Glanville fritillary

The Glanville fritillary (Melitaea cinxia) is a butterfly of the family Nymphalidae. It is named for the naturalist who discovered it and the checkerboard pattern on its wings. These butterflies live mostly in Europe, especially Finland, and across temperate Asia.

It has been discovered that this butterfly only mates one time in June or July and lays its eggs. It does not provide any protection to these eggs or care for the offspring. As adults, the Glanville fritillaries are short lived; they spend most of their lives as caterpillars. As caterpillars, Glanville fritillaries enter a stage of diapause, which is a period of suspended development, during the winter time.[4]

The spiked speedwell and ribwort plantain are the Glanville fritillary's preferred plants to lay eggs and to eat as larvae. Female butterflies will show a preference for one plant species over the other when deciding where to lay their eggs, but the caterpillars have no preference once they hatch. After entering the adult phase the fritillaries feed on nectar of the spiked speedwell and ribwort plantain, among others.

This species of butterfly is at risk of population decline because it is not a migratory species. Though widespread, populations in Finland are at risk because they are not able to travel great distances as easily as other species, such as monarchs, if their environment should suddenly become unsuitable.[5][6]

Melitaea cinxia
Melitaea cinxia (3722394380)
Upperside
Melitaea cinxia (5729291291)
Underside
Scientific classification
Kingdom:
Phylum:
Class:
Order:
Family:
Genus:
Species:
M. cinxia
Binomial name
Melitaea cinxia
Synonyms
  • Papilio cinxia Linnaeus, 1758
  • Papilio pilodellae Rottemburg, 1775
  • Papilio delia Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775[1]
  • Euphydryas cinxia[2][3]

Taxonomy

This species of butterfly is uniquely named in that its common name is not "butterfly", but "fritillary". The word fritillary refers to the checkered pattern of the butterfly's wings, which comes from the Latin word fritillus which means "dicebox". The "Glanville" piece of this butterfly's name comes from the naturalist who discovered it, Lady Eleanor Glanville.[7] Lady Eleanor Glanville was an eccentric 17th- and 18th-century English butterfly enthusiast – a very unusual occupation for a woman at that time. She was the first to capture British specimens in Lincolnshire during the 1690s.[8] A contemporary wrote

This fly took its name from the ingenious Lady Glanvil, whose memory had like to have suffered for her curiosity. Some relations that was disappointed by her Will, attempted to let it aside by Acts of Lunacy, for they suggested that none but those who were deprived of their senses, would go in Pursuit of butterflies.

— Moses Harris, 1776, [9]

Geographic range and habitat

The Glanville fritillary is found across Europe and temperate Asia. It is most commonly found on the Åland Islands of Finland, which host a network of about 4,000 dry meadows, the fritillary's ideal habitat.[10] These butterflies commonly inhabit open grassland at an elevation of 0–2,000 metres (0–6,562 ft) above sea level.[11]

Glanville fritillaries in the UK

In the UK the Glanville fritillary occurs only on soft undercliff and chine grassland and where its main larval food plant Plantago lanceolata (English plantain) occurs in abundance on sheltered, south facing slopes. The Glanville fritillary is a highly restricted species within the UK, being confined to the southern coast of the Isle of Wight.[8] It also occurs in the Channel Islands, and since 1990 there has been a mainland site on the Hampshire coast, possibly the result of an introduction. There are small introduced populations on the Somerset coast and two in Surrey: one near Wrecclesham, and one at a nature reserve in Addington, near Croydon.

Historic UK records suggest a distribution which went as far north as Lincolnshire. However, by the middle of the 19th century the Glanville fritillary was known only from the Isle of Wight and the coast of Kent between Folkestone and Sandwich. It became extinct in Kent by the mid-1860s.

Description

Melitaea cinxia has a wingspan of about 33–40 millimetres (1.3–1.6 in).[12] These medium-sized butterflies have orange, black and white "checkerspot" forewings. On the upperside of the hindwings they have a row of black dots. The hindwings have white and orange bands and a series of black dots inside them, also clearly visible on the reverse. Females are usually more dull than males with more developed black dots.[12]

Caterpillars are about 25 mm long with a reddish-brown head and a spiny black body with small white dots.[12]

Melitaea cinxia is rather similar to the heath fritillary (Melitaea athalia), but the beige and orange bands on the underwings are distinctive. Moreover, the latter one has no spots on the upperside of the hindwings.[8][12]

Melitaea cinxia MHNT CUT 2013 3 27 Avilly-Saint-Léonard dorsal

Upperside

Melitaea cinxia MHNT CUT 2013 3 27 Avilly-Saint-Léonard ventral

Underside

Food Resources

Caterpillars

Ribwort plantain

After hatching, Glanville fritillary caterpillars live in gregarious sibling groups. They feed on their host plant, either Plantoago lanceolata (ribwort plantain) or Veronica spicata (spiked speedwell). Adult females prefer one plant over the other when choosing where to lay their eggs, but the larvae do not have a feeding preference for either plant when they are born.[13]

Spiked speedwell Defense

As an attempt to fend off predators and parasitoids, the spiked speedwell emits volatile organic compounds (VOCs) when threatened. Some researchers found that this plant species has two different defenses for when it is being fed on and when a butterfly is in oviposition. The oviposition of the butterfly on this plant was able to induce the increase of two ketones (6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one and t-geranylacetone) and the suppression of green leaf volatiles (GLVs).[14]

Spiked speedwell

Adults

Adult Glanville fritillaries have a diet that consists solely of nectar. It has been shown that larvae with higher amounts of iridoid glycosides have better defense against parasitoids and bacterial pathogens.[15]

Mating

Adult Glanville fritillaries take flight, mate, and lay their eggs from June to early July. During this time it has been found that females only mate once. Females also tend to mate in their natal groups before dispersing with a mate to lay their eggs in a different population. This dispersal helps induce genetic flow between populations on the fragmented meadows of the Åland Islands.[4]

Life history

Life cycle (egg, caterpillar, pupa, adult)

A female Glanville fritillary will lay as many as 10 clutches of eggs in her lifetime. These clutches can range in size from 50 up to 300 eggs and are laid on the underside of the larval food plant of either Plantago lanceolata (ribwort plantain) or Veronica spicata (spiked speedwell).[16] After hatching, the caterpillars feed on their host plants until the end of the summer where they spin a "winter nest" to diapause. When winter is over they emerge from their nest to feed again before pupating around the beginning of May. A month later, the adult fritillaries emerge and go about their adult lives of feeding, mating, and laying eggs.[16]

Clutch size

In the Glanville fritillary, clutch size is highly important as larval survival depends on groups size. Thus, understanding the different factors that contribute to clutch size is important in developing an understanding of population dynamics and life cycle.[17]

Clutch size is inversely related to the size of the clutches previously laid, meaning that the more eggs a female lays in years prior, the fewer eggs will be in the present clutch. Further, it is known that clutch sizes decrease with the age of the female. This is thought to be due to resource depletion over time in the female, potentially from high investment in earlier clutches.[17]

Clutch size also increases with increased intervals between oviposition. Typical Glanville fritillary oviposition occurs once every two days.

PGI genotypes

Glanville fritillary females vary in their PGI, a glycolytic enzyme, genotype. The genotype of the female influences the time of day that she is active, which also influence her ability to lay larger clutches. Heterozygote females are able to operate earlier in the day compared to all other genotypes. Further, females with a Pgi-f allele are able to begin oviposition earlier in the day and are also able to lay larger clutch sizes. The Pgi-f allele contributes to a higher metabolic rate and the ability for females to take advantage of the climate of the early day - both of which factors allow for increased clutch size.[17]

Glanville fritillary (Melitaea cinxia) mating

Mating pair

Ausgewachsene Raupe des Wegerich - Scheckenfalters

Caterpillar

Wegerich Scheckenfalter Puppen

Pupa

Nymphalidae - Melitaea cinxia

Imago

Enemies

Parasites

Glanville fritillary eggs and pupae are often parasitized by several species of parasitoids. Two specialist species:[18]

  • Cotesia melitaearum
  • Hyposoter horticola

And several generalist species:

  • Pterolmalus apum.[19]
  • Ichneumon gracilicornis
  • Pteromalus apum
  • Pteromalus puparum
  • Coelopisthia caledonica[20]

And has several hyperparasitoids[20]

  • Mesochorus stigmaticus (a specialist)
  • Gelis agilis
  • Gelis ruficornis
  • Gelis acarorum

Cotesia melitaearum

The parasitoid C. melitaearum can be extremely detrimental to Glanville fritillary populations if it is able to become well established. This species is able to increase its own parasitism if the fritillary population is also increasing in size and age, but will decrease if said population becomes isolated. Thus, in well established fritillary populations there is a risk of local extinction by the C. melitaearum parasitoid.[18]

Genetics

Subspecies

Subspecies include:

  • Melitaea cinxia cinxia
  • Melitaea cinxia amardea Grum-Grshimailo, 1895
  • Melitaea cinxia atlantis Le Cerf, 1928
  • Melitaea cinxia clarissa Staudinger, 1901
  • Melitaea cinxia heynei Rühl, 1895
  • Melitaea cinxia karavajevi Obraztsov, 1936
  • Melitaea cinxia oasis Huang & Murayama
  • Melitaea cinxia sacarina Fruhstorfer, 1917
  • Melitaea cinxia tschujaca Seitz, 1908

Conservation

Migration Issues

As the global temperature of the Earth warms each year, many butterfly species are forced to shift northward in order to keep living in their preferred climates. Scientists have found that migratory species, such as monarch butterflies, are better able to adapt to the rising temperatures than sedentary species, such as Glanville fritillaries.[5] Glanville fritillaries will migrate around the Åland Islands to different habitat patches, but they will not embark on great transcontinental seasonal migrations like other butterflies do.[6] Because of this they are very susceptible to climate change, which is something to keep in mind when considering plans to aid in the conservation of this species.

Status

This butterfly is not currently listed as threatened in Europe, but its UK BAP status is Priority Species. The NERC act of England lists it as species of principal importance. Its Butterfly Conservation priority is high, so this is a butterfly likely to be increasingly threatened in the coming years.[21]

References

  1. ^ Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775 Ank. syst. Schmett. Wienergegend : 179
  2. ^ Savela, Markku. "Melitaea Fabricius, 1807". Lepidoptera and Some Other Life Forms. Retrieved 1 June 2017.
  3. ^ "Melitaea cinxia (Linnaeus, 1758)". Inventaire National du Patrimoine Naturel (in French). Retrieved 1 June 2017.
  4. ^ a b Sarhan, Alia (20 October 2006). "Behavioural, population, and genetic processes affecting metapopulation dynamics of the Glanville fritillary butterfly".
  5. ^ a b Parmesan, Camille. "Poleward shifts in geographical ranges of butterfly species associated with regional warming". Nature. 399 (6736): 579–583.
  6. ^ a b Kuussaari, Mikko; Nieminen, Marko; Hanski, Ilkka (1996). "An Experimental Study of Migration in the Glanville Fritillary Butterfly Melitaea cinxia". Journal of Animal Ecology. 65 (6): 791–801. doi:10.2307/5677. JSTOR 5677.
  7. ^ Shaw, Philip (22 June 2016). "Three types of zoological common names and their formation-processes". Nordic Journal of English Studies. 15 (2): 171–187. ISSN 1654-6970.
  8. ^ a b c "Glanville fritillary". The Independent. 8 June 2009.
  9. ^ "Glanville Fritillary". UK Butterflies. Retrieved 1 June 2017.
  10. ^ Hanski, Ilkka A. (30 August 2011). "Eco-evolutionary spatial dynamics in the Glanville fritillary butterfly". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 108 (35): 14397–14404. doi:10.1073/pnas.1110020108. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 3167532. PMID 21788506.
  11. ^ "Glanville fritillary – Melitaea cinxia". Captain’s European Butterfly Guide. Retrieved 1 June 2017.
  12. ^ a b c d "Melitaea cinxia (Linnaeus, 1758)". Papillons du Poitou-Charente (in French). Retrieved 1 June 2017.
  13. ^ Van Nouhuys, Saskya; Singer, Michael C.; Nieminen, Marko (1 April 2003). "Spatial and temporal patterns of caterpillar performance and the suitability of two host plant species". Ecological Entomology. 28 (2): 193–202. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2311.2003.00501.x. ISSN 1365-2311.
  14. ^ Pinto-Zevallos, Delia M.; Hellén, Heidi; Hakola, Hannele; van Nouhuys, Saskya; Holopainen, Jarmo K. (1 November 2013). "Induced defenses of Veronica spicata: Variability in herbivore-induced volatile organic compounds". Phytochemistry Letters. 6 (4): 653–656. doi:10.1016/j.phytol.2013.08.015.
  15. ^ Laurentz, Minna; Reudler, Joanneke H.; Mappes, Johanna; Friman, Ville; Ikonen, Suvi; Lindstedt, Carita (1 January 2012). "Diet Quality Can Play a Critical Role in Defense Efficacy against Parasitoids and Pathogens in the Glanville Fritillary (Melitaea cinxia)". Journal of Chemical Ecology. 38 (1): 116–125. doi:10.1007/s10886-012-0066-1. ISSN 0098-0331. PMID 22273742.
  16. ^ a b Saastamoinen, Marjo (2007). "Get it! via WU Libraries". Ecological Entomology. 32 (2): 235–242. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2311.2007.00865.x.
  17. ^ a b c "Life‐history, genotypic, and environmental correlates of clutch size in the Glanville fritillary butterfly". ResearchGate. Retrieved 5 October 2017.
  18. ^ a b Hanski, Ilkka (2005). "Large-scale dynamics of the Glanville fritillary butterfly: landscape structure, population processes, and weather". Annales Zoologici Fennici. 42.
  19. ^ Kraft, Thomas S.; Van Nouhuys, Saskya (1 April 2013). "The effect of multi-species host density on superparasitism and sex ratio in a gregarious parasitoid". Ecological Entomology. 38 (2): 138–146. doi:10.1111/een.12004. ISSN 1365-2311.
  20. ^ a b Lei, G. C.; Vikberg, V.; Nieminen, M.; Kuussaari, M. (1 April 1997). "The parasitoid complex attacking Finnish populations of the Glanville fritillary Melitaea cinxia (Lep: Nymphalidae), and endangered butterfly". Journal of Natural History. 31 (4): 635–648. doi:10.1080/00222939700770301. ISSN 0022-2933.
  21. ^ "Butterfly Conservation - Glanville Fritillary". butterfly-conservation.org. Retrieved 30 October 2017.

General references

  • Hanski, Ilkka; Saccheri, Ilik (2006). "Molecular-Level Variation Affects Population Growth in a Butterfly Metapopulation". PLoS Biol. 4 (5): e150. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0040129. PMC 1440940. PMID 16620151.
  • Linnaeus, Carl (1758). Tomus, I (ed.). Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis (10th ed.). Stockholm: Laurentii Salvii. p. 48.
  • Nieminen, M; Siljander, M; Hanski, I (2004). "Structure and dynamics of Melitaea cinxia metapopulations". In Ehrlich, PR; Hanski, I (eds.). On the Wings of Checkerspots: A Model System for Population Biology. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 63–91. ASIN B001M4IPOG.
  • Tolman, Tom; Lewington, Richard (2014). Guide des papillons d'Europe et d'Afrique du Nord (in French). Delachaux et Niestlé. ISBN 978-2-603-01649-7.
  • Hanski, Ilkka (1999). Metapopulation Ecology. Oxford Series In Ecology And Evolution. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0198540656.

External links

Afton Down

Afton Down is a chalk down near the village of Freshwater on the Isle of Wight. Afton Down faces Compton Bay directly to the west, while Freshwater is approximately one mile north.

It was the site of the Isle of Wight Festival 1970, where the Guinness Book of Records estimates 600,000 to 700,000, and possibly 800,000 people, flocked to see the musical talents of Emerson, Lake & Palmer, Free, The Who, The Doors, Ten Years After and Jimi Hendrix.In keeping with the native flora of Compton Bay, a variety of hardy plants grow on the down. Large European gorse bushes grow on the cliff, with the shelter they provide allowing other plants such as wild cabbage and bird's foot trefoil to thrive. Due to the strong prevailing wind from the English channel to the west, no large trees are able to grow on the down, allowing shrubs and grasses to thrive. The Isle of Wight's county flower, the pyramidal orchid, also grows here, along with Plantago lanceolata, the main food plant for the rare Glanville fritillary.

A car park is situated near the highest point of the Military Road's route over the down, and allows for walkers to travel along a footpath downhill towards Freshwater Bay.

There is an obelisk on Afton Down near the cliff edge. It is inscribed with a memorial to 15 year-old Edward Lewis Miller of Goudhurst in Kent who died after falling from the cliff in 1846. This obelisk was Grade II listed in 1994.

E.L.M. Aged 15 He cometh forth like a flower and is cut down. He fleeth also as a shadow and continueth not. Erected in remembrance of a most dear and only child who was suddenly removed into eternity by a fall from the adjacent cliff on the rocks below. 28th August 1846.

Each side of the obelisk is inscribed with biblical passages in relation to the afterlife.

In the 17th century it was common for local people to descend the cliffs to collect seabirds and pick samphire. The birds were killed and plucked and their feathers sold, and the carcasses were sold to local fisherman to bait crab pots. The samphire was pickled and sent to London in barrels.Freshwater Bay Golf Course is located on Afton Down.On the downs are a group of 24 barrows comprising, a long barrow 34.7 m long, 0.9 m high and oriented east-west, 17 bowl barrows, 4 bell barrows and 2 disc barrows (One of which is where the golf course is located). One barrow has been the subject of archaeological interest, and is thought to be from the Bronze Age. The site was excavated in 1817 revealing nothing of significance in the long barrow, but several cremations in the round barrows.

Compton Bay

Compton Bay is a bay located on the southwest section of the Isle of Wight, England. Its north western edge is defined by the distinctive white chalk cliff of Freshwater Cliff, named after adjacent Freshwater Bay, which forms a small cove with the village of Freshwater situated just behind. Its north eastern edge is formed from the soft red and orange cretaceous rocks of Brook Bay, which are rapidly eroding.

Due to the lack of grazing on the cliffs above the bay, the native chalk ecosystem has thrived. Atop the cliffs, the Island's county flower, the pyramidal orchid, can be found, while the rare Glanville fritillary butterfly also lives in large numbers supported by the native flowers. There are also other hardy plants, such as common gorse bushes and wild cabbage.

The bay is popular with wave and kite surfers due to the waves that form when the prevailing south-westerly wind is blowing onshore. The beach is gently shelving and consists mostly of sand, with a few lengths of submerged rock, although at high tide the sea covers the beach almost completely. The car park and its public facilities are owned by the National Trust, as is the coastal strip of land. The Isle of Wight Coastal Path runs along the cliff around the bay.

There are dinosaur footprints visible in Compton Bay when the tide is low, and this is one of the best areas to see the dinosaurs of the Isle of Wight. Fossil hunters can often be seen searching for smaller fossils on the beach.

Eleanor Glanville

Lady Eleanor Glanville (c. 1654 – 1709) was a 17th-century English entomologist from Tickenham in Somerset.

Glanville

Glanville or Glanvill may refer to:

Places:

Glanville, Calvados, commune in the Basse-Normandie region of France

Glanville, South Australia, suburb of Adelaide, Australia

Glanville railway station

Wootton Glanville, village in Dorset, EnglandPeople:

Ann Glanville (1796–1880), Cornish rower

Brandi Glanville (born 1972), American television personality and former fashion model

Brian Glanville (born 1931), English football writer and novelist

Christine Glanville (1924–1999), English puppeteer

Doug Glanville (born 1970), American baseball player

Eleanor Glanville (c. 1654–1709), English entomologist

Ernest Glanville (1855–1925), South African author

Francis Glanville (1827–1910), British Army general

Glanville Williams (1911–1997), Welsh legal scholar

Harold Glanville (1854–1930), English businessman and politician

Harold Glanville (junior) (1884–1966), English Liberal Party politician.

James Glanville (1891–1958), British politician

Jason Glanville, leader in Australian Indigenous community

Jerry Glanville (born 1941), American football coach

Sir John Glanville (judge) (1542–1600), English Member of Parliament and judge

Sir John Glanville (1586–1661), English politician

Joseph Glanvill (1636–1680), English writer

Lucy Glanville (born 1994), Australian biathlete

Marc Glanville (born 1966), Australian rugby league footballer

Mark Glanville, English classical singer and writer

Peggy Glanville-Hicks (1912–1990), Australian composer

Phil de Glanville (born 1968), English rugby union player

Ranulf de Glanvill (died 1190), English justiciar

Ranulph Glanville (born 1946), English researcher

Stephen Glanville (1900–1956), English Egyptologist

Sir William Glanville (1900–1976), British civil engineerOther:

Tractatus de legibus et consuetudinibus regni Anglie, the earliest English law treatise (1187–9), commonly called Glanvill after its attribution to Ranulf de Glanvill

Glanville fritillary, butterfly

Ilkka Hanski

Ilkka Aulis Hanski (14 February 1953 – 10 May 2016) was a Finnish ecologist at the University of Helsinki, Finland. The Metapopulation Research Center led by Hanski, until his death, has been nominated as a Center of Excellence by the Academy of Finland. The group studies species living in fragmented landscapes and attempts to advance metapopulation ecology research. Metapopulation ecology itself studies populations of plants and animals which are separated in space by occupying patches.

Isle of Wight

The Isle of Wight (; also referred to informally as The Island or abbreviated to IoW) is a county and the largest and second-most populous island in England. It is in the English Channel, between 2 and 5 miles off the coast of Hampshire, separated by the Solent. The island has resorts that have been holiday destinations since Victorian times, and is known for its mild climate, coastal scenery, and verdant landscape of fields, downland and chines. The island is designated a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve.

The island has been home to the poets Swinburne and Tennyson and to Queen Victoria, who built her much-loved summer residence and final home Osborne House at East Cowes. It has a maritime and industrial tradition including boat-building, sail-making, the manufacture of flying boats, the hovercraft, and Britain's space rockets. The island hosts annual music festivals including the Isle of Wight Festival, which in 1970 was the largest rock music event ever held. It has well-conserved wildlife and some of the richest cliffs and quarries for dinosaur fossils in Europe.

The isle was owned by a Norman family until 1293 and was earlier a kingdom in its own right. In common with the Crown dependencies, the British Crown was then represented on the island by the Governor of the Isle of Wight until 1995. The island has played an important part in the defence of the ports of Southampton and Portsmouth, and been near the front-line of conflicts through the ages, including the Spanish Armada and the Battle of Britain. Rural for most of its history, its Victorian fashionability and the growing affordability of holidays led to significant urban development during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Historically part of Hampshire, the island became a separate administrative county in 1890. It continued to share the Lord Lieutenant of Hampshire until 1974, when it was made its own ceremonial county. Apart from a shared police force, there is now no administrative link with Hampshire, although a combined local authority with Portsmouth and Southampton was considered, this is now unlikely to proceed.The quickest public transport link to the mainland is the hovercraft from Ryde to Southsea; three vehicle ferry and two catamaran services cross the Solent to Southampton, Lymington and Portsmouth.

Lepidoptera in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae

In the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, Carl Linnaeus classified the arthropods, including insects, arachnids and crustaceans, among his class "Insecta". Butterflies and moths were brought together under the name Lepidoptera. Linnaeus divided the group into three genera – Papilio, Sphinx and Phalaena. The first two, together with the seven subdivisions of the third, are now used as the basis for nine superfamily names: Papilionoidea, Sphingoidea, Bombycoidea, Noctuoidea, Geometroidea, Torticoidea, Pyraloidea, Tineoidea and Alucitoidea.

List of Lepidoptera that feed on plantains

Plantains (Plantago species) are used as food plants by the caterpillars of a number of Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths). These include:

Arctiidae

Hypercompe cermellii

Hypercompe scribonia (giant leopard moth)

Spilosoma luteum (buff ermine)

Crambidae

Diasemia reticularis

Dolicharthria punctalis

Geometridae

Idaea biselata (small fan-footed wave)

Lycaenidae

Candalides heathi (rayed blue)

Lymantriidae

Euproctis chrysorrhoea (brown-tail)

Noctuidae

Agrotis exclamationis (heart and dart)

Amphipyra tragopoginis (mouse moth)

Mamestra brassicae (cabbage moth)

Naenia typica (gothic)

Noctua comes (lesser yellow underwing)

Noctua pronuba (large yellow underwing)

Ochropleura plecta (flame shoulder)

Xestia c-nigrum (setaceous Hebrew character)

Xestia sexstrigata (six-striped rustic)

Nymphalidae

Junonia coenia (common buckeye)

Junonia villida (meadow argus)

Melitaea athalia (heath fritillary) – recorded on ribwort plantain (P. lanceolata), greater plantain (P. major), alpine plantain (P. alpina) and possibly others

Melitaea aurelia (Nickerl's fritillary) – recorded on ribwort plantain (P. lanceolata)

Melitaea cinxia (Glanville fritillary)

Melitaea didyma (spotted fritillary) – recorded on ribwort plantain (P. lanceolata)

Melitaea parthenoides (European meadow fritillary) – recorded on ribwort plantain (P. lanceolata) and others

List of United Kingdom Biodiversity Action Plan species

This is a list of United Kingdom Biodiversity Action Plan species. Some suffer because of loss of habitat, but many are in decline following the introduction of foreign species, which out-compete the native species or carry disease.

See also the list of extinct animals of the British Isles.

This list includes the 116 species identified as requiring action plans in the Biodiversity Steering Group's report of December 1995.

List of butterflies of Estonia

This is a list of butterfly species recorded in Estonia (excluded are the species not encountered during the past 100 years).

List of butterflies of Finland

The butterflies of Finland include all species of butterflies (Papilionoidea) (including skippers, which were formerly considered a separate superfamily Hesperioidea but nowadays are included in Papilionoidea) which have been recorded in Finland. The local butterfly fauna includes 121 species of butterflies, 10 of which are skippers. However, some species have been reported only once.

As of 2010, the butterfly fauna of Finland included two species classified as critically endangered (CR), 12 species as endangered (EN) and 10 species as vulnerable (VU). Out of all 26 lepidopteran species which are protected by law under the Nature Conservation Decree, 18 species appear on this list.

List of butterflies of Great Britain

This is a list of butterflies of Great Britain, including extinct, naturalised species and those of dubious origin. The list comprises butterfly species listed in The Moths and Butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland by Emmet et al. and Britain's Butterflies by Tomlinson and Still.A study by NERC in 2004 found there has been a species decline of 71% of butterfly species between 1983 and 2003. Species listed in the 2007 UK Biodiversity Action Plan (BAP) are indicated by a double-dagger symbol (‡)—two species so listed for research purposes only are also indicated with an asterisk (‡*). Range expansions according to the 2010 Atlas of Butterflies in Britain and Ireland.Butterfly Conservation lists 29 of Great Britain's 58 breeding butterfly species as "High UK treat priority", with 9 of those with conservation priority status "Action urgent across UK range".

List of butterflies of Italy

This is a list of butterflies in the country of Italy.

List of butterflies of Morocco

This is a simple list of the butterflies of Morocco. It does not include the rank changes or subspecies recognized by Tennent (1996) or Delacre and Tarrier (2008).

The list includes the Spanish controlled areas of Ceuta, Melilla and Plazas de soberanía, as well as the territory of the disputed state Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic.

List of butterflies of Saimbeyli

This is a list of butterflies of Saimbeyli, a district located on the middle section of the Taurus Mountains chain in the northern end of Adana Province in southern Turkey. In their three volumes of Die Tagfalter der Türkei, Hesselbarth et al. listed 121 butterfly species from Saimbeyli before 1995. The list was updated with 40 new species which have been recorded in several field studies between 2012 and 2016, and the number of species was determined as 161 in total. S. Wagener argued that Saimbeyli is a valuable habitat for 11 endemic and 15 rare butterfly taxa, and the only locality for Polyommatus theresiae.

List of butterflies of Sweden

This is a list of butterflies in Sweden.

List of fritillaries (butterflies)

This is a list of butterfly species in diverse genera with the common name fritillary. The term refers to the chequered markings on the wings, usually black on orange, and derives from the Latin fritillus (meaning dice-box - or, according to some sources, a chequerboard: the fritillary flower, with its chequered markings, has the same derivation). Most fritillaries belong to the family Nymphalidae.

Melitaea

Melitaea is a genus of brush-footed butterflies (family Nymphalidae). They are here placed in the tribe Melitaeini of subfamily Nymphalinae; some authors elevate this tribe to subfamily rank.

As delimited here, Melitaea includes the genus Mellicta, making the subtribe Melitaeina monotypic (but see below). For long, it was believed that Mellicta was a junior objective synonym of Melitaea, sharing the same type species (the Glanville fritillary, M. cinxia). This was in error, however; the type species of Mellicta is actually the heath fritillary (M. athalia), making the two taxa junior subjective synonyms and thus eligible to be separated again. However, several other taxa are in fact objective synonyms (or at least have type specimens belonging to the same biological species) of Melitaea and Mellicta – Schoenis and the preoccupied Lucina and Melinaea for the former, Athaliaeformia for the latter.

Tickenham

Tickenham is an ornate village and civil parish near Clevedon and Nailsea, North Somerset, England. The parish has a population of 910. It has a primary school and a village hall, but no shops, although it formerly had a post office.

A typical ribbon development, Tickenham extends for approximately two miles along the B3130 road, which runs along the bottom of a ridge of hills between Clevedon and Failand. There are a few short side-roads, but for most of this distance the village consists of detached houses and farmhouses built along the edge of the main road.

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