Martin Marietta Corporation. In 1995, Martin Marietta merged with aerospace giant Lockheed to form the Lockheed Martin Corporation.[1][2]

Glenn L. Martin Company
IndustryAerospace
FateMerged with American-Marietta Corporation
later merged into Lockheed Corporation
SuccessorMartin Marietta
Lockheed Martin
Founded1912
FounderGlenn Luther Martin
Defunct1961
HeadquartersSanta Ana, California
ProductsAircraft
B-26 Marauder
The Martin B-26 Marauder, a bomber produced by Martin during World War II.

History

Origins

Glenn L. Martin Company was founded by aviation pioneer Glenn Luther Martin on August 16, 1912.[3] Martin started building military trainers in Santa Ana, California, and in 1916, Martin accepted a merger offer from the Wright Company, creating the Wright-Martin Aircraft Company in September.[1] This new company did not go well, and Glenn Martin left to form a second Glenn L. Martin Company on September 10, 1917; it was based in Cleveland, Ohio.[3] (Later, its headquarters would be moved to Baltimore, Maryland.)

Mexican Revolution

Avion-sonora-martin-pusher
The "Sonora", a Martin Pusher single seater, saw combat in the Mexican Revolution (1913).

In 1913 Mexican insurgents from the northwestern state of Sonora bought a single seater Martin Pusher biplane in Los Angeles with the intention of attacking federal naval forces attacking the port of Guaymas. The aircraft was shipped on May 5, 1913 in five crates to Tucson, Arizona via Wells Fargo Express, and then moved through the border into Mexico to the town of Naco, Sonora. The aircraft, named "Sonora" by the insurgents, was reassembled there and fitted with a second seat for a bomber position.

The "Sonora", armed with rudimentary 3-inch pipe bombs, performed the first known air to naval bombing runs in history.

World War I

MartinTT
Glenn Martin TT with sergeant Broeckhuysen of the Royal Netherlands East Indies Army Air Force seated in the middle with factory mechanics (1917).

For the Dutch East Indies a number of planes were delivered, with the first flight on November 6, 1915. It involved 2 types TE, 6 types TT and 8 types R. Martin's first big success came during World War I with the MB-1 bomber,[4] a large biplane design ordered by the United States Army on January 17, 1918. The MB-1 entered service after the end of hostilities. A follow-up design, the MB-2, proved successful;[4] 20 were ordered by the Army Air Service, the first five of them under the company designation and the last 15 as the NBS-1 (Night Bomber, Short range). Although the War Department ordered 110 more, it retained the ownership rights of the design, and put the order out for bid. The production orders were given to other companies that had bid lower, Curtiss (50), L.W.F. Engineering (35), and Aeromarine (25).[5] The design was the only standard bomber used by the Air Service until 1930, and was used by seven squadrons of the Air Service/Air Corps: four in Virginia, two in Hawaii, and one in the Philippines.

Inter-war years

In 1924 the Martin Company underbid Curtiss for the production of a Curtiss-designed scout bomber, the SC-1, and ultimately Martin produced 404 of these. In 1929 Martin sold the Cleveland plant and built a new one in Middle River, Maryland, northeast of Baltimore.

During the 1930s, Martin built flying boats for the U.S. Navy, and the innovative Martin B-10 bomber for the Army.[6] The Martin Company also produced the noted China Clipper flying boats used by Pan American Airways for its transpacific San Francisco to the Philippines route.

World War II

During World War II, a few of Martin's most successful designs were the B-26 Marauder[7] and A-22 Maryland bombers, the PBM Mariner and JRM Mars[8][9] flying boats, widely used for air-sea rescue, anti-submarine warfare and transport. The 1941 Office for Emergency Management film Bomber was filmed in the Martin facility in Baltimore, and showed aspects of the production of the B-26.[10]

Martin ranked 14th among US corporations in the value of wartime production contracts.[11] The Martin Company built a total of 531 Boeing B-29 Superfortresses and 1,585 B-26 Marauders at its Omaha, Nebraska, plant at Offutt Field. Among the B-29s manufactured there were all the Silverplate aircraft, including Enola Gay and Bockscar which dropped the two, war-ending atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan.[12]

Postwar

On April 22, 1957, the company name was changed to The Martin Company.[13]

Postwar efforts in aeronautics by the Martin Company included two unsuccessful prototype bombers, the XB-48 and the XB-51, the marginally successful AM Mauler, the successful B-57 Canberra tactical bombers, both the P5M Marlin and P6M SeaMaster seaplanes, and the Martin 4-0-4 twin-engine passenger airliner.

Vanguard rocket vanguard1 satellite
The Vanguard rocket, designed and built by Martin for Project Vanguard, prepares to launch Vanguard 1.

The Martin Company moved into the aerospace manufacturing business. It produced the Vanguard rocket, used by the American space program as one of its first satellite booster rockets as part of Project Vanguard. The Vanguard was the first American space exploration rocket designed from scratch to be an orbital launch vehicle — rather than being a modified sounding rocket (like the Juno I) or a ballistic missile (like the U.S. Army's Redstone missile). Martin also designed and manufactured the huge and heavily armed Titan I and LGM-25C Titan II Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles (ICBMs). Martin Company of Orlando, Florida, was the prime contractor for the US Army's Pershing missile.[14]

The Martin Company was one of two finalists for the command and service modules of the Apollo Program. NASA awarded the design and production contracts for these to the North American Aviation Corporation.

The Martin Company went further in the production of larger booster rockets for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the U.S. Air Force with its Titan III series of over 100 rockets produced, including the Titan IIIA, the more-important Titan IIIC, and the Titan IIIE. Besides hundreds of Earth satellites, these rockets were essential for the sending to outer space of the two space probes of the Voyager Project to the outer planets the two space probes of the Viking Project to Mars, and the two Helios probes into low orbits around the Sun. (closer, even, than Mercury.)

Finally the US Air Force required a booster rocket that could launch heavier satellites than either the Titan IIIE or the Space Shuttle. The Martin Company responded with its extremely large Titan IV series of rockets. When the Titan IV came into service, it could carry a heavier payload to orbit than any other rocket in production. Besides its use by the Air Force to launch its sequence of very heavy reconnaissance satellites, one Titan IV, with a powerful Centaur rocket upper stage, was used to launch the heavy Cassini space probe to the planet Saturn in 1997. The Cassini probe orbited Saturn from 2004 to 2017, successfully returning mountains of scientific data.

The halting of production of the Titan IV in 2004 brought to an end production of the last rocket able to carry a heavier payload than the Space Shuttle, which itself ended in 2011.

The Martin Company merged with the American-Marietta Corporation, a chemical products and construction materials manufacturer, in 1961 to form the Martin Marietta Corporation. In 1995, Martin Marietta, then the nation's 3rd-largest defense contractor, merged with the Lockheed Corporation, then the nation's second largest defense contractor, to form the Lockheed Martin Corporation, becoming the largest such company in the world.[2]

The Martin Company employed many of the founders and chief engineers of the American aerospace industry, including:

Martin also taught William Boeing how to fly and also sold him his first airplane.

Products

Training aircraft

Bombers and Attack aircraft

Reconnaissance and observation aircraft

Military seaplanes

Martin P3M-2 at NAS Pensacola 1930s.jpeg
Martin P3M-2

Civil aviation airliners

Other types of aircraft

Aircraft engines

  • Martin 333, a four-cylinder inverted in-line piston engine

Missiles and rockets

Booster rockets

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Lockheed Martin History." Archived 2011-04-03 at the Wayback Machine lockheedmartin.com. Retrieved: July 30, 2011.
  2. ^ a b Lockheed Martin Company history." fundinguniverse.com. Retrieved: July 30, 2011.
  3. ^ a b Rumerman, Judy. "The First U.S. Aircraft Manufacturing Companies." Archived 2007-09-30 at the Wayback Machine U.S. Centennial of Flight Commission, 2003. Retrieved: July 30, 2011.
  4. ^ a b , "Glenn L. Martin Co." The Encyclopedia of Cleveland History. Retrieved: July 30, 2011.
  5. ^ Rumerman, Judy. "Glenn L. Martin Company." Archived 2003-04-05 at the Wayback Machine U.S. Centennial of Flight Commission, 2003. Retrieved: July 30, 2011.
  6. ^ Herman, Arthur. Freedom's Forge: How American Business Produced Victory in World War II, p. 6, Random House, New York, NY. ISBN 978-1-4000-6964-4.
  7. ^ Herman, Arthur. Freedom's Forge: How American Business Produced Victory in World War II, p. 238, Random House, New York, NY. ISBN 978-1-4000-6964-4.
  8. ^ Herman, Arthur. Freedom's Forge: How American Business Produced Victory in World War II, p. 277, Random House, New York, NY. ISBN 978-1-4000-6964-4.
  9. ^ Goebel, Greg. "The Martin Mariner, Mars, & Marlin Flying Boats." Air Vectors. Retrieved: July 30, 2011.
  10. ^ "National Archives and Records Administration". archive.org. Retrieved 2012-11-21.
  11. ^ Peck, Merton J. & Scherer, Frederic M. The Weapons Acquisition Process: An Economic Analysis (1962) Harvard Business School p.619
  12. ^ Herman, Arthur. Freedom's Forge: How American Business Produced Victory in World War II, pp. 330–1, Random House, New York, NY. ISBN 978-1-4000-6964-4.
  13. ^ Harwood, William B. (1993). Raise Heaven and Earth. Simon & Schuster. p. 333. ISBN 0-67-174998-6.
  14. ^ Jolliff, Elizabeth C. (20 May 1974). History of the Pershing Weapon System. Redstone Arsenal, Alabarrla 35809: U.S. Army Missile Command. p. 288.

External links

AAM-N-4 Oriole

The AAM-N-4 Oriole was an early American air-to-air missile, developed by the Glenn L. Martin Company for the United States Navy. Designed for launch from carrier-based aircraft, the missile programme was cancelled before flight testing began, and the missiles produced were utilized as test vehicles.

ASM-N-5 Gorgon V

The ASM-N-5 Gorgon V was an unpowered air-to-surface missile, developed by the Glenn L. Martin Company during the early 1950s for use by the United States Navy as a chemical weapon delivery vehicle. Developed from the earlier PTV-N-2 Gorgon IV test vehicle, the program was cancelled without any Gorgon Vs seeing service.

Glenn L. Martin

Glenn Luther Martin (January 17, 1886 – December 5, 1955) was an early American aviation pioneer. He designed and built his own aircraft and was an active pilot, as well as an aviation record-holder. He founded an aircraft company in 1912 which through several mergers amalgamated into what is today known as Lockheed Martin.

Glenn L. Martin Maryland Aviation Museum

The Glenn L. Martin Maryland Aviation Museum is located at Martin State Airport in Middle River, Maryland. It educates visitors through the use of exhibits, artifacts, archival materials and stories about aviation in Maryland over the last hundred years, with an emphasis on the Glenn L. Martin Company and the more recent Lockheed Martin histories.The aircraft currently on display are on loan from the Navy and Army, with the exception of the Martin 4-0-4, which was donated to the museum in 1999. The museum also hosts periodic open cockpit days featuring three or four selected aircraft. The history of the Martin Corporation is told with displays of models, films, photographs and documents from the museum's large archive. There is a research library, through which this archive can be examined on appointment. The museum relies on volunteers who run the museum and assist the visitors with admissions, store purchases, and tours. They also help with visiting school groups, other educational projects and aircraft restorations.

Martin M-130

The Martin M-130 was a commercial flying boat designed and built in 1935 by the Glenn L. Martin Company in Baltimore, Maryland, for Pan American Airways. Three were built: the China Clipper, the Philippine Clipper and the Hawaii Clipper. All three had crashed by 1945. A similar flying boat, (the Martin 156), named Russian Clipper, built for the Soviet Union, had a larger wing (giving it greater range) and twin fins.

Martin named them the Martin Ocean Transports, but to the public they were the "China Clippers", a name that became a generic term for Pan Am's large flying boats – the Martin M-130, Sikorsky S-42, and Boeing 314.

Martin MO

The Martin MO was an American observation monoplane built by the Glenn L. Martin Company of Cleveland, Ohio for the United States Navy.

In the early 1920s the United States Navy became interested in a thick airfoil section, cantilever wing, United States military observation aircraft, developed by the Dutch company Fokker. The Navy's Bureau of Aeronautics designed a three-seat observation monoplane to use a similar wing. Production of the aircraft, designated the MO-1, was contracted to the Glenn L. Martin Company with an order for 36 aircraft. The MO-1 was a shoulder-wing cantilever monoplane with a slab-sided fuselage and a fixed tailwheel landing gear. It had an all-metal structure with a fabric covering, and was powered by a Curtiss D-12 engine. In 1924 one aircraft was fitted with float landing gear for evaluation.

Martin Marietta

The Martin Marietta Corporation was an American company founded in 1961 through the merger of Glenn L. Martin Company and American-Marietta Corporation. The combined company became a leader in chemicals, aerospace, and electronics. In 1995, it merged with Lockheed Corporation to form Lockheed Martin.

Martin N2M

The Martin N2M was a prototype American primary training biplane, built for the United States Navy by the Glenn L. Martin Company. It was never accepted by the Navy and only the prototype was built.The prototype was designated N2M-1 by the United States Navy, and it first flew in 1924. The N2M-1 was based on the Martin 66 Night Mail and was a biplane powered by a 200 hp (149 kW) Wright-Hisso E-4 engine. It had two open cockpits in tandem for a crew of two.

Martin P7M SubMaster

The Martin P7M was an unbuilt aircraft designed by the Glenn L. Martin Company in the 1950s. The design was initiated to meet a requirement of the United States Navy (USN) for an anti-submarine warfare flying boat.

Martin State Airport

Martin State Airport (IATA: MTN, ICAO: KMTN, FAA LID: MTN) is a joint civil-military public use airport located nine nautical miles (10 mi, 17 km) east of the central business district of Baltimore, in Baltimore County, Maryland, United States. The facility is located within the census-designated place of Middle River on Maryland State Highway 150 (Eastern Boulevard), near the intersection of Maryland State Highway 700 (Martin Boulevard). The Maryland Aviation Administration operates the Airport on behalf of the Maryland Department of Transportation. MTN is a general aviation relief airport.

Martin T4M

The Martin T4M was an American torpedo bomber of the 1920s. A development by the Glenn L. Martin Company of their earlier Martin T3M, and, like it a single-engined biplane, the T4M served as the standard torpedo bomber aboard the aircraft carriers of the United States Navy through much of the 1930s.

Martin XB-27

The Martin XB-27 (Martin Model 182) was an aircraft proposed by the Glenn L. Martin Company to fill a strong need in the United States Army Air Corps for a high-altitude medium bomber. Its design was based approximately on that of Martin's own B-26 Marauder. The XB-27 remained on paper, and no prototypes were built.

Martin XB-33 Super Marauder

The Martin B-33 was a World War II American bomber aircraft. It was designed by the Glenn L. Martin Company as the Martin Model 190 and was a high-altitude derivative of the company's B-26 Marauder. Two different designs were developed, first as a twin-engined aircraft and then as a four-engined aircraft. The four-engined version was ordered by the United States Army Air Forces, but the program was cancelled before any aircraft were built.

Martin XLB-4

The Martin XLB-4 was a 1920s proposal for a light bomber by the Glenn L. Martin Company.

PTV-N-2 Gorgon IV

The PTV-N-2 Gorgon IV was a ramjet-powered missile developed by the Glenn L. Martin Company for the United States Navy. Originally intended as an air-to-surface weapon, it materialized as a propulsion test vehicle, and between 1947 and 1950 was used for test purposes and, as the KDM Plover, as a target drone.

RIAS

RIAS or Rias may refer to:

Recording Industry Association (Singapore)

Regulatory Impact Analysis Statement, a description of the impact of new Canadian federal regulations

Remote Infrared Audible Signage

Research Institute for Advanced Studies, the former research facility created by the Glenn L. Martin Company

Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales, an intelligence test

Royal Incorporation of Architects in Scotland, a professional body

Rundfunk im amerikanischen Sektor (Broadcasting in the American Sector), a radio and television station in West Berlin

Rias Gremory, a fictional character in the High School DxD franchise

Titan 23G

The Titan 23G, Titan II(23)G, Titan 2(23)G or Titan II SLV was an American expendable launch system derived from the LGM-25C Titan II intercontinental ballistic missile. Retired Titan II missiles were converted by Martin Marietta, into which the Glenn L. Martin Company, which built the original Titan II, had merged. It was used to carry payloads for the United States Air Force, NASA and NOAA. Thirteen were launched from Space Launch Complex 4W at the Vandenberg Air Force Base between 1988 and 2003.Titan 23G rockets consisted of two stages burning liquid propellant. The first stage was powered by one Aerojet LR87 engine with two combustion chambers and nozzles, and the second stage was propelled by an LR91. On some flights, solid upper stages were flown, usually the Star-37XFP-ISS; however, the Star-37S was also used.A contract to refurbish fourteen Titan II missiles to the Titan 23G configuration was awarded to Martin Marietta in January 1986. The first launch occurred on 5 September 1988, carrying a classified payload for the US National Reconnaissance Office. Thirteen were launched, with the fourteenth going to the Evergreen Aviation Museum. The final flight occurred on 17 October 2003, carrying a DMSP satellite.During refurbishment, the forward structure of the second stage was modified with the addition of a payload attachment fitting to attach the payload to the rocket, and installing a payload fairing to protect it during launch. The engines were refurbished, and the rockets' guidance and control systems were upgraded by Delco Electronics.

The former Titan IIIB pad at Vandenberg, SLC-4W, was modified to accommodate the Titan 23G, and was used for all thirteen launches.

Wright-Martin

Wright-Martin was a short-lived aircraft manufacturing business venture between the Wright Company (after Orville Wright sold the Wright Company and divested himself from it) and Glenn L. Martin.

Company officials merged their respective organizations, the Wright Company and the Glenn L. Martin Company, in 1916.

The company continued and escalated the Wright brothers patent war with other aircraft manufacturers, until its resolution -- under duress from the government, in 1917, at the start of U.S. involvement in World War I -- by the cross-licensing agreement developed and managed through the Manufacturers Aircraft Association.Martin soon resigned, dissolving the Wright-Martin joint enterprise within a year. The company was renamed Wright Aeronautical in 1919, and shifted from manufacturing aircraft, to manufacturing aircraft engines -- developing the pivotal Wright Whirlwind engines which changed aviation dramatically.Glenn Martin continued with development of his Glenn L. Martin Company, which continued as a major aircraft manufacturer until the 1950s and early 1960s, when it also began developing rockets, missiles and spacecraft. In 1961, the company merged with the American-Marietta Corporation to become industrial conglomerate (and continued aerospace manufacturer) Martin-Marietta -- which, in 1995, merged with Lockheed to become today's Lockheed-Martin, one of the United States's three remaining major large-aircraft manufacturers (along with Boeing and Northrop-Grumman).

Wright Company

The Wright Company was the commercial aviation business venture of the Wright Brothers, established by them on November 22, 1909, in conjunction with several prominent industrialists from New York and Detroit with the intention of capitalizing on their invention of the practical airplane. The company maintained its headquarters office in New York City and built its factory in Dayton, Ohio.

The two buildings designed by Dayton architect William Earl Russ and built by Rouzer Construction for the Wright Company in Dayton in 1910 and 1911 were the first in the United States constructed specifically for an airplane factory and were included within the boundary of Dayton Aviation Heritage National Historical Park in 2009.The Wright Company concentrated its efforts on protecting the company's patent rights rather than on developing new aircraft or aircraft components, believing that innovations would hurt the company's efforts to obtain royalties from competing manufacturers or patent infringers. Wilbur Wright died in 1912, and on October 15, 1915, Orville Wright sold the company, which in 1916 merged with the Glenn L. Martin Company to form the Wright-Martin Company. Orville Wright, who had purchased 97% of the outstanding company stock in 1914 as he prepared to leave the business world, estimated that the Wright Company built approximately 120 airplanes across all of its different models between 1910 and 1915.Many of the papers of the Wright Company are now in the collection of the Seattle Museum of Flight, while others are held by the Library of Congress in Washington, D.C. The Library of Congress also holds the papers of Grover Loening, the second Wright Company factory manager, while the papers of Frank H. Russell, the first plant manager, are at the University of Wyoming's American Heritage Center.

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