Givat Shaul (Hebrew: גבעת שאול, lit. (Saul's Hill) is a neighborhood in western Jerusalem, Israel. The neighborhood is located at the western entrance to the city, east of the neighborhood of Har Nof and north of Kiryat Moshe. Givat Shaul stands 820 meters above sea level.
Givat Shaul is named after the Rishon Lezion, Rabbi Yaakov Shaul Elyashar, the Sephardi Chief Rabbi of Israel, and not, as commonly believed, for the biblical King Saul, whose capital was probably located on the hill Gibeah of Saul near Pisgat Ze'ev, on the way to Ramallah.
Givat Shaul was established in 1906 on land purchased from the Arab villages of Deir Yassin and Lifta by a society headed by Rabbi Nissim Elyashar, Arieh Leib and Moshe Kopel Kantrovitz. Difficulties in registering the land delayed construction until 1919. The first residents were needy families who were given small plots to grow fresh produce that was marketed in Jerusalem. These families, mainly Yemenite Jews, were joined by others from Meah Shearim and the Old City. The Ashkenazim built the first public building, Beit Knesset HaPerushim. In 1912, an embroidery and sewing workshop was opened with the help of a Jewish philanthropist, Rabbi Slutzkin. Other industries established in Givat Shaul were the Froumine biscuit factory, a factory for kerosene heaters that manufactured arms for the British army during the British Mandate of Palestine, and a matza factory. In 1927, the Diskin Orphanage moved to Givat Shaul from the Old City. This building, designed by a local architect named Tabachnik, was home to 500 orphan boys.
A long, dirt track separated Givat Shaul from a cluster of Arab villages, including Deir Yassin, with whom the Jews maintained good relations. In late 1946, the Haganah straightened and paved the dirt track in order to use it as a landing strip. During the Battle for Jerusalem in 1948, the Haganah flew in supplies, armaments, food, and troops on this runway. After the war, this road became known as Kanfei Nesharim Street.
In January 1948, the leaders of Givat Shaul met with the mukhtar of Deir Yassin to work out a non-aggression pact: if armed militia entered Deir Yassin, the villagers would hang out laundry in a certain sequence or place lanterns in a particular location. In return, patrols from Givat Shaul guaranteed safe passage to Deir Yassin residents, in vehicles or on foot, passing through their neighborhood on the way to Jerusalem. Over time, Deir Yassin became a halfway site for Arab forces moving from Ein Karem and Malha to al-Qastal and Kolonia, which overlooked the Jerusalem-Tel Aviv highway.
On 9 April 1948, Deir Yassin was attacked by Irgun and Lehi forces and between 100 and 110 villagers were killed during the fights or massacred afterward. The population that had not fled was expelled. The rumours about this massacre also contributed to the trigger of the 1948 Palestinian exodus.
In 1951, the abandoned buildings were used to house a therapeutic community of 300 patients called the Kfar Shaul Government Work Village for Mental Patients. The majority of patients were Holocaust survivors.
After 1948, the Givat Shaul industrial zone expanded with factories and warehouses. Angel's Bakery moved to its present location here in 1958. The Angel brothers and co-CEOs Avraham, Ovadia, and Danny, commissioned a Texas company to construct a 750-foot pipeline to convey flour directly from the mill to the silo to the bakery. Today this pipeline brings 120 tons of flour to the bakery daily. The invention, initially opposed by the Jerusalem municipality for being above-ground, won the Kaplan Prize for distinction in productivity and efficiency. The bakery's landmark factory store opened in 1984.
Berman's Bakery, founded in 1875 by Mrs. Kreshe Berman as a cottage industry in the Old City, moved to its present location down the road from Angel's in 1965. A new street, Beit Hadfus Street, was constructed to reach the new bakery. This new street was named "Street of the Printing Press" for the many printing establishments also located here. These include two large book publishing houses, Keter Publishing House (established in 1958) and Feldheim Publishers, which established its Israel branch in the 1960s. Old City Press has operated here since 1969.
Since the late 1980s, aging industrial plants have been replaced by housing projects in Givat Shaul Bet.
The population consists of a mix of Haredi and Religious Zionist Jews. The northernmost part of the neighborhood, directly above Highway 1, is mostly Haredi, while residents of the southern part, bordering Kiryat Moshe, are mostly Modern Orthodox Religious Zionists.
The northern part of Givat Shaul is populated mainly by Haredim, and the main street is closed to traffic on Shabbat and Jewish holidays. Several major synagogues are located here, including the Pressburg Yeshiva and neighborhood synagogue, and the Zupnik - Ner Yisroel synagogue, and the ivy Yeshiva, Ner Moshe, headed by Rabbi Avraham Gurewitz and Rabbi Shalom Shechter. The population consists of a mix of Hasidic, Litvishe and Sephardi/Mizrahi Haredim, and a small minority of National-Religious Jews. The rabbi of the Zupnik - Ner Yisroel synagogue is Avrohom Yitzchok Ulman, a senior member of the rabbinical high court, or Badatz, of the Edah HaChareidis. Other important rabbis living in Givat Shaul are Rabbi Yehoshua Karlinsky, rabbi of the Beer Avrohom synagogue; Rabbi Tennenbaum, rabbi of the Babad synagogue and Rabbi Shmuel Taussig, Admor of Toldos Shmuel.
In the southern part of Givat Shaul, the population predominantly consists of Modern Orthodox Jews, affiliating with Religious Zionism. This section borders Kiryat Moshe and is often also referred to as such. Institutions in this area include the main synagogue of Rabbi Mordechai Eliyahu, a major center of Sephardic Religious Zionism, as well as the primarily Ashkenazi national-religious flagship Mercaz HaRav yeshiva.
The Givat Shaul industrial zone, sometimes referred to as Givat Shaul Bet, is situated on two parallel streets, Kanfei Nesharim and Beit Hadfus. While Kanfei Nesharim Street has developed into a modern shopping area with many chain stores and stylish office buildings, Beit Hadfus Street remains largely industrial with discount stores and outlets that attract bargain shoppers.
In recent years, low-cost wedding halls servicing the religious population of Jerusalem have opened in several office and industrial buildings on Beit Hadfus Street. Some of these are subsidized by major charity organizations to keep expenses down for low-income families. The Armonot Wolf (Wolf Palaces) wedding halls are affiliated with the Yad Eliezer charity organization, which subsidizes weddings for orphans here through its Adopt-a-Wedding campaign. The Gutnick Halls, funded by Australian philanthropist Joseph Gutnick and managed by Chabad, provide subsidized weddings for 440 needy couples annually through the Colel Chabad charity fund. The Lechaim halls, located into the same industrial complex as Armonot Wolf, are also cheaper than wedding halls in other parts of the city.
Government offices include the Ministry of Environmental Protection, the National Authority of Religious Services, the State Comptroller and Ombudsman, the Israel Securities Authority, the Income Tax Commission, the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics, and the National Parks Authority.
On the northwestern ridge of the neighborhood lies Har HaMenuchot, Jerusalem's largest cemetery. Between the northern section of Givat Shaul and the cemetery is another commercial zone consisting of several large stores and office buildings. The Herzog psychiatric hospital, Egged's bus maintenance facility, and the main depot for the Jerusalem municipality's sanitation services are also located here.
Media related to Givat Shaul at Wikimedia CommonsAlex Auswaks
Alex Auswaks was a Jerusalem-based writer of crime fiction. He was born in Tientsin, China on 6 February 1934. Though his work is primarily in shorter crime fiction, his novel "A Trick of Diamonds" was featured by Collins Crime Club in 1981. The book was shortlisted that year for the 'British Crime Writers Association 'John Creasy Award' in the 'Debut Dagger' category.
From 1990 to 1995, Auswaks edited and wrote for the publication of the 'Tientsin Society', for the community of Russian-exiled Jews who lived in that Chinese city during the Second World War.
Between 1989 and 1995, Auswaks contributed a weekly column reviewing crime fiction to the Jerusalem Post
His articles on the Russian poet Osip Mandelstam and on the Israeli detective-fiction writer Batya Gur appear in Jewish Writers of the Twentieth Century (Routledge 2003).
He died in Jerusalem on 7 April 2013, and is buried in Givat Shaul Cemetery.Avrohom Yitzchok Ulman
Rabbi Avruhum Yitzchok Ulman (also Ullman or Olman) (Hebrew: אברהם יצחק אולמן) is a senior Haredi rabbi living in Jerusalem.
He was born in Hungary and immigrated to Israel as a child. He serves on the Beis Din (court of Jewish law), also known as the Badatz, of the Edah HaChareidis, Jerusalem's council of Haredi communities. He also presides over his own Beis Din, which deals mainly with financial matters. He is known as an expert in Choshen Mishpat (Jewish law on financial/property law matters). He is a respected Haredi leader, often officiating at public gatherings of Haredi Jews in Jerusalem.
Rabbi Ulman is a member of the Dushinsky Hasidic movement. He was the closest talmid ("disciple") of the previous Rebbe of Dushinsky, Rabbi Yisroel Moshe Dushinsky, and was present when the latter died, leading the massive prayer and funeral services that followed.He has endorsed and signed numerous declarations and works against Zionism in general and against the practices of the state of Israel.He lives in the Jerusalem neighborhood of Givat Shaul, where he is the rabbi of the largest synagogue of the neighborhood, called Ner Yisroel, more commonly known as "Zupnik", and of the section of the neighborhood surrounding it. Rabbi Ulman became leader of the community upon its foundation, about 30 years ago.
Ulman was one of the main speakers at a major protest rally against the growing influence of nationalistic (Zionist) thought and philosophies in the Haredi world, held on Sunday, 24 February 2008 in Yeshivas Meah Shearim.In festive gatherings in Dushinsky, Ulman usually sits next to the Rebbe.Beit Hadfus Street
Beit Hadfus Street (Hebrew: רחוב בית הדפוס, Rehov Beit Hadfus, lit. "Street of the Printing Press"), also spelled Beit Hadefus, is an east-west street in the Givat Shaul industrial zone in western Jerusalem.Berman's Bakery
Berman's Bakery (Hebrew: מאפית ברמן Mafiat Berman) is the oldest commercial bakery in Israel and the second-largest after Angel Bakeries. Founded in 1875 by Kreshe Berman as a cottage industry in Jerusalem's Old City, the family business was the first to open a Jewish store outside the Old City walls and first to build a flour mill in Israel.
Berman's Bakery moved to the Mea Shearim neighbourhood of Jerusalem in the late nineteenth century, where it operated as the country's largest through two world wars and the Israeli War of Independence. In 1965 it moved to its present location in the Givat Shaul neighborhood. Here it employs over 400 workers and services 2,000 stores, supermarkets and institutions countrywide.In 2007 the company was purchased by the Mishkei Harei Yehuda agricultural cooperative. At that time it reported revenues of ₪300 million annually.Deir Yassin
Deir Yassin (Arabic: دير ياسين, Dayr Yāsīn) was a Palestinian Arab village of around 600 inhabitants about 5 kilometers (3.1 mi) west of Jerusalem. Deir Yassin declared its neutrality during the 1948 Palestine war between Arabs and Jews. The village was razed after a massacre of around 107 of its residents on April 9, 1948, by the Jewish paramilitary groups Irgun and Lehi. The village buildings are today part of the Kfar Shaul Mental Health Center, an Israeli public psychiatric hospital.Deir Yassin massacre
The Deir Yassin massacre took place on April 9, 1948, when around 120 fighters from the Zionist paramilitary groups Irgun and Lehi killed hundreds of Palestinian Arabs in Deir Yassin, a village of roughly 600 people near Jerusalem. The assault occurred as Jewish militia sought to relieve the blockade of Jerusalem during the civil war that preceded the end of British rule in Palestine.
According to Irgun sources, the village guards felt surprised by "the Jews" entering their village at night and opened fire on the Irgun force. The village fell after fierce house-to-house fighting. During and after the battle for the village, at least 107 Palestinians were killed, including women and children—some were shot, while others died when hand grenades were thrown into their homes. Despite an original boast by the victors that 254 had been killed, Aref al-Aref counted 117 victims, seven in combat and the rest in their homes. According to a count conducted by International Red Cross representative Jacques de Reynier, apart from bodies left lying in the streets, 150 corpses were found in one cistern alone, among them people who had been either decapitated or disemboweled. Israeli historian Benny Morris wrote that there were also cases of mutilation and rape. Several villagers were taken prisoner and may have been killed after being paraded through the streets of West Jerusalem. Four of the attackers were killed, with around 35 injured.The killings were condemned by the leadership of the Haganah—the Jewish community's main paramilitary force—and by the area's two chief rabbis. The Jewish Agency for Israel sent Jordan's King Abdullah a letter of apology, which he rebuffed. Abdullah held the Jewish Agency responsible for the massacre because they were the head of Jewish affairs in Palestine, and warned about "terrible consequences" if more incidents like that occurred.The deaths became a pivotal event in the Arab–Israeli conflict for their demographic and military consequences. The narrative was embellished and used by various parties to attack each other—by the Palestinians against Israel; by the Haganah to play down their own role in the affair; and by the Israeli left to accuse the Irgun and Lehi of blackening Israel's name by violating the Jewish principle of purity of arms. News of the killings sparked terror among Palestinians, encouraging them to flee from their towns and villages in the face of Jewish troop advances and it strengthened the resolve of Arab governments to intervene, which they did five weeks later. Four days after the Deir Yassin massacre, on April 13, a revenge attack on the Hadassah medical convoy in Jerusalem ended in a massacre killing 78 Jews, most of whom were medical staff.Har HaMenuchot
Har HaMenuchot (Hebrew: הר המנוחות, Ashkenazi pronunciation, Har HaMenuchos, lit. "Mount of Those who are Resting", also known as Givat Shaul Cemetery) is the largest cemetery in Jerusalem, Israel. The hilltop burial ground lies at the western edge of the city adjacent to the neighborhood of Givat Shaul, with commanding views of Mevaseret Zion to the north, Motza to the west, and Har Nof to the south. Opened in 1951 on 300 dunams (0.30 km2; 0.12 sq mi) of land, it has continually expanded into new sections on the northern and western slopes of the hill. As of 2008, the cemetery encompasses 580 dunams (0.58 km2; 0.22 sq mi) in which over 150,000 people are buried.Highway 50 (Israel/Palestine)
Highway 50, officially called Begin Boulevard (Hebrew: שדרות בגין, Sderot Begin) and also referred to as Menachem Begin Expressway or Begin Highway, is an urban freeway in western Jerusalem named after Israel's sixth Prime Minister, Menachem Begin. Local Jerusalemites simply refer to it as 'Begin' (pron. IPA 'be-gin). It continues into the Palestinian territories.Israel Central Bureau of Statistics
The Israel Central Bureau of Statistics (Hebrew: הלשכה המרכזית לסטטיסטיקה, HaLishka HaMerkazit LiStatistika), abbreviated CBS, is an Israeli government office established in 1949 to carry out research and publish statistical data on all aspects of Israeli life, including population, society, economy, industry, education, and physical infrastructure.The CBS is headquartered in the Givat Shaul neighborhood of Jerusalem, with another branch in Tel Aviv.Jerusalem Forest
The Jerusalem Forest is a municipal pine forest located in the Judean Mountains in the outskirts of Jerusalem. It is surrounded by the neighborhoods of Beit HaKerem, Yefe Nof, Ein Kerem, Har Nof and Givat Shaul, and a moshav, Beit Zeit. The forest was planted during the 1950s by the Jewish National Fund, financed by private donors.Kanfei Nesharim Street
Kanfei Nesharim Street (Hebrew: רחוב כנפי נשרים, literally, "Wings of Eagles Street") is a major east-west thoroughfare in the Givat Shaul neighborhood of western Jerusalem. Unlike most Jerusalem streets, Kanfei Nesharim is a wide thoroughfare with two traffic lanes in each direction, separated by a median, and spans 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) in a straight line. It connects the neighborhood of Kiryat Moshe on the east to Har Nof on the west, and includes the modern commercial strip of office buildings, stores and restaurants in what is termed Givat Shaul Bet.Kfar Shaul Mental Health Center
Kfar Shaul Mental Health Center (Hebrew: בית החולים כפר שאול), established in 1951, is an Israeli public psychiatric hospital located between Givat Shaul and Har Nof, Jerusalem. It is affiliated with the Hadassah Medical Center and the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. The hospital is Jerusalem's designated psychiatric hospital for tourists who display mental health disturbances, and is widely known for its research on Jerusalem Syndrome.The hospital is located on the grounds of the former Palestinian village of Deir Yassin, and makes use of buildings that remained intact after the massacre of Deir Yassin that occurred during the 1948 Palestine War.Kiryat Moshe
Kiryat Moshe (Hebrew: קריית משה) is a neighborhood in Jerusalem, Israel named for the British Jewish philanthropist Moses Montefiore. Kiryat Moshe is bordered by Givat Shaul.List of Egged buses in Jerusalem
Egged buses in Jerusalem refers to public buses run by the Egged company in Jerusalem, Israel.Machon Meir
Machon Meir (Hebrew: מכון מאיר) is a religious Zionist outreach organization and yeshiva situated in the Jerusalem neighborhood of Kiryat Moshe, close to Givat Shaul. Machon Meir is one of the larger outreach organization in Israel, and is strongly associated with nationalist politics and the settler movement.Pressburg Yeshiva (Jerusalem)
Pressburg Yeshiva of Jerusalem (Hebrew: ישיבת פרשבורג) is a leading yeshiva located in the Givat Shaul neighborhood of Jerusalem. It was founded in 1950 by Rabbi Akiva Sofer (known as the Daas Sofer), a great-grandson of Rabbi Moses Sofer (the Chasam Sofer), who established the original Pressburg Yeshiva in the Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1807. As of 2009, the rosh yeshiva is Rabbi Simcha Bunim Sofer.
The yeshiva building includes a yeshiva ketana, yeshiva gedola, and kollel.
The main beis medrash doubles as a synagogue where some neighborhood residents also pray on Shabbat. The complex also includes a general neighborhood synagogue which functions as Givat Shaul's main nusach Ashkenaz synagogue.Royal Palace, Tell el-Ful
Royal Palace at Tell el-ful is an abandoned structure near Beit Hanina, atop a hill known as Tell el-Ful (Hill of Beans, Hebrew: גבעת שאול, Givat Shaul, lit. Hill of Saul).Tal Institute
The Tal Institute (Hebrew: מכון טל, Makhon Tal), founded in 1999, is the main women's division of the Jerusalem College of Technology. It is located in the Givat Shaul neighborhood of Jerusalem. Over 320 students from Israel and around the world study there.
The uniqueness of the Machon Tal is that it combines engineering and/or management studies with the study of Torah. It is also the only religious school in Israel to offer an academic degree in Nursing. The academic studies are offered at a university level, with full recognition from the Council for Higher Education in Israel. The students come from a broad range of religious backgrounds in Israel and the Diaspora. Due to the large number of olim, the Tal Institute also has a New Olim Department. The department assists the new immigrants in various ways from tutoring in difficult subjects to extra time on tests.Yad Eliezer
Yad Eliezer (Hebrew: אגודת יד אליעזר, "Yad Eliezer Association") is a Jewish poverty-relief organization in Israel. It is best known for its monthly distribution of thousands of family food packages, baby formula and baby food packages. It also provides a range of financial and rehabilitative support services, including the mentoring of boys from single-parent families and free or low-cost weddings at its wedding complex in Givat Shaul, Jerusalem. Founded as a small, neighborhood chesed organization, it is now one of the largest poverty-relief organizations in Israel, with over 12,000 volunteers. Led by Orthodox Jewish management, it provides services for both religious and secular families in Israel.
Neighborhoods of Jerusalem