Giuseppe D'Amato

Giuseppe D’Amato is an Italian historian, specializing in Russia and the former USSR, and a columnist of international politics.


After getting a decree in Italy in the nineteen eighties, D'Amato became a scholar of the Russian academician Sigurd Ottovich Schmidt (in Russian Шмидт, Сигурд Оттович) at Moscow’s Historical-Archive Institute (Russian State University for the Humanities) in the nineteen Nineties. He got a Ph.D. in history.


D’Amato wrote a book about Italian travellers to Russia in the 15th -16th centuries and studied Russian-Italian relationships. Some of his articles have been published in languages other than Italian.[1][2][3] He wrote three books respectively on the subjects of the break-up of USSR, the EU enlargement to the East, and euro-integration.

Selected bibliography

  • Сочинения итальянцев о России XV – XVI конца веков, Москва 1995. (Italian reports on Russia 15th -16th centuries) Book in Russian.[4]
  • Review Foreign descriptions of Muscovy. An Analytic Bibliography of Primary and Secondary Sources by Marshall Poe in «Slavic Review» Vol. 56, No. 3, Autumn 1997, pp. 566 – 567.[5]
  • Il Diario del Cambiamento. Urss 1990 – Russia 1993. Greco&Greco editori, Milano, 1998. (The Diary of the Change. USSR 1990 – Russia 1993) Book in Italian.
  • Viaggio nell’Hansa baltica. L’Unione europea e l’allargamento ad Est. Greco&Greco editori, Milano, 2004. (Travel to the Baltic Hansa. The European Union and its enlargement to the East) Book in Italian.[6]
  • L’EuroSogno e i nuovi Muri ad Est. L’Unione europea e la dimensione orientale. Greco&Greco editori, Milano, 2008. (The EuroDream and the new Walls at East. The European Union and the Eastern dimension) Book in Italian.[7]
  • The new Europe in the midst of separations, reconciliations, and new unions, in «2015 Scientific Economic Magazine», No.1 issue 1, edizioni Palager, Bergamo, 2009.


  1. ^ Битва Николаевки 1943 – 2003 г. EuropaRussia, 2009 г.
  2. ^ Ледяной ад Рады Газета Тамбовское время, Тамбов 2003 г., EuropaRussia, 2009 г.
  3. ^ Katyń. Andrzej Wajda. The defeat of the silence. EuropaRussia, March 24th, 2008
  4. ^ Italian reports EuropaRussia
  5. ^ Slavic Review Volume 56 3:566
  6. ^ Travel Hansa EuropaRussia.
  7. ^ EuroDream and new Walls EuropaRussia.

External links

2012 Vintage Yachting Games – 5.5 Metre

The 5.5 Metre was an event on the 2012 Vintage Yachting Games program at Lake Como, Italy. Five out of the nine scheduled race were entered. 45 sailors, on 15 boats, from 7 nations entered.

Autonomous Republic of Crimea

The Autonomous Republic of Crimea (Ukrainian: Автономна Республіка Крим, Avtonomna Respublika Krym; Russian: Автономная Республика Крым, Avtonomnaya Respublika Krym; Crimean Tatar: Qırım Muhtar Cumhuriyeti, Къырым Мухтар Джумхуриети, Ҡырым Мухтар Җумхуриети; Romanian: Republica Autonomă Crimeea) is, de jure, an autonomous republic of Ukraine, encompassing most of Crimea, though it was unilaterally annexed by Russia in 2014. While the territory is now, de facto, a federal subject of Russia called the Republic of Crimea, Ukraine’s continuing claim is supported by most foreign governments and United Nations General Assembly Resolution 68/262.Crimea had previously been under Russian control from 1783 until 1954 (except for short periods during political upheavals and wars), when it was transferred, within the USSR, to the Ukrainian SSR. Later, following a referendum on 20 January 1991, it was upgraded to the status of an autonomous republic within the Ukrainian SSR. When the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991 and Ukraine became an independent country, Crimea remained part of the newly independent Ukraine.

However, in February 2014, following the 2014 Ukrainian revolution that ousted the Ukrainian President, Viktor Yanukovych, pro-Russian separatists and Russian Armed Forces took over the territory. A controversial Crimea-wide referendum, unconstitutional under the Ukrainian and Crimean constitutions, was held on the issue of reunification with Russia which official results indicated was supported by a large majority of Crimeans. Russia then formally annexed Crimea on 18 March 2014, incorporating the Republic of Crimea and the federal city of Sevastopol as the 84th and 85th federal subjects of Russia.

Enlargement of the European Union

The European Union (EU) has expanded a number of times throughout its history by way of the accession of new member states to the Union. To join the EU, a state needs to fulfil economic and political conditions called the Copenhagen criteria (after the Copenhagen summit in June 1993), which require a stable democratic government that respects the rule of law, and its corresponding freedoms and institutions. According to the Maastricht Treaty, each current member state and the European Parliament must agree to any enlargement. The process of enlargement is sometimes referred to as European integration. This term is also used to refer to the intensification of co-operation between EU member states as national governments allow for the gradual harmonisation of national laws.

The EU's predecessor, the European Economic Community, was founded with the Inner Six member states in 1958, when the Treaty of Rome came into force. Since then, the EU's membership has grown to twenty-eight, with the latest member state being Croatia, which joined in July 2013. The most recent territorial enlargement of the EU was the incorporation of Mayotte in 2014. The most notable territorial reductions of the EU, and its predecessors, were the exit of Algeria upon independence in 1962 and the exit of Greenland in 1985.

As of 2018, accession negotiations are under way with Serbia (since 2014), Montenegro (since 2012) and Turkey (since 2005). Serbia and Montenegro have been described by President of the European Commission Jean-Claude Juncker and Enlargement commissioner Johannes Hahn as the front-runner candidates, and projected that they would join by 2025, during the next mandate of the European Commission. Negotiations with Turkey have also been ongoing at a slower pace, particularly since the 2016 Turkish coup d'état attempt due to objections from the EU to the Turkish government's response. Additionally, the United Kingdom is negotiating its withdrawal from the EU, following a referendum in which a majority voted in favour of leaving the EU.


Estonia (Estonian: Eesti [ˈeːsʲti] (listen)), officially the Republic of Estonia (Estonian: Eesti Vabariik), is a country in Northern Europe. It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland with Finland on the other side, to the west by the Baltic Sea with Sweden on the other side, to the south by Latvia (343 km), and to the east by Lake Peipus and Russia (338.6 km). The territory of Estonia consists of a mainland and 2,222 islands in the Baltic Sea, covering a total area of 45,227 km2 (17,462 sq mi), water 2,839 km2 (1,096 sq mi), land area 42,388 km2 (16,366 sq mi), and is influenced by a humid continental climate. The official language of the country, Estonian, is the second most spoken Finnic language.

The territory of Estonia has been inhabited since at least 9,000 B.C. Ancient Estonians were some of the last European pagans to be Christianized, following the Livonian Crusade in the 13th century. After centuries of successive rule by Germans, Danes, Swedes, Poles and Russians, a distinct Estonian national identity began to emerge in the 19th and early 20th centuries. This culminated in independence from Russia in 1920 after a brief War of Independence at the end of World War I. Initially democratic, after the Great Depression Estonia was governed by authoritarian rule since 1934 during the Era of Silence. During World War II (1939–1945), Estonia was repeatedly contested and occupied by the Soviet Union and Germany, ultimately being incorporated into the former as the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic. After the loss of its de facto independence, Estonia's de jure state continuity was preserved by diplomatic representatives and the government-in-exile. In 1987 the peaceful Singing Revolution began against Soviet rule, resulting in the restoration of de facto independence on 20 August 1991.

The sovereign state of Estonia is a democratic unitary parliamentary republic divided into fifteen counties. Its capital and largest city is Tallinn. With a population of 1.3 million, it is one of the least-populous member states of the European Union since joining in 2004, the economic monetary Eurozone, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Schengen Area, and of the Western military alliance of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). It is a developed country with an advanced, high-income economy that has been among the fastest-growing in the EU. Estonia ranks very high in the Human Development Index, and performs favourably in measurements of economic freedom, civil liberties, education, and press freedom (third in the world in 2012 and 2007). Estonian citizens are provided with universal health care, free education, and the longest-paid maternity leave in the OECD. One of the world's most digitally advanced societies, in 2005 Estonia became the first state to hold elections over the Internet, and in 2014 the first state to provide e-residency.

Gianfranco Parolini

Gianfranco Parolini (20 February 1925 in Rome, Italy – 26 April 2018 in Rome, Italy) was an Italian film director. He is often credited as Frank Kramer. Among his films are The Sabata Trilogy, several sword and sandal films, most of the Kommissar X films and a number of Spaghetti Westerns.

He claimed to have written over 100 thriller novels before becoming an assistant to Giuseppe D'Amato.

Orange Revolution

The Orange Revolution (Ukrainian: Помаранчева революція, Pomarancheva revolyutsiya) was a series of protests and political events that took place in Ukraine from late November 2004 to January 2005, in the immediate aftermath of the run-off vote of the 2004 Ukrainian presidential election, which was claimed to be marred by massive corruption, voter intimidation and direct electoral fraud. Kiev, the Ukrainian capital, was the focal point of the movement's campaign of civil resistance, with thousands of protesters demonstrating daily. Nationwide, the democratic revolution was highlighted by a series of acts of civil disobedience, sit-ins, and general strikes organized by the opposition movement.

The protests were prompted by reports from several domestic and foreign election monitors as well as the widespread public perception that the results of the run-off vote of 21 November 2004 between leading candidates Viktor Yushchenko and Viktor Yanukovych were rigged by the authorities in favour of the latter. The nationwide protests succeeded when the results of the original run-off were annulled, and a revote was ordered by Ukraine's Supreme Court for 26 December 2004. Under intense scrutiny by domestic and international observers, the second run-off was declared to be "fair and free". The final results showed a clear victory for Yushchenko, who received about 52% of the vote, compared to Yanukovych's 44%. Yushchenko was declared the official winner and with his inauguration on 23 January 2005 in Kiev, the Orange Revolution ended.

In the following years, the Orange Revolution had a negative connotation among pro-government circles in Belarus and Russia.In the 2010 presidential election, Yanukovych became Yushchenko's successor as Ukrainian President after the Central Election Commission and international observers declared that the presidential election was conducted fairly. Yanukovych was ousted from power four years later following the February 2014 Euromaidan clashes in Kiev's Independence Square. Unlike the bloodless Orange Revolution, these protests resulted in more than 100 deaths, occurring mostly between 18 and 20 February 2014.

Saint Petersburg

Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, tr. Sankt-Peterburg, IPA: [ˈsankt pʲɪtʲɪrˈburk] (listen)) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015). An important Russian port on the Baltic Sea, it has a status of a federal subject (a federal city).

Situated on the Neva River, at the head of the Gulf of Finland on the Baltic Sea, it was founded by Tsar Peter the Great on 27 May [O.S. 16 May] 1703. On 1 September 1914, the name was changed from Saint Petersburg to Petrograd (Russian: Петрогра́д, IPA: [pʲɪtrɐˈgrat]), on 26 January 1924 to Leningrad (Russian: Ленингра́д, IPA: [lʲɪnʲɪnˈgrat]), and on 1 October 1991 back to its original name. During the periods 1713–1728 and 1732–1918, Saint Petersburg was the capital of Imperial Russia. In 1918, the central government bodies moved to Moscow, which is about 625 km (388 miles) to the south-east.

Saint Petersburg is one of the most modern cities of Russia, as well as its cultural capital. The Historic Centre of Saint Petersburg and Related Groups of Monuments constitute a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Saint Petersburg is home to the Hermitage, one of the largest art museums in the world. Many foreign consulates, international corporations, banks and businesses have offices in Saint Petersburg.

Santissima Annunziata Maggiore, Naples

The Santissima Annunziata Maggiore is a basilica church located in the quartieri Pendino near Forcella, in the historic center of Naples, Italy.

Sigurd Ottovich Schmidt

Sigurd Ottovich Schmidt (Russian Сигурд Оттович Шмидт) (15 May 1922 – 22 May 2013) was a Russian historian, ethnographer and teacher.

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