Glaresis

Glaresis is a genus of beetles, sometimes called "enigmatic scarab beetles", in its own family, the Glaresidae. It is closely related to, and was formerly included in, the family Scarabaeidae. Although its members occur in arid and sandy areas worldwide (except Australia), only the nocturnal adults have ever been collected (typically at lights), and both the larvae and biology of Glaresis are as yet unknown. Due to their narrow habitat associations, a great number of these species occur in extremely limited geographic areas, and are accordingly imperiled by habitat destruction.

These beetles are small, 2½–6 mm long, and have the stocky appearance typical of fossorial scarabs, with short, heavy, spurred legs. Color ranges from tan to dark brown, and the back is covered with short setae.

Efforts to raise glaresids in the laboratory were undertaken in the 1980s by C. H. Scholtz and others, but were unsuccessful.

Glaresis was originally classified with Trogidae (originally a subfamily within Scarabaeidae), and has many characteristics of "primitive" scarabaeoids, but no affinities to any of the other primitive groups; recent work suggests that they may in fact belong in Trogidae. Scholtz argued that Glaresis is the most primitive type of scarabaeoid, but more recent research indicates that the Pleocomidae hold this position. The species in North, Central, and South America have been revised by Robert Gordon and Guy Hanley, Jan 2014, in the Journal Insecta Mundi.[1]

Glaresis
Scientific classification
Kingdom:
Phylum:
Class:
Order:
Suborder:
Superfamily:
Family:
Glaresidae
Genus:
Glaresis

Erichson, 1848
Species

About 50; see text.

Species

  • Glaresis alfierii
  • Glaresis arenata
  • Glaresis beckeri
  • Glaresis canadensis
  • Glaresis carthagensis
  • Glaresis cartwrighti
  • Glaresis ceballosi
  • Glaresis celiae
  • Glaresis clypeata
  • Glaresis confusa
  • Glaresis contrerasi
  • Glaresis dakotensis
  • Glaresis desperata
  • Glaresis ecostata
  • Glaresis exasperata
  • Glaresis foveolata
  • Glaresis freyi
  • Glaresis fritzi
  • Glaresis frustrata
  • Glaresis gineri
  • Glaresis gordoni
  • Glaresis handlirschi
  • Glaresis hispana
  • Glaresis holmi
  • Glaresis howdeni
  • Glaresis impressicollis
  • Glaresis inducta
  • Glaresis kocheri
  • Glaresis koenigsbaueri
  • Glaresis longisternum
  • Glaresis lomii
  • Glaresis mandibularis
  • Glaresis maroccana
  • Glaresis mauritanica
  • Glaresis medialis
  • Glaresis mendica
  • Glaresis methneri
  • Glaresis minuta
  • Glaresis namibensis
  • Glaresis penrithae
  • Glaresis oxiana
  • Glaresis pardoi
  • Glaresis pardoalcaidei
  • Glaresis phoenicis
  • Glaresis porrecta
  • Glaresis quedenfeldti
  • Glaresis rufa
  • Glaresis texana
  • Glaresis thiniensis
  • Glaresis tripolitana
  • Glaresis villiersi
  • Glaresis walzlae
  • Glaresis zarudniana
  • Glaresis zvirgzdinsi

References

  1. ^ R.D. Gordon and G.A. Hanley (2014). "Systematic revision of American Glaresidae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea)". Insecta Mundi. 0333: 1–91.

External links

2014 in arthropod paleontology

This list of fossil arthropods described in 2014 is a list of new taxa of trilobites, fossil insects, crustaceans, arachnids and other fossil arthropods of every kind that have been described during the year 2014. The list only includes taxa at the level of genus or species.

2018 in arthropod paleontology

This list of fossil arthropods described in 2018 is a list of new taxa of trilobites, fossil insects, crustaceans, arachnids and other fossil arthropods of every kind that were described during the year 2018, as well as other significant discoveries and events related to arthropod paleontology that are scheduled to occur in the year 2018.

Aphodiites

Aphodiites is a genus of fossil beetles from the Lias (Lower Jurassic) of Schambelen, (Aargau, Switzerland), and the oldest fossil in the superfamily Scarabaeoidea. Its affinities are not clear; it was originally placed in the Aphodiinae (Scarabaeidae), but its diagnostic characters are shared by beetles such as Glaresis (Glaresidae).

Enigmatic

Enigmatic is an adjective meaning "mysterious" or "puzzling". It may also refer to:

Enigmatic, a 1970 album by Czesław Niemen

Enigmatic: Calling, a 2005 album by Norwegian progressive metal band Pagan's Mind

Glaresis canadensis

Glaresis canadensis is a species of enigmatic scarab beetle in the family Glaresidae. It is found in North America.

Glaresis ecostata

Glaresis ecostata is a species of enigmatic scarab beetle in the family Glaresidae. It is found in North America.

Glaresis inducta

Glaresis inducta is a species of enigmatic scarab beetle in the family Glaresidae. It is found in North America.

Glaresis medialis

Glaresis medialis is a species of enigmatic scarab beetle in the family Glaresidae. It is found in North America.

Paleobiota of the Yixian Formation

The Yixian Formation (simplified Chinese: 义县组; traditional Chinese: 義縣組; pinyin: Yìxiàn zǔ) is a geological formation in Jinzhou, Liaoning, People's Republic of China, that spans about 5 million years during the early Cretaceous period (early Aptian stage). It is known for its fossils, listed below.

The Yixian Formation is divided into the following subunits: (ages from Chang et al., 2009 unless otherwise noted)

Jingangshan Bed (youngest, 122.1 Ma)

Dawangzhangzi Bed (124.4 Ma)

Jianshangou Bed (125.2 Ma)

Lujiatun Bed (125.8 Ma)

Basalt base (oldest, 129.7 Ma)

Extant Coleoptera families

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