Glass recycling is the processing of waste glass into usable products. Glass that is crushed and ready to be remelted is called cullet. There are two types of cullet: internal and external. Internal cullet is composed of defective products detected and rejected by a quality control process during the industrial process of glass manufacturing, transition phases of product changes (such as thickness and colour changes) and production offcuts. External cullet is waste glass that has been collected and/or reprocessed with the purpose of recycling. External cullet (which can be pre- or post-consumer) is classified as waste. The word "cullet", when used in the context of end-of-waste, will always refer to external cullet.
To be recycled, glass waste needs to be purified and cleaned of contamination. Then, depending on the end use and local processing capabilities, it might also have to be separated into different colors. Many recyclers collect different colors of glass separately since glass retains its color after recycling. The most common colours used for consumer containers are clear (flint) glass, green glass, and brown (amber) glass. Glass is ideal for recycling since none of the material is degraded by normal use.
Many collection points have separate bins for clear (flint), green and brown (amber). Glass re-processors intending to make new glass containers require separation by color, because glass tends to retain its color after recycling. If the recycled glass is not going to be made into more glass, or if the glass re-processor uses newer optical sorting equipment, separation by color at the collection point may not be required. Heat-resistant glass, such as Pyrex or borosilicate glass, must not be part of the glass recycling stream, because even a small piece of such material will alter the viscosity of the fluid in the furnace at remelt. 
To be able to use external cullet in production, any contaminants should be removed as much as possible. Typical contaminations are:
Manpower or machinery can be used in different stages of purification. Since they melt at higher temperatures than glass, separation of inorganics, the removal of heat resistant glass and lead glass is critical. In the modern recycling facilities, dryer systems and optical sorting machines are used. The input material should be sized and cleaned for the highest efficiency in automatic sorting. More than one free fall or conveyor belt sorter can be used, depending on the requirements of the process. Different colors can be sorted by optical sorting machines.
Glass bottles and jars are infinitely recyclable.. The use of recycled glass in manufacturing conserves raw materials and reduces energy consumption. Because the chemical energy required to melt the raw materials has already been expended, the use of cullet can significantly reduce energy consumption compared with manufacturing new glass from silica (SiO2), soda ash (Na2CO3), and lime (CaCO3). As a general rule, every 10% increase in cullet usage results in an energy savings of 2–3% in the melting process. Every metric ton (1,000 kg) of waste glass recycled into new items saves 315 kilograms (694 lb) of carbon dioxide from being released into the atmosphere during the manufacture of new glass.
The use of the recycled glass as aggregate in concrete has become popular, with large-scale research on that application being carried out at Columbia University in New York. Recycled glass greatly enhances the aesthetic appeal of the concrete. Recent research has shown that concrete made with recycled glass aggregates have better long-term strength and better thermal insulation, due to the thermal properties of the glass aggregates. Glass which is not recycled, but crushed, reduces the volume of waste sent to landfill. Waste glass may also be kept out of landfill by using it for roadbed aggregate or landfill cover.
Glass aggregate, a mix of colors crushed to a small size, is substituted for pea gravel or crushed rock in many construction and utility projects, saving municipalities, such as the City of Tumwater, Washington Public Works, thousands of dollars (depending on the size of the project). Glass aggregate is not sharp to handle. In many cases, the state Department of Transportation has specifications for use, size and percentage of quantity for use. Common applications are as pipe bedding—placed around sewer, storm water or drinking water pipes, to transfer weight from the surface and protect the pipe. Another common use is as fill to bring the level of a concrete floor even with a foundation.
Other uses for recycled glass include:
Mixed waste streams may be collected from materials recovery facilities or mechanical biological treatment systems. Some facilities can sort mixed waste streams into different colours using electro-optical sorting units.
In 2004, Germany recycled 2.116 million tons of glass. Reusable glass or plastic (PET) bottles are available for many drinks, especially beer and carbonated water as well as soft drinks (Mehrwegflaschen). The deposit per bottle (Pfand) is €0.08-€0.15, compared to €0.25 for recyclable but not reusable plastic bottles. There is no deposit for glass bottles which do not get refilled.
Glass collection points, known as bottle banks are very common near shopping centres, at civic amenity sites and in local neighborhoods in the United Kingdom. The first bottle bank was introduced by Stanley Race CBE, then president of the Glass Manufacturers’ Federation and Ron England in Barnsley on 6 June 1977. Development work was done by the DoE at Warren Springs laboratory, Stevenage, (now AERA at Harwell) and Nazeing Glass Works, Broxbourne to prove if a usable glass product could be made from over 90% recycled glass. It was found necessary to use magnets to remove unwanted metal closures in the mixture.
Bottle banks commonly stand beside collection points for other recyclable waste like paper, metals and plastics. Local, municipal waste collectors usually have one central point for all types of waste in which large glass containers are located. There are now over 50,000 bottle banks in the United Kingdom, and 752,000 tons of glass are now recycled annually.
The waste recycling industry in the UK cannot consume all of the recycled container glass that will become available over the coming years, mainly due to the colour imbalance between that which is manufactured and that which is consumed. The UK imports much more green glass in the form of wine bottles than it uses, leading to a surplus amount for recycling.
The resulting surplus of green glass from imported bottles may be exported to producing countries, or used locally in the growing diversity of secondary end uses for recycled glass. As of 2006, Cory Environmental were shipping glass cullet from the UK to Portugal.
Rates of recycling and methods of waste collection vary substantially across the United States because laws are written on the state or local level and large municipalities often have their own unique systems. Many cities do curbside recycling, meaning they collect household recyclable waste on a weekly or bi-weekly basis that residents set out in special containers in front of their homes.
Apartment dwellers usually use shared containers that may be collected by the city or by private recycling companies which can have their own recycling rules. In some cases, glass is specifically separated into its own container because broken glass is a hazard to the people who later manually sort the co-mingled recyclables. Sorted recyclables are later sold to companies to be used in the manufacture of new products.
In 1971, the state of Oregon passed a law requiring buyers of carbonated beverages (such as beer and soda) to pay five cents per container (increased to ten cents in April 2017) as a deposit which would be refunded to anyone who returned the container for recycling. This law has since been copied in nine other states including New York and California. The abbreviations of states with deposit laws are printed on all qualifying bottles and cans. In states with these container deposit laws, most supermarkets automate the deposit refund process by providing machines which will count containers as they are inserted and then print credit vouchers that can be redeemed at the store for the number of containers returned. Small glass bottles (mostly beer) are broken, one-by-one, inside these deposit refund machines as the bottles are inserted. A large, wheeled hopper (very roughly 1.5 m by 1.5 m by 0.5 m) inside the machine collects the broken glass until it can be emptied by an employee. Nationwide bottle refunds recover 80% of glass containers that require a deposit.
Aaron Michael Carotta (born November 18, 1977) known professionally as Adventure Aaron, is an American television personality and travel vlogger. He has previously worked as a news reporter. He is most known for his television shows Alive! with Adventure Aaron, Bucket Wish and Catch and Cook, which ran from 2010 until 2014. Carotta has previously been a morning live reporter for WLUV TV6.Aurora Glass Foundry
Aurora Glass Foundry is a charitable, non-profit organization operated by the St. Vincent de Paul Society in Eugene, Oregon. Profits from Aurora Glass assist homeless and low-income persons through emergency services, housing, jobs, training, other charitable endeavors.
The Foundry recycles scrap glass and turns it into various decorative glass products for sale on their website.Baler
A baler, most often called a hay baler is a piece of farm machinery used to compress a cut and raked crop (such as hay, cotton, flax straw, salt marsh hay, or silage) into compact bales that are easy to handle, transport, and store. Often, bales are configured to dry and preserve some intrinsic (e.g. the nutritional) value of the plants bundled. Different types of balers are commonly used, each producing a different type of bale – rectangular or cylindrical, of various sizes, bound with twine, strapping, netting, or wire.
Industrial balers are also used in material recycling facilities, primarily for baling metal, plastic, or paper for transport.Barnsley
Barnsley () is a town in South Yorkshire, England, located halfway between Leeds and Sheffield. Historically in the West Riding of Yorkshire, the town centre lies on the west bank of the Dearne Valley. Barnsley is surrounded by several smaller settlements which together form the Metropolitan Borough of Barnsley, of which Barnsley is the largest and its administrative centre. At the 2011 Census, Barnsley had a population of 91,297.Barnsley is a former industrial town centred on linen in its former years and coal mining, glassmaking and textiles. The industries declined in the 20th century. Barnsley's culture is rooted in its industrial heritage and it has a tradition of brass bands, originally created as social clubs by its mining communities. It is also home of the Barnsley chop.
The town is accessed from junctions 36, 37 and 38 of the M1 motorway and has a railway station on the Hallam and Penistone Lines. Barnsley F.C. is the local football club, which has competed in the second tier of British football for most of its history. Barnsley F.C. also won the FA Cup in 1912.
The town of Barnsley also has a Women's Football Club which is in the fourth tier of Women's Football. Barnsley Women's Football Club was formed in 1982 and finished 4th in the FA Women's National League Division 1 North in the 2018/19 Season.Bayern Brewing
Bayern Brewing, Inc. is located in Missoula, Montana, United States, and is the oldest brewery in the state. It was founded in 1987 by Trudy and Reinhard Schulte and is known as the "only German brewery in the Rockies." It is named after Bavaria, the state located in the southeastern half of Germany. The brewery is focused on German food, German beer, and an environmentally friendly policy.Carlton, South Yorkshire
Carlton is a village in the Metropolitan Borough of Barnsley in South Yorkshire, England. It is situated between the villages of Athersley and Royston.
The village is part of the Royston, South Yorkshire ward of the Barnsley MBC.
It was built up on coking and coal mining industries and now has one of the largest industrial estates within the surrounding area. In the industrial estate lies a glass recycling plant, called Rexam.
Carlton has two Church of England churches and a Methodist chapel, which is now private housing. A Kingdom Hall of Jehovah's Witnesses serves both the Carlton and Athersley congregations.
An ancient sacred spring or holy well existed near to the modern-day Carlton Road and became associated with St Helen in early Christian times. The name St Helen's was used for a 20th-century secondary school near to the site of the old well which merged with the original Edward Sheerien School in 1992 (the new Edward Sheerian School merged with Royston High in 2009 to form Carlton Community College). The school is now known as Outwood Academy Carlton, after gaining academy status in 2016 following a report from OFSTED placing the school in special measures.
Carlton has its own village group www.carltonvillage.co.uk that is accessible to all villagers.
Carlton has also a junior football team called the Bridge Tigers which has teams ranging from u-7s to u-15s playing at Carlton park.Che Fu
Che Ness (MNZM), better known by his stage name Che Fu, is a New Zealand hip hop, R&B and reggae artist, songwriter and producer. A founding member of the band Supergroove, as a solo artist he has gone on to sell thousands of albums both in New Zealand and internationally. Che Fu is considered a pioneer of Hip hop and Pasifika music in New Zealand.Construction aggregate
Construction aggregate, or simply "aggregate", is a broad category of coarse to medium grained particulate material used in construction, including sand, gravel, crushed stone, slag, recycled concrete and geosynthetic aggregates. Aggregates are the most mined materials in the world. Aggregates are a component of composite materials such as concrete and asphalt concrete; the aggregate serves as reinforcement to add strength to the overall composite material. Due to the relatively high hydraulic conductivity value as compared to most soils, aggregates are widely used in drainage applications such as foundation and French drains, septic drain fields, retaining wall drains, and roadside edge drains. Aggregates are also used as base material under foundations, roads, and railroads. In other words, aggregates are used as a stable foundation or road/rail base with predictable, uniform properties (e.g. to help prevent differential settling under the road or building), or as a low-cost extender that binds with more expensive cement or asphalt to form concrete.
Preferred bituminous aggregate sizes for road construction are given in EN 13043 as d/D (where the range shows the smallest and largest square mesh grating that the particles can pass). The same classification sizing is used for larger armour stone sizes in EN 13383, EN 12620 for concrete aggregate, EN 13242 for base layers of road construction and EN 13450 for railway ballast.
The American Society for Testing and Materials publishes an exhaustive listing of specifications including ASTM D 692 and ASTM D 1073 for various construction aggregate products, which, by their individual design, are suitable for specific construction purposes. These products include specific types of coarse and fine aggregate designed for such uses as additives to asphalt and concrete mixes, as well as other construction uses. State transportation departments further refine aggregate material specifications in order to tailor aggregate use to the needs and available supply in their particular locations.
Sources for these basic materials can be grouped into three main areas: Mining of mineral aggregate deposits, including sand, gravel, and stone; use of waste slag from the manufacture of iron and steel; and recycling of concrete, which is itself chiefly manufactured from mineral aggregates. In addition, there are some (minor) materials that are used as specialty lightweight aggregates: clay, pumice, perlite, and vermiculite.Darren Struwig
Darren Charles Struwig is a South African television presenter, radio DJ and model.
Darren was born in Johannesburg on 27 September 1990, to parents Timothy John and Alison Jean Struwig. Darren attended Eastleigh Primary School and then moved on to Edenvale High School where he performed in numerous productions for school plays and outside festivals. At the age of 10 Struwig began Irish dancing and went on to compete at Nationals as well as World Championships in Scotland in 2007. Darren's first on-camera experience was recording an informative monologue on Irish dancing for a DVD about different dance styles.
Darren secured his first professional presenting job at the age of 16 with the South African-based broadcasting company M-Net (Electronic Media Network), on their kids' channel, KTV. In 2008 Darren got involved in radio as a DJ for the University of Johannesburg's student radio station (UJFM), co-hosting UJFM's only talk show.
Darren has also been involved in modeling, having modeled at the Sanlam South African Fashion Week, for designers such as the Holmes Brothers.
Darren has also been involved in other initiatives including a glass recycling campaign, aired on most local channels and made into a DVD for education at most national schools, run by the Glass Recycling Company of South Africa.Disposable cup
A disposable cup is a type of tableware and disposable food packaging. Disposable cup types include paper cups, plastic cups and foam cups. Expanded polystyrene is used to manufacture foam cups, and polypropylene is used to manufacture plastic cups.As they are produced for single use, disposable cups and other similar disposable products constitute a major source of consumer and household waste, such as paper waste and plastic waste. It has been estimated that the average household discards around 70 disposable cups every year.US consumption is some 108 billion cups per year, the UK uses an estimated 2.5 billion paper cups every year.Glass bottle
A glass bottle is a bottle created from glass. Glass bottles can vary in size considerably, but are most commonly found in sizes ranging between about 200 millilitres and 1.5 litres. Common uses for glass bottles include food condiments, soda, liquor, cosmetics, pickling and preservatives. These types of bottles are utilitarian and serve a purpose in commercial industries.Growler (jug)
A growler () is a glass, ceramic, plastic, or stainless steel jug used to transport draft beer in the United States, Canada, Australia, Brazil and other countries. They are commonly sold at breweries and brewpubs as a means to sell take-out craft beer. Rarely, beers are bottled in growlers for retail sale. The significant growth of craft breweries and the growing popularity of home brewing has also led to an emerging market for the sale of collectible growlers. Some U.S. grocery stores, convenience stores, bars and restaurants have growler filling stations.Crowlers ("Canned Growler") are a more modern and similar concept: a fillable and machine-sealable beer can. The selected beer is poured into the can body and then a pop-top is sealed over it at a canning station. It isn't reusable like a growler bottle, but is easier to transport. The major limitation is that they can only be about a quart (32 oz. [946-ml] or 40 imp oz [1136-ml]) or liter (33.8 oz or 35.2 imp oz) in size.Index of environmental articles
The natural environment, commonly referred to simply as the environment, includes all living and non-living things occurring naturally on Earth.
The natural environment includes complete ecological units that function as natural systems without massive human intervention, including all vegetation, animals, microorganisms, soil, rocks, atmosphere and natural phenomena that occur within their boundaries. Also part of the natural environment is universal natural resources and physical phenomena that lack clear-cut boundaries, such as air, water, and climate.Ontario Deposit Return Program
The Ontario Deposit Return Program (ODRP), also simply known as Bag it Back, is a regulation of the province of Ontario, Canada in 2007. Its purpose is to divert recyclable materials from landfill or low-quality recycling uses by charging a fee for each alcoholic beverage container sold in the province, and processing the material for re-use or other recycling activities once the containers are returned for a refund of the deposit fee. Customers forfeit the deposit fee if the container is not returned.
The regulation took effect on 5 February 2007, and applies to manufacturers, wineries, and government stores licensed to sell alcohol under the Liquor Licence Act, but excludes the Brewers Retail Inc. packaging return system.The concept had been debated before, and was proposed in a summary report of the Ministry of the Environment from a public consultation about the ministry's intention to divert 60% of waste from landfill to recycling and composting by 2008.Plastic recycling
Plastic recycling is the process of recovering scrap or waste plastic and reprocessing the material into useful products. Since the vast majority of plastic is non-biodegradable, recycling is a part of global efforts to reduce plastic in the waste stream, especially the approximately 8 million tons of waste plastic that enters the Earth's ocean every year.Compared with lucrative recycling of metal, and similar to the low value of glass, plastic polymers recycling is often more challenging because of low density and low value. There are also numerous technical hurdles to overcome when recycling plastic.
When different types of plastics are melted together, they tend to phase-separate, like oil and water, and set in these layers. The phase boundaries cause structural weakness in the resulting material, meaning that polymer blends are useful in only limited applications. The two most widely manufactured plastics, polypropylene and polyethylene, behave this way, which limits their utility for recycling. Recently, the use of block copolymers as "molecular stitches" or "macromolecular welding flux" has been proposed to overcome the difficulties associated with phase separation during recycling.The percentage of plastic that can be fully recycled, rather than downcycled or go to waste, can be increased when manufacturers of packaged goods minimize mixing of packaging materials and eliminate contaminants. The Association of Plastics Recyclers have issued a "Design Guide for Recyclability".The use of biodegradable plastics or plastics which can be organically recycled or can be composted in Industrial composting is increasing for certain short lived packaging applicationsRecycling by material
Recycling can be carried out on various materialsSoda–lime glass
Soda–lime glass, also called soda–lime–silica glass, is the most prevalent type of glass, used for windowpanes and glass containers (bottles and jars) for beverages, food, and some commodity items. Glass bakeware is often made of borosilicate glass. Soda–lime glass accounts for about 90% of manufactured glass.Soda–lime glass is relatively inexpensive, chemically stable, reasonably hard, and extremely workable. Because it can be resoftened and remelted numerous times, it is ideal for glass recycling. It is used in preference to chemically-pure silica, which is silicon dioxide (SiO2), otherwise known as fused quartz. Whereas pure silica has excellent resistance to thermal shock, being able to survive immersion in water while red hot, its high melting temperature (1723 °C) and viscosity make it difficult to work with. Other substances are therefore added to simplify processing. One is the "soda", or sodium carbonate (Na2CO3), which lowers the glass-transition temperature. However, the soda makes the glass water-soluble, which is usually undesirable. To provide for better chemical durability, the "lime" is also added. This is calcium oxide (CaO), generally obtained from limestone. In addition, magnesium oxide (MgO) and alumina, which is aluminium oxide (Al2O3), contribute to the durability. The resulting glass contains about 70 to 74% silica by weight.
The manufacturing process for soda–lime glass consists in melting the raw materials, which are the silica, soda, lime (in the form of (Ca(OH)2), dolomite (CaMg(CO3)2, which provides the magnesium oxide), and aluminium oxide; along with small quantities of fining agents (e.g., sodium sulfate (Na2SO4), sodium chloride (NaCl), etc.) in a glass furnace at temperatures locally up to 1675 °C. The temperature is only limited by the quality of the furnace structure material and by the glass composition. Relatively inexpensive minerals such as trona, sand, and feldspar are usually used instead of pure chemicals. Green and brown bottles are obtained from raw materials containing iron oxide. The mix of raw materials is termed batch.
Soda–lime glass is divided technically into glass used for windows, called flat glass, and glass for containers, called container glass. The two types differ in the application, production method (float process for windows, blowing and pressing for containers), and chemical composition. Flat glass has a higher magnesium oxide and sodium oxide content than container glass, and a lower silica, calcium oxide, and aluminium oxide content. From the lower content of highly water-soluble ions (sodium and magnesium) in container glass comes its slightly higher chemical durability against water, which is required especially for storage of beverages and food.Strontium
Strontium is the chemical element with the symbol Sr and atomic number 38. An alkaline earth metal, strontium is a soft silver-white yellowish metallic element that is highly chemically reactive. The metal forms a dark oxide layer when it is exposed to air. Strontium has physical and chemical properties similar to those of its two vertical neighbors in the periodic table, calcium and barium. It occurs naturally mainly in the minerals celestine and strontianite, and is mostly mined from these. While natural strontium is stable, the synthetic 90Sr isotope is radioactive and is one of the most dangerous components of nuclear fallout, as strontium is absorbed by the body in a similar manner to calcium. Natural stable strontium, on the other hand, is not hazardous to health.
Both strontium and strontianite are named after Strontian, a village in Scotland near which the mineral was discovered in 1790 by Adair Crawford and William Cruickshank; it was identified as a new element the next year from its crimson-red flame test color. Strontium was first isolated as a metal in 1808 by Humphry Davy using the then-newly discovered process of electrolysis. During the 19th century, strontium was mostly used in the production of sugar from sugar beet (see strontian process). At the peak of production of television cathode ray tubes, as much as 75 percent of strontium consumption in the United States was used for the faceplate glass. With the replacement of cathode ray tubes with other display methods, consumption of strontium has dramatically declined.Wolmirstedt substation
Wolmirstedt substation is a large node in the power grid of former East Germany and termination of Germany's longest powerline, running from Lubmin nuclear power station to Wolmirstedt substation.
Via Wolmirstedt substation the first power exchange between both parts of Germany took place. On October 3, 1989, the 380 kV powerline between Helmstedt and Wolmirstedt substation went in service. This line was the first section of the 380 kV powerline between former West Germany and former West-Berlin, which went in service in 1994, one year later as planned in the mid 1980s.
As power grids between former GDR and former West Germany were not synchronized until 1993, power exchange between both systems were much limited.
In order to allow a full power exchange already in the 1980s the construction of an HVDC-back-to-back station at Wolmirstedt was planned. At the beginning of 1989 construction work on this facility, whose inauguration was planned in 1992, started. However it was decided after opening of Inter-German Border to synchronize the power grids of East- and West-Germany, in order not to require expensive HVDC systems with their limiting transmission rate.
For this reason construction work on Wolmirstedt HVDC-back-to-back station, which was designed to allow a maximum power exchange of 600 MW by using a DC voltage of 160 kV, was stopped in April 1990.
At this time of point the static inverter hall, situated at 52°16'21" N and 11°38'10" E, was already built. Also an earth wall for the protection of the inhabitants of Mose, an urban part of Wolmirstedt, and the road equipped with a rail running to Wolmirstedt substation for delivering the electrical equipment was already completed.
In opposite to the HVDC-back-to-back facilities in Etzenricht, Dürnrohr and Vienna, which were on both sites connected to the corresponding 380 kV-grids, it was planned at Wolmirstedt HVDC back-to-back plant only to realize the connection to the West German powergrid on the 380 kV-level. The link to the East German power grid was planned to be realized on the 220 kV-level as the grid for this voltage level was in former Eastern Germany at those days much stronger than that of the 380 kV-level.
The static inverter hall was, because of its noise protection wall, sold after termination of construction work to a company doing glass recycling and is today part of Farsleben Recycling Yard.
The components designed for the realization of Wolmirstedt HVDC back-to-back station were - except of the inverter transformers planned for the connection of the inverter to the East German 220 kV-grid, for which no demand existed and were scrapped afterwards - used at Etzenricht HVDC-back-to-back station.
Glass production techniques
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