Glasses

Glasses, also known as eyeglasses or spectacles, are devices consisting of glass or hard plastic lenses mounted in a frame that holds them in front of a person's eyes, typically using a bridge over the nose and arms which rest over the ears.

Glasses are typically used for vision correction, such as with reading glasses and glasses used for nearsightedness.

Safety glasses provide eye protection against flying debris for construction workers or lab technicians; these glasses may have protection for the sides of the eyes as well as in the lenses. Some types of safety glasses are used to protect against visible and near-visible light or radiation. Glasses are worn for eye protection in some sports, such as squash.

Glasses wearers may use a strap to prevent the glasses from falling off during movement or sports. Wearers of glasses that are used only part of the time may have the glasses attached to a cord that goes around their neck, to prevent the loss of the glasses and breaking.

Sunglasses allow for better vision in bright daylight, and may protect one's eyes against damage from excessive levels of ultraviolet light. Typical sunglasses lenses are tinted for protection against bright light or polarized to remove glare; Photochromatic glasses are clear in dark or indoor conditions, but turn into sunglasses when in they come in contact with Ultraviolet light. Most over the counter sunglasses do not have corrective power in the lenses; however, special prescription sunglasses can be made.

Specialized glasses may be used for viewing specific visual information, for example 3D glasses for 3D films (stereoscopy). Sometimes glasses are worn purely for fashion or aesthetic purposes. Even with glasses used for vision correction, a wide range of fashions are available, using plastic, metal, wire, and other materials.

People are more likely to need glasses the older they get with 93% of people between the ages of 65 and 75 wearing corrective lenses.[1][2]

Glasses
Glasses black
A modern pair of glasses

Types

Glasses can be marked or found by their primary function, but also appear in combinations such as prescription sunglasses or safety glasses with enhanced magnification.

Corrective

Refraction through glasses 090306
Seattle skyline as seen through a corrective lens, showing the effect of refraction

Corrective lenses are used to correct refractive errors by bending the light entering the eye in order to alleviate the effects of conditions such as nearsightedness (myopia), farsightedness (hypermetropia) or astigmatism. The ability of one's eyes to accommodate their focus to near and distant focus alters over time. A common condition in people over forty years old is presbyopia, which is caused by the eye's crystalline lens losing elasticity, progressively reducing the ability of the lens to accommodate (i.e. to focus on objects close to the eye). Few people have a pair of eyes that show exactly equal refractive characteristics; one eye may need a "stronger" (i.e. more refracting) lens than the other.

Corrective lenses bring the image back into focus on the retina. They are made to conform to the prescription of an ophthalmologist or optometrist. A lensmeter can be used to verify the specifications of an existing pair of glasses. Corrective eyeglasses can significantly improve the life quality of the wearer. Not only do they enhance the wearer's visual experience, but can also reduce problems that result from eye strain, such as headaches or squinting.

The most common type of corrective lens is "single vision", which has a uniform refractive index. For people with presbyopia and hyperopia, bifocal and trifocal glasses provide two or three different refractive indices, respectively, and progressive lenses have a continuous gradient.

Reading glasses provide a separate set of glasses for focusing on close-by objects. Reading glasses are available without prescription from drugstores, and offer a cheap, practical solution, though these have a pair of simple lenses of equal power, so will not correct refraction problems like astigmatism or refractive or prismatic variations between the left and right eye. For total correction of the individual's sight, glasses complying to a recent ophthalmic prescription are required.

Adjustable-focus eyeglasses might be used to replace bifocals or trifocals, or might be used to produce cheaper single-vision glasses (since they don't have to be custom-manufactured for every person).

Pinhole glasses are a type of corrective glasses that do not use a lens. Pinhole glasses do not actually refract the light or change focal length. Instead, they create a diffraction limited system, which has an increased depth of field, similar to using a small aperture in photography. This form of correction has many limitations that prevent it from gaining popularity in everyday use. Pinhole glasses can be made in a DIY fashion by making small holes in a piece of card which is then held in front of the eyes with a strap or cardboard arms.

Safety

SafetyGlassesShield
Safety glasses with side shields

Safety glasses are worn to protect the eyes in various situations. They are made with break-proof plastic lenses to protect the eye from flying debris or other matter. Construction workers, factory workers, machinists and lab technicians are often required to wear safety glasses to shield the eyes from flying debris or hazardous splatters such as blood or chemicals. As of 2017, dentists and surgeons in Canada and other countries are required to wear safety glasses to protect against infection from patients' blood or other body fluids. There are also safety glasses for welding, which are styled like wraparound sunglasses, but with much darker lenses, for use in welding where a full-sized welding helmet is inconvenient or uncomfortable. These are often called "flash goggles" because they provide protection from welding flash. Nylon frames are usually used for protective eyewear for sports because of their lightweight and flexible properties. Unlike most regular glasses, safety glasses often include protection beside the eyes as well as in front of the eyes.

Sunglasses

Woman wearing sunglasses
Woman wearing sunglasses

Sunglasses provide more comfort and protection against bright light and often against ultraviolet (UV) light. To properly protect the eyes from the dangers of UV light, sunglasses should have UV-400 blocker to provide good coverage against the entire light spectrum that poses a danger.[3] Photochromic lenses, which are photosensitive, darken when struck by UV light. The dark tint of the lenses in a pair of sunglasses blocks the transmission of light through the lens.

Light polarization is an added feature that can be applied to sunglass lenses. Polarization filters are positioned to remove horizontally polarized rays of light, which eliminates glare from horizontal surfaces (allowing wearers to see into water when reflected light would otherwise overwhelm the scene). Polarized sunglasses may present some difficulties for pilots since reflections from water and other structures often used to gauge altitude may be removed. Liquid-crystal displays often emit polarized light making them sometimes difficult to view with polarized sunglasses. Sunglasses may be worn just for aesthetic purposes, or simply to hide the eyes. Examples of sunglasses that were popular for these reasons include tea shades and mirrorshades. Many blind people wear nearly opaque glasses to hide their eyes for cosmetic reasons.

Sunglasses may also have corrective lenses, which requires a prescription. Clip-on sunglasses or sunglass clips can be attached to another pair of glasses. Some wrap-around sunglasses are large enough to be worn over top of another pair of glasses. Otherwise, many people opt to wear contact lenses to correct their vision so that standard sunglasses can be used.

Mixed doubleframe

Doubleframe uplifting eyewear - Nella
Doubleframe eyewear with one set of lenses on the moving frame and another pair of lenses on a fixed frame (optional).

The doubleframe uplifting glasses have one moving frame with one pair of lenses and the basic fixed frame with another pair of lenses (optional), that are connected by four-bar linkage. For example, sunlenses could be easily lifted up and down while mixed with myopia lenses that always stay on. Presbyopia lenses could be also combined and easily removed from the field of view if needed without taking off glasses.

3D glasses

The illusion of three dimensions on a two-dimensional surface can be created by providing each eye with different visual information. 3D glasses create the illusion of three dimensions by filtering a signal containing information for both eyes. The signal, often light reflected off a movie screen or emitted from an electronic display, is filtered so that each eye receives a slightly different image. The filters only work for the type of signal they were designed for.

Anaglyph 3D glasses have a different colored filter for each eye, typically red and blue or red and green. A polarized 3D system on the other hand uses polarized filters. Polarized 3D glasses allow for color 3D, while the red-blue lenses produce an image with distorted coloration. An active shutter 3D system uses electronic shutters. Head-mounted displays can filter the signal electronically and then transmit light directly into the viewer's eyes.

Anaglyph and polarized glasses are distributed to audiences at 3D movies. Polarized and active shutter glasses are used with many home theaters. Head-mounted displays are used by a single person, but the input signal can be shared between multiple units.

Magnification (bioptics)

Glasses can also provide magnification that is useful for people with vision impairments or specific occupational demands. An example would be bioptics or bioptic telescopes which have small telescopes mounted on, in, or behind their regular lenses. Newer designs use smaller lightweight telescopes, which can be embedded into the corrective glass and improve aesthetic appearance (mini telescopic spectacles). They may take the form of self-contained glasses that resemble goggles or binoculars, or may be attached to existing glasses.

Yellow-tinted computer/gaming glasses

Yellow tinted glasses are a type of glasses with a minor yellow tint. They perform minor color correction, on top of reducing eyestrain due to lack of blinking. They may also be considered minor corrective unprescribed glasses.[4] Depending on the company, these computer or gaming glasses can also filter out high energy blue and ultra-violet light from LCD screens, fluorescent lighting, and other sources of light. This allows for reduced eye-strain.[5] These glasses can be ordered as standard or prescription lenses that fit into standard optical frames.[6] Due to the ultra-violet light blocking nature of these lenses, they also help users sleep at night along with reducing age-related macular degeneration.[7][8]

Anti-glare protection glasses

Anti-glare protection glasses, or anti-reflective glasses, can reduce the reflection of light that enters our eyes. The lenses are given an anti-glare coating to prevent reflections of light under different lighting conditions. By reducing the amount of glare on your eyes, vision can be improved.[9] The anti-glare also applies to the outer glass, thus allowing for better eye contact.[9]

Frames

Szemüveg - 1920-as évek
Glasses, c. 1920s, with springy cable temples

The ophthalmic frame is the part of a pair of glasses which is designed to hold the lenses in proper position. Ophthalmic frames come in a variety of styles, sizes, materials, shapes, and colors.[10]

Parts

  • pair of eye wires or rims surrounding and holding the lenses in place
  • bridge which connects the two eye wires
  • chassis, the combination of the eye wires and the bridge
  • top bar or brow bar, a bar just above the bridge providing structural support and/or style enhancement. The addition of a top bar makes a pair of glasses aviator eyeglasses
  • pair of brows or caps, plastic or metal caps which fit over the top of the eye wires for style enhancement and to provide additional support for the lenses. The addition of brows makes a pair of glasses browline glasses
  • pair of nose pads that allows a comfortable resting of the eye wires on the nose
  • pair of pad arms connects the nose pads to the eye wires
  • pair of temples (earpieces) on either side of the skull
  • pair of temple tips at the ends of the temples
  • pair of end pieces connect the eye wires via the hinges to the temples
  • pair of frame-front end pieces
  • pair of hinges connect the end pieces to the temples, allowing a swivel movement. Spring-loaded flex hinges are a variant that is equipped with a small spring that affords the temples a greater range of movement and does not limit them to the traditional, 90-degree angle. Repairs can be made by using Self Aligning Spring Hinge Screws. Use screw insertion pliers to push the tip beyond the first barrel of a spring hinge at a 45-degree angle and use a standard screwdriver to tighten. As the screw moves down the barrel, it will move to a 90-degree angle. When finished, use a plier to break off the excess.[11]

Temple types

  • Skull temples: bend down behind the ears, follow the contour of the skull and rest evenly against the skull
  • Library temples: generally straight and do not bend down behind the ears. Hold the glasses primarily through light pressure against the side of the skull
  • Convertible temples: used either as library or skull temples depending on the bent
  • Riding bow temples: curve around the ear and extend down to the level of the ear lobe. Used mostly on athletic, children's, and industrial safety frames;
  • Comfort cable temples: similar to the riding bow, but made from a springy cable of coiled metal, sometimes inside a plastic or silicone sleeve. The tightness of the curl can be adjusted along its whole length, allowing the frame to fit the wearer's ear curve perfectly. Used for physically active wearers, children, and people with high prescriptions (heavy lenses).[12][13] See the image of 1920s frames above.

Materials

Plastic and polymer

  • Cellulose acetate
  • Optyl, a type of hypoallergenic material made especially for eyeglass frames. It features a type of elasticity that returns the material to its original shape.
  • Cellulose propionate, a molded, durable plastic
  • 3D-printed plastic using super-fine polyamide powder and Selective Laser Sintering processes – see Mykita Mylon (It should also be noted that the frames can be 3-D printed by fused filament fabrication for pennies of ABS, PLA or nylon)[14]
  • Nylon

Metal

Various metals and alloys may be used to make glasses such as gold, silver, aluminum, beryllium, stainless steel, titanium and nickel titanium.

Natural material

Also natural materials may be used such as wood, bone, ivory, leather and semi-precious or precious stones.

Corrective lens shape

Brille eingeklappt fcm
Modern glasses with a rectangular lens shape

Corrective lenses can be produced in many different shapes from a circular lens called a lens blank. Lens blanks are cut to fit the shape of the frame that will hold them. Frame styles vary and fashion trends change over time, resulting in a multitude of lens shapes. For lower power lenses, there are few restrictions which allow for many trendy and fashionable shapes. Higher power lenses can cause distortion of peripheral vision and may become thick and heavy if a large lens shape is used. However, if the lens becomes too small, the field of view can be drastically reduced.

Bifocal, trifocal, and progressive lenses generally require a taller lens shape to leave room for the different segments while preserving an adequate field of view through each segment. Frames with rounded edges are the most efficient for correcting myopic prescriptions, with perfectly round frames being the most efficient. Before the advent of eyeglasses as a fashion item, when frames were constructed with only functionality in mind, virtually all eyeglasses were either round, oval, or curved octagons. It was not until glasses began to be seen as an accessory that different shapes were introduced to be more aesthetically pleasing than functional.

History

Precursors

Hugh specs
Detail of a portrait of the Dominican Cardinal and renowned biblical scholar Hugh of Saint-Cher painted by Tommaso da Modena in 1352
El Greco 048
Portrait of cardinal Fernando Niño de Guevara by El Greco circa 1600 shows glasses with temples passing over and beyond the ears

Scattered evidence exists for use of visual aid devices in Greek and Roman times, most prominently the use of an emerald by emperor Nero as mentioned by Pliny the Elder.[15]

The use of a convex lens to form an enlarged/magnified image was most likely described in Ptolemy's Optics (which however only survives in a poor Arabic translation). Ptolemy's description of lenses was commented upon and improved by Ibn Sahl (10th century) and most notably by Alhazen (Book of Optics, ca. 1021). Latin translations of Ptolemy's Optics and of Alhazen became available in Europe in the 12th century, coinciding with the development of "reading stones".

Robert Grosseteste's treatise De iride ("On the Rainbow"), written between 1220 and 1235, mentions using optics to "read the smallest letters at incredible distances". A few years later in 1262, Roger Bacon is also known to have written on the magnifying properties of lenses.[16] The development of the first eyeglasses took place in Northern Italy in the second half of the 13th century.[17]

Independently of the development of optical lenses, some cultures developed "sunglasses" for eye protection, without any corrective properties.[18] Thus, flat panes of smoky quartz, were used in 12th-century China.[a] Similarly, the Inuit have used snow goggles for eye protection.

Invention

Conrad von Soest, 'Brillenapostel' (1403)
The Glasses Apostle by Conrad von Soest (1403)

The first eyeglasses were made in Northern Italy, most likely in Pisa, by about 1290: In a sermon delivered on 23 February 1306, the Dominican friar Giordano da Pisa (ca. 1255–1311) wrote "It is not yet twenty years since there was found the art of making eyeglasses, which make for good vision... And it is so short a time that this new art, never before extant, was discovered. ... I saw the one who first discovered and practiced it, and I talked to him."[20]

Giordano's colleague Friar Alessandro della Spina of Pisa (d. 1313) was soon making eyeglasses. The Ancient Chronicle of the Dominican Monastery of St. Catherine in Pisa records: "Eyeglasses, having first been made by someone else, who was unwilling to share them, he [Spina] made them and shared them with everyone with a cheerful and willing heart."[21] By 1301, there were guild regulations in Venice governing the sale of eyeglasses.[22]

Medieval Spectacles
Seated apostle holding lenses in position for reading. Detail from Death of the Virgin, by the Master of Heiligenkreuz, ca. 1400–30 (Getty Center).
Scissors glasses
French Empire gilt scissors glasses (with one lens missing), c. 1805

The earliest pictorial evidence for the use of eyeglasses is Tommaso da Modena's 1352 portrait of the cardinal Hugh de Provence reading in a scriptorium. Another early example would be a depiction of eyeglasses found north of the Alps in an altarpiece of the church of Bad Wildungen, Germany, in 1403. These early glasses had convex lenses that could correct both hyperopia (farsightedness), and the presbyopia that commonly develops as a symptom of aging. It was not until 1604 that Johannes Kepler published the first correct explanation as to why convex and concave lenses could correct presbyopia and myopia.[b]

Early frames for glasses consisted of two magnifying glasses riveted together by the handles so that they could grip the nose. These are referred to as "rivet spectacles". The earliest surviving examples were found under the floorboards at Kloster Wienhausen, a convent near Celle in Germany; they have been dated to circa 1400.[25]

Other claims

Claims that Salvino degli Armati of Florence invented eyeglasses have been exposed as hoaxes.[26][27]

Marco Polo is sometimes claimed to have encountered eyeglasses during his travels in China in the 13th century. However, no such statement appears in his accounts.[28][29] Indeed, the earliest mentions of eyeglasses in China occur in the 15th century and those Chinese sources state that eyeglasses were imported.[30]

It is also sometimes claimed that glasses were first invented in India. In 1907 Professor Berthold Laufer stated in his history of glasses that "the opinion that spectacles originated in India is of the greatest probability and that spectacles must have been known in India earlier than in Europe".[31] However, Joseph Needham showed that the mention of glasses in the manuscript Laufer used to justify the prior invention of them in Asia did not exist in older versions of that manuscript, and the reference to them in later versions was added during the Ming dynasty.[32] In a 1971 article in the British Journal of Ophthalmology it was argued that it: "...is therefore most likely that the use of lenses reached Europe via the Arabs, as did Hindu mathematics and the ophthalmological works of the ancient Hindu surgeon Susruta",[33] but all dates are given are well after the existence of eyeglasses in Italy was established, and there had been significant shipments of eyeglasses from Italy to the Middle East, with one shipment as large as 24,000 glasses.[34]

Later developments

Don francisco de quevedo-villegas
A portrait of Francisco de Quevedo y Villegas, 1580–1645
Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman, 33rd President of the United States, was known to have poor vision.

The American scientist Benjamin Franklin, who suffered from both myopia and presbyopia, invented bifocals. Serious historians have from time to time produced evidence to suggest that others may have preceded him in the invention; however, a correspondence between George Whatley and John Fenno, editor of The Gazette of the United States, suggested that Franklin had indeed invented bifocals, and perhaps 50 years earlier than had been originally thought.[35] The first lenses for correcting astigmatism were designed by the British astronomer George Airy in 1825.[36]

Over time, the construction of frames for glasses also evolved. Early eyepieces were designed to be either held in place by hand or by exerting pressure on the nose (pince-nez). Girolamo Savonarola suggested that eyepieces could be held in place by a ribbon passed over the wearer's head, this in turn secured by the weight of a hat. The modern style of glasses, held by temples passing over the ears, was developed sometime before 1727, possibly by the British optician Edward Scarlett. These designs were not immediately successful, however, and various styles with attached handles such as "scissors-glasses" and lorgnettes were also fashionable from the second half of the 18th century and into the early 19th century.

In the early 20th century, Moritz von Rohr and Zeiss (with the assistance of H. Boegehold and A. Sonnefeld[37]), developed the Zeiss Punktal spherical point-focus lenses that dominated the eyeglass lens field for many years. In 2008, Joshua Silver designed eyewear with adjustable corrective glasses. They work by silicone liquid, a syringe, and a pressure mechanism.[38]

Despite the increasing popularity of contact lenses and laser corrective eye surgery, glasses remain very common, as their technology has improved. For instance, it is now possible to purchase frames made of special memory metal alloys that return to their correct shape after being bent. Other frames have spring-loaded hinges. Either of these designs offers dramatically better ability to withstand the stresses of daily wear and the occasional accident. Modern frames are also often made from strong, light-weight materials such as titanium alloys, which were not available in earlier times.

In fashion

In the 1930s, "spectacles" were described as "medical appliances."[39] Wearing spectacles was sometimes considered socially humiliating. In the 1970s, fashionable glasses started to become available through manufacturers, and governments also recognized the demand for stylized eyewear.[39]

Graham Pullin describes how devices for disability, like glasses, have traditionally been designed to camouflage against the skin and restore ability without being visible.[39] In the past, design for disability has "been less about projecting a positive image as about trying not to project an image at all."[39] Pullin uses the example of spectacles, traditionally categorized as a medical device for "patients", and outlines how they are now described as eyewear: a fashionable accessory.[39] Much like other fashion designs and accessories, eyewear is created by designers, has reputable labels, and comes in collections, by season and designer.[39] It is becoming more common for consumers to purchase eyewear with clear, non-prescription lenses, illustrating that glasses are no longer a social stigma, but a fashionable accessory that "frames your face."[39]

Society and culture

Market

The market for spectacles has been characterized as having highly inelastic demand, and advertising restrictions in the USA have correlated with higher prices, suggesting that adverts make the spectacles market more price-competitive.[40] It may also be monopolistically competitive.

There are claims that insufficiently free market competition inflates the prices of frames, which cost an average of $25-$50 US to make, to an average retail price of $300 in the United States. This claim is disputed by some in the industry.[41][42][43]

Redistribution

Some organizations like Lions Clubs International,[44] Unite For Sight,[45] ReSpectacle,[46] and New Eyes for the Needy provide a way to donate glasses and sunglasses. Unite For Sight has redistributed more than 200,000 pairs.[47]

Fashion

Demo Day 2016 - Design Center (19)
Glasses - Decoration, Presi HQ, Budapest

Many people require glasses for the reasons listed above. There are many shapes, colors, and materials that can be used when designing frames and lenses that can be utilized in various combinations. Oftentimes, the selection of a frame is made based on how it will affect the appearance of the wearer. Some people with good natural eyesight like to wear eyeglasses as a style accessory.

Personal image

For most of their history, eyeglasses were seen as unfashionable, and carried several potentially negative connotations: wearing glasses caused individuals to be stigmatized and stereotyped as pious clergymen (as those in religious vocation were the most likely to be literate and therefore the most likely to need reading glasses), elderly, or physically weak and passive.[48][49] The stigma began to fall away in the early 1900s when the popular Theodore Roosevelt was regularly photographed wearing eyeglasses, and in the 1910s when popular comedian Harold Lloyd began wearing a pair of horn-rimmed glasses as the "Glasses" character in his films.[48][49]

BarryGoldwater
Former United States senator Barry Goldwater in horn-rimmed glasses

Since eyeglasses have become an acceptable fashion item and often act as a key component in individuals' personal image. Musicians Buddy Holly and John Lennon became synonymous with the styles of eye-glasses they wore to the point that thick, black horn-rimmed glasses are often called "Buddy Holly glasses" and perfectly round metal eyeglass frames called "John Lennon (or Harry Potter) Glasses." British comedic actor Eric Sykes was known in the United Kingdom for wearing thick, square, horn-rimmed glasses, which were, in fact, a sophisticated hearing aid that alleviated his deafness by allowing him to "hear" vibrations.[50] Some celebrities have become so associated with their eyeglasses that they continued to wear them even after taking alternate measures against vision problems: United States Senator Barry Goldwater and comedian Drew Carey continued to wear non-prescription glasses after being fitted for contacts and getting laser eye surgery, respectively.

Other celebrities have used glasses to differentiate themselves from the characters they play, such as Anne Kirkbride, who wore oversized, 1980s-style round horn-rimmed glasses as Deirdre Barlow in the soap opera Coronation Street, and Masaharu Morimoto, who wears glasses to separate his professional persona as a chef from his stage persona as Iron Chef Japanese. In 2012 some NBA players wear lensless glasses with thick plastic frames like horn-rimmed glasses during post-game interviews, geek chic that draws comparisons to actor Jaleel White's infamous styling as TV character Steve Urkel.[51][52]

In superhero fiction, eyeglasses have become a standard component of various heroes' disguises (as masks), allowing them to adopt a nondescript demeanor when they are not in their superhero personae: Superman is well known for wearing 1950s style horn-rimmed glasses as Clark Kent, while Wonder Woman wears either round, Harold Lloyd style glasses or 1970s style bug-eye glasses as Diana Prince. An example of the halo effect is seen in the stereotype that those who wear glasses are intelligent.

Styles

Audrey in sweater (34003924612)
A model wearing glasses
Smart Eyeglasses
Young woman wearing eyeglasses

In the 20th century, eyeglasses came to be considered a component of fashion; as such, various different styles have come in and out of popularity. Most are still in regular use, albeit with varying degrees of frequency.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Chinese judges wore dark glasses to hide their facial expressions during court proceedings.[19]
  2. ^ In his treatise Ad Vitellionem paralipomena [Emendations (or Supplement) to Witelo] (1604), Kepler explained how eyeglass lenses compensate for the distortions that are caused by presbyopia or myopia, so that the image is once again properly focused on the retina.[23][24]

References

  1. ^ Collin, Liz. "Good Question: Why Do So Many Of Us Need Glasses?".
  2. ^ "Newsroom".
  3. ^ Solutions, Sun Sentinel Content. "Sunglasses not just an accessory in the Sunshine State". Sun-Sentinel.com. Retrieved 2018-04-10.
  4. ^ Loria, Kevin (21 February 2017). "Computer glasses that claim to protect your eyes from screens are selling like crazy, but they probably aren't doing you much good". Business Insider.
  5. ^ Heiting, Gary. "Computer Eye Strain: 10 Steps For Relief". All about vision.com. Retrieved 1 September 2017.
  6. ^ "BluTech Lenses – Technology, The story behind BluTech Lenses". BluTech Lenses.
  7. ^ "Expert Healthy Vision & Eye Care Tips, News, Articles & Information – Essilor USA". essilorusa.com.
  8. ^ "protect your vision". Blue light exposed.
  9. ^ a b "Anti-glare Coating". All about Vision.com. Retrieved 1 September 2017.
  10. ^ "Optical Course". OpticalCourse.com. Retrieved 7 May 2014.
  11. ^ "Self Aligning Spring Hinge".
  12. ^ "Cable Temples". Archived from the original on 27 January 2007. Retrieved 27 January 2007.
  13. ^ "Cable conversion temple covers". www.optiboard.com.
  14. ^ Gwamuri, Jephias; Wittbrodt, Ben T.; Anzalone, Nick C.; Pearce, Joshua M. "Reversing the Trend of Large Scale and Centralization in Manufacturing: The Case of Distributed Manufacturing of Customizable 3-D-Printable Self-Adjustable Glasses". Challenges in Sustainability. 2 (1). doi:10.12924/cis2014.02010030.
  15. ^ The Natural History, Book 37, Chpt.16. Pliny the Elder. John Bostock, M.D., F.R.S. H.T. Riley, Esq., B.A. London. Taylor and Francis, Red Lion Court, Fleet Street. 1855
  16. ^ "...Optics Highlights: II. Spectacles". University of Maryland, Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering. Retrieved 2007-09-01.
  17. ^ Kriss, Timothy C; Kriss, Vesna Martich (April 1998). "History of the Operating Microscope: From Magnifying Glass to Microneurosurgery". Neurosurgery. 42 (4): 899–907. doi:10.1097/00006123-199804000-00116. PMID 9574655.
  18. ^ Ament, Phil (4 December 2006). "Sunglasses History – The Invention of Sunglasses". The Great Idea Finder. Vaunt Design Group. Retrieved 2007-06-28.
  19. ^ Needham 1962, p. 121.
  20. ^ Ilardi 2007, p. 5.
  21. ^ Ilardi 2007, p. 6.
  22. ^ Ilardi 2007, p. 9.
  23. ^ Ilardi 2007, p. 244.
  24. ^ Ronchi, Vasco; Rosen, Edward (1991), Optics: The Science of Vision, Mineola, NY: Dover Publications, pp. 45–46
  25. ^ "Rivet spectacles". www.college-optometrists.org. The College of Optometrists. 2015. Retrieved 28 February 2015.
  26. ^ Rosen, Edward (1956), "The invention of eyeglasses", Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences, 11: 13–46 (part 1), 183–218 (part 2), doi:10.1093/jhmas/xi.2.183
  27. ^ Ilardi 2007, pp. 13-18.
  28. ^ Needham 1962, p. 119, footnote c.
  29. ^ Hirschberg, Julius (1911), "Geschichte der Augenheilkunde" [History of Ophthamology], in Graef, Alfred K; Saemisch, Theodor, Handbuch der gesamten Augenheilkunde [Handbook of all ophthalmology], 13, Leipzig, DE: Wilhelm Engelmann, p. 265
  30. ^ Needham 1962, p. 119.
  31. ^ Laufer, Berthold (1907) "Geschichte der Brille" (History of eyeglasses), Mitteilungen zur Geschichte der Medizin und der Naturwissenschaften (Communications on the History of Medicine and the Sciences), 6 (4) : 379-385.
  32. ^ "Science and Civilization in China Vol 4.1" (PDF). pp. 118–119. Retrieved 3 May 2014.
  33. ^ Agarwal, R. K. (1971) "Origin of spectacles in India," British Journal of Ophthalmology, 55 (2) : 128-129. Available online at: National Center for Biotechnology Information
  34. ^ Renaissance Vision from Spectacles to Telescopes, Vincent Ilardi, American Philosophical Society 2007 pages 118 - 125
  35. ^ "The 'Inventor' of Bifocals?". The College of Optometrists. Archived from the original on 13 June 2011.
  36. ^ Bruen, Robert. "Sir George Biddell Airy". The Lucasian Chair of Mathematics at Cambridge University. Robert Bruen. Retrieved 1 January 2014.
  37. ^ "Eyeglass Lenses and Visual Aids from Industrial Production". Zeiss. Retrieved 2007-09-02.
  38. ^ "Adspecs Eyeglasses Could Provide Sight for a Billion". TreeHugger.
  39. ^ a b c d e f g Pullin, Graham; et al. (2009). "Fashion Meets Discretion". Design Meets Disability. Cambridge: MIT Press. pp. 13–64. ISBN 9780262162555.
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Bibliography

External links

Amorphous metal

An amorphous metal (also known as metallic glass or glassy metal) is a solid metallic material, usually an alloy, with disordered atomic-scale structure. Most metals are crystalline in their solid state, which means they have a highly ordered arrangement of atoms. Amorphous metals are non-crystalline, and have a glass-like structure. But unlike common glasses, such as window glass, which are typically electrical insulators, amorphous metals have good electrical conductivity. There are several ways in which amorphous metals can be produced, including extremely rapid cooling, physical vapor deposition, solid-state reaction, ion irradiation, and mechanical alloying.In the past, small batches of amorphous metals have been produced through a variety of quick-cooling methods. For instance, amorphous metal ribbons have been produced by sputtering molten metal onto a spinning metal disk (melt spinning). The rapid cooling, on the order of millions of degrees Celsius a second, is too fast for crystals to form and the material is "locked" in a glassy state. More recently a number of alloys with critical cooling rates low enough to allow formation of amorphous structure in thick layers (over 1 millimeter) have been produced; these are known as bulk metallic glasses (BMG). More recently, batches of amorphous steel with three times the strength of conventional steel alloys have been produced.

Anaglyph 3D

Anaglyph 3D is the name given to the stereoscopic 3D effect achieved by means of encoding each eye's image using filters of different (usually chromatically opposite) colors, typically red and cyan. Anaglyph 3D images contain two differently filtered colored images, one for each eye. When viewed through the "color-coded" "anaglyph glasses", each of the two images reaches the eye it's intended for, revealing an integrated stereoscopic image. The visual cortex of the brain fuses this into the perception of a three-dimensional scene or composition.

Anaglyph images have seen a recent resurgence due to the presentation of images and video on the Web, Blu-ray Discs, CDs, and even in print. Low cost paper frames or plastic-framed glasses hold accurate color filters that typically, after 2002, make use of all 3 primary colors. The current norm is red and cyan, with red being used for the left channel. The cheaper filter material used in the monochromatic past dictated red and blue for convenience and cost. There is a material improvement of full color images, with the cyan filter, especially for accurate skin tones.

Video games, theatrical films, and DVDs can be shown in the anaglyph 3D process. Practical images, for science or design, where depth perception is useful, include the presentation of full scale and microscopic stereographic images. Examples from NASA include Mars Rover imaging, and the solar investigation, called STEREO, which uses two orbital vehicles to obtain the 3D images of the sun. Other applications include geological illustrations by the United States Geological Survey, and various online museum objects. A recent application is for stereo imaging of the heart using 3D ultra-sound with plastic red/cyan glasses.

Anaglyph images are much easier to view than either parallel (diverging) or crossed-view pairs stereograms. However, these side-by-side types offer bright and accurate color rendering, not easily achieved with anaglyphs. Recently, cross-view prismatic glasses with adjustable masking have appeared, that offer a wider image on the new HD video and computer monitors.

Autostereoscopy

Autostereoscopy is any method of displaying stereoscopic images (adding binocular perception of 3D depth) without the use of special headgear or glasses on the part of the viewer. Because headgear is not required, it is also called "glasses-free 3D" or "glassesless 3D". There are two broad approaches currently used to accommodate motion parallax and wider viewing angles: eye-tracking, and multiple views so that the display does not need to sense where the viewers' eyes are located.Examples of autostereoscopic displays technology include lenticular lens, parallax barrier, volumetric display, holographic and light field displays.

Bifocals

Bifocals are eyeglasses with two distinct optical powers. Bifocals are commonly prescribed to people with presbyopia who also require a correction for myopia, hyperopia, and/or astigmatism.

Binoculars

Binoculars or field glasses are two telescopes mounted side-by-side and aligned to point in the same direction, allowing the viewer to use both eyes (binocular vision) when viewing distant objects. Most are sized to be held using both hands, although sizes vary widely from opera glasses to large pedestal mounted military models.

Unlike a (monocular) telescope, binoculars give users a three-dimensional(3D) image: for nearer objects the two views, presented to each of the viewer's eyes from slightly different viewpoints, produce a merged view with an impression of depth.

Borosilicate glass

Borosilicate glass is a type of glass with silica and boron trioxide as the main glass-forming constituents. Borosilicate glasses are known for having very low coefficients of thermal expansion (~3 × 10−6 K−1 at 20 °C), making them resistant to thermal shock, more so than any other common glass. Such glass is less subject to thermal stress and is commonly used for the construction of reagent bottles. Borosilicate glass is sold under such trade names as Borcam, Borosil, DURAN, Suprax, Simax, BSA 60, BSC 51 (By NIPRO), Heatex, Endural, Schott, Refmex, Kimble, MG(India) and some (but not all) items sold under different trade names.

Channel Awesome

Channel Awesome, Inc. is an American online media production company based in Lombard, Illinois. The company was created in 2008 by Mike Michaud, Mike Ellis, and Bhargav Dronamraju. Channel Awesome operated the That Guy with the Glasses website (often abbreviated TGWTG) until late 2014, when it was phased into the Channel Awesome website. The site is best known for the comedic film review series Nostalgia Critic, starring Doug Walker.

TGWTG previously hosted fellow channels by Bar Fiesta beginning in November 2009, and Blistered Thumbs beginning in November 2010. Channel Awesome currently hosts a YouTube channel of the same name with an emphasis on content produced by Doug Walker and his brother Rob. Nearly all creators with the site severed ties with Channel Awesome and departed in April 2018. All of Channel Awesome's content was hosted by Blip or YouTube prior to the former's shutdown in August 2015.

Glass

Glass is a non-crystalline, amorphous solid that is often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics. The most familiar, and historically the oldest, types of manufactured glass are "silicate glasses" based on the chemical compound silica (silicon dioxide, or quartz), the primary constituent of sand. The term glass, in popular usage, is often used to refer only to this type of material, which is familiar from use as window glass and in glass bottles. Of the many silica-based glasses that exist, ordinary glazing and container glass is formed from a specific type called soda-lime glass, composed of approximately 75% silicon dioxide (SiO2), sodium oxide (Na2O) from sodium carbonate (Na2CO3), calcium oxide (CaO), also called lime, and several minor additives.

Many applications of silicate glasses derive from their optical transparency, giving rise to their primary use as window panes. Glass will transmit, reflect and refract light; these qualities can be enhanced by cutting and polishing to make optical lenses, prisms, fine glassware, and optical fibers for high speed data transmission by light. Glass can be coloured by adding metallic salts, and can also be painted and printed with vitreous enamels. These qualities have led to the extensive use of glass in the manufacture of art objects and in particular, stained glass windows. Although brittle, silicate glass is extremely durable, and many examples of glass fragments exist from early glass-making cultures. Because glass can be formed or moulded into any shape, it has been traditionally used for vessels: bowls, vases, bottles, jars and drinking glasses. In its most solid forms it has also been used for paperweights, marbles, and beads. When extruded as glass fiber and matted as glass wool in a way to trap air, it becomes a thermal insulating material, and when these glass fibers are embedded into an organic polymer plastic, they are a key structural reinforcement part of the composite material fiberglass. Some objects historically were so commonly made of silicate glass that they are simply called by the name of the material, such as drinking glasses and eyeglasses.

Scientifically, the term "glass" is often defined in a broader sense, encompassing every solid that possesses a non-crystalline (that is, amorphous) structure at the atomic scale and that exhibits a glass transition when heated towards the liquid state. Porcelains and many polymer thermoplastics familiar from everyday use are glasses. These sorts of glasses can be made of quite different kinds of materials than silica: metallic alloys, ionic melts, aqueous solutions, molecular liquids, and polymers. For many applications, like glass bottles or eyewear, polymer glasses (acrylic glass, polycarbonate or polyethylene terephthalate) are a lighter alternative than traditional glass.

Glasses Malone

Charles Phillip Ivory Penniman (born December 10, 1979), better known by his stage name Glasses Malone, is an American rapper from Los Angeles, California, United States.

Glasses fetishism

Glasses fetishism is a fetishistic attraction to people wearing prescription glasses, or a partner wearing prescription glasses, sunglasses, or cosmetic contact lenses, or the fetishists themselves wearing any of these glasses. Other related activities include wearing these glasses during sexual acts, or ejaculation on glasses.

Goggles

Goggles, or safety glasses, are forms of protective eyewear that usually enclose or protect the area surrounding the eye in order to prevent particulates, water or chemicals from striking the eyes. They are used in chemistry laboratories and in woodworking. They are often used in snow sports as well, and in swimming. Goggles are often worn when using power tools such as drills or chainsaws to prevent flying particles from damaging the eyes. Many types of goggles are available as prescription goggles for those with vision problems.

Google Glass

Google Glass is a brand of smart glasses—an optical head-mounted display designed in the shape of a pair of eyeglasses. It was developed by X (previously Google X) with the mission of producing a ubiquitous computer. Google Glass displayed information in a smartphone-like, hands-free format. Wearers communicated with the Internet via natural language voice commands.Google started selling a prototype of Google Glass to qualified "Glass Explorers" in the US on April 15, 2013, for a limited period for $1,500, before it became available to the public on May 15, 2014. It had an integral 5 megapixel still/720p video camera. The headset received a great deal of criticism and legislative action due to privacy and safety concerns.

On January 15, 2015, Google announced that it would stop producing the Google Glass prototype, to be continued in 2017 tentatively. In July 2017, it was announced that the Google Glass Enterprise Edition would be released.

List of glassware

The list of glasswares includes drinking vessels (drinkware) and tableware used to set a table for eating a meal, general glass items such as vases, and glasses used in the catering industry. It does not include laboratory glassware.

Night vision

Night vision is the ability to see in low-light conditions. Whether by biological or technological means, night vision is made possible by a combination of two approaches: sufficient spectral range, and sufficient intensity range. Humans have poor night vision compared to many animals, in part because the human eye lacks a tapetum lucidum.

Objective (optics)

In optical engineering, the objective is the optical element that gathers light from the object being observed and focuses the light rays to produce a real image. Objectives can be a single lens or mirror, or combinations of several optical elements. They are used in microscopes, telescopes, cameras, slide projectors, CD players and many other optical instruments. Objectives are also called object lenses, object glasses, or objective glasses.

Shot glass

A shot glass is a small glass originally designed to hold or measure spirits or liquor, which is either imbibed straight from the glass ("a shot") or poured into a cocktail ("a drink"). An alcoholic beverage served in a shot glass and typically consumed quickly, in one gulp, may also be known as a "shooter".

Shot glasses decorated with a wide variety of toasts, advertisements, humorous pictures, or other decorations and words are popular souvenirs and collectibles, especially as merchandise of a brewery.

Solar viewer

Solar viewer (also known as solar viewing glasses or solar eclipse glasses) is special eyewear designed for direct viewing of the Sun. Standard sunglasses are unable to filter out eye damaging radiation. Solar viewers are required for safe viewing of solar events such as eclipses. The recommended optical density of this eyewear is 5.

Stereoscopy

Stereoscopy (also called stereoscopics, or stereo imaging) is a technique for creating or enhancing the illusion of depth in an image by means of stereopsis for binocular vision. The word stereoscopy derives from Greek, Modern στερεός (stereos), meaning 'firm, solid', and σκοπέω (skopeō), meaning 'to look, to see'. Any stereoscopic image is called a stereogram. Originally, stereogram referred to a pair of stereo images which could be viewed using a stereoscope.

Most stereoscopic methods present two offset images separately to the left and right eye of the viewer. These two-dimensional images are then combined in the brain to give the perception of 3D depth. This technique is distinguished from 3D displays that display an image in three full dimensions, allowing the observer to increase information about the 3-dimensional objects being displayed by head and eye movements.

Sunglasses

Sunglasses or sun glasses (informally called shades) are a form of protective eyewear designed primarily to prevent bright sunlight and high-energy visible light from damaging or discomforting the eyes. They can sometimes also function as a visual aid, as variously termed spectacles or glasses exist, featuring lenses that are colored, polarized or darkened. In the early 20th century, they were also known as sun cheaters (cheaters then being an American slang term for glasses).The American Optometric Association recommends sunglasses that block ultraviolet radiation (UV) whenever a person is in the sun to protect the eyes from UV and blue light, which can cause several serious eye problems. Its usage is mandatory immediately after some surgical procedures, such as LASIK, and recommended for a certain time period in dusty areas, when leaving the house and in front of a TV screen or computer monitor after LASEK. It is important to note that dark glasses that do not block UV radiation can be more damaging to the eyes than not wearing eye protection at all, since they tend to open the pupil and allow more UV rays into the eye. Sunglasses have long been associated with celebrities and film actors primarily from a desire to mask their identity. Since the 1940s, sunglasses have been popular as a fashion accessory, especially on the beach.

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