Giuseppe Bottai as Minister of Education, 1937
|Minister of National Education|
15 November 1936 – 5 February 1943
|Prime Minister||Benito Mussolini|
|Preceded by||Cesare Maria De Vecchi|
|Succeeded by||Carlo Alberto Biggini|
|Governor of Addis Ababa|
5 May 1936 – 27 May 1936
|Monarch||Victor Emmanuel III|
|Preceded by||Office created|
|Succeeded by||Alfredo Siniscalchi|
|Governor of Rome|
23 January 1935 – 15 November 1936
|Preceded by||Francesco Boncompagni Ludovisi|
|Succeeded by||Piero Colonna|
|Member of the Chamber of Fasci and Corporations|
20 April 1929 – 5 August 1943
|Born||3 September 1895|
|Died||9 January 1959 (aged 63)|
|Political party||Italian Fasci of Combat|
National Fascist Party
|Alma mater||Sapienza University of Rome|
|Allegiance|| Kingdom of Italy|
|Branch/service|| Royal Italian Army|
French Foreign Legion
|Years of service||1915–1917; 1935–1936; 1943–1948|
|Unit||1st Cavalry Regiment (France)|
Born in Rome, Giuseppe was son of Luigi, a wine dealer with republican sympathies, and Elena Cortesia. He was graduated at Liceo Torquato Tasso, and attended to the Sapienza University of Rome until the 1915, when Italy declared war to the Central Powers: in the same year he left his studies to enlist himself in the Italian Royal Army. Wounded in battle, he obtained a Medal of Military Valor after the World War I.
In 1919, Bottai met Benito Mussolini during a Futurist meeting, and contributed to establish the Fasci Italiani di Combattimento ("Italian Fasci of Combat"). In 1921, Bottai ended his studies at law faculty and became a freemason, member of the Gran Loggia d'Italia. At the same time he also started a journalist career in the Il Popolo d'Italia, newspaper of the recently-founded National Fascist Party. During the March on Rome, Bottai was along with Ulisse Igliori and Gino Calza-Bini, the head of the Roman squadrismo, supporting Blackshirts' political violence.
After 1921 election, Bottai was elected in the Chamber of Deputies for the National Blocs, but was removed for his young age. He returned to the Chamber in 1924, maintaining the office until 1943. In 1923, he became leader of the intransigent, national syndicalist and revolutionary faction of the Fascism. To support his ideas, Bottai founded Critica fascista ("Fascist Critic"), a cultural periodical, co-operating with other left-leaning fascists like Filippo De Pisis, Renato Guttuso and Mario Mafai. Bottai worked to the Ministry of Corporations, introducing the Labour Charter and planning a "Corporative Academic Pole" in Pisa, from 1926 to 1932, when he was excluded by Mussolini from the Ministry. In 1933, Bottai established and chaired the National Institute of the Social Security (Italian: Istituto nazionale della previdenza sociale, INPS). After, he was appointed Fascist Governor of Rome (1935–1936) but resigned to fight in the Second Italo-Ethiopian War with the rank of major. In 5 May 1936, Bottai and Pietro Badoglio entered in Addis Abeba, and Bottai was appointed as City Governor. After the war, Bottai returned in Rome to be Education Minister. During his ministry, Bottai proclaimed a law (the so-called "Bottai Law") on safeguarding public and cultural heritage and the preservation of natural beauties . He also co-worked with art critics Giulio Carlo Argan and Cesare Brandi to improve the Italian cultural life.
In the late 1930s, Bottai became more radical and a Germanophile. In 1938 he expressed support to Radical Laws against the Italian Jews and in 1940 he founded Primato ("Record"), a magazine that supported the Aryan race's supremacy and war interventionism. Bottai thought that the "Fascist Revolution" was incomplete, and that what was needed was a return to the original, "pure" fascism.
For him--given his historical political stance and ideas in the early days of the movement--this would have been ideologically to the left of the Nationalist "right fascist" faction (the controlling faction within the Fascist regime known for its conservative social-economic thinking). The notion of "revolutionary" for Bottai, then, was more a measure of radical political dynamism--a fascism in action so to speak-- as well as political purity for it should be understood that the original fascists had at one time been an autonomous movement with little for the most part to do with the radical right (the Nationalists). And yet the state heavy, technocratic, and managerial exigencies that this very much pragmatic ex-syndicalist supported did much to dilute original fascism's foundational syndicalism, which put him to the right of--or a moderate representative within--original "ideological fascism." The "first fascism" it should be remembered was anti-party, anti-clerical, republican (anti-monarchist), anti-parliamentarian, Jacobin, "Third Way" (neither "international socialist" nor "plutocratic capitalist", neither Marxist/left-wing nor right-wing/bourgeois capitalist)...but representative of a new paradigm that fused the national and social threads. It came from the Left making it appropriate to classify it as a (if not formally the first) national Left, a new kind of socialism, a national socialism. The ideological, doctrinal core of fascism in its movement phase--that is, from the time of San Sepolcro in 1919 to about 1923-24--was known as "national syndicalism". It was a socially radical, pro-worker, and deeply anti-bourgeois doctrine elaborated by "national"-turned Sorelian "revolutionary syndicalists" like the theorist Sergio Panunzio and Edmondo Rossoni, the prominent Fascist labor leader.
However, the Italian intervention in World War II resulted in disaster. The Campaign on the Eastern Front caused the death or dispersion of approximately 77,000 soldiers, with more than 39,000 injured. Bottai voted for Mussolini's arrest proposed by Dino Grandi on 25 July 1943, when Italy's defeat became evident. In 1944, the Italian Social Republic condemned Bottai to death, during the Verona trial, but Bottai was hiding in a Roman convent.
In 1944, Bottai enlisted in the French Foreign Legion, with the pseudodyn Andrea Battaglia. He fought in Provence during the Operation Dragoon and then in the Western Allied invasion of Germany. At the war's end, Bottai remained in France, and continued to serve in Foreign Legion until 1948, when he was discharged. For his role in the final stages of World War II, he got an amnesty for his role in Fascism.
Returned in Italy in 1953, Bottai founded the periodical ABC (not to be confused with the same-name magazine) and Il Popolo di Roma, financed by ex-fascist Vittorio Cini, who supported centrist and conservative views. He died in Rome in 1959. At his funeral participated also Aldo Moro, like his father was a Bottai's friend and assistant during his career.
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Carlo Costamagna (born 21 September 1881 in Quiliano – died 1 March 1965 in Pietra Ligure) was an Italian lawyer and academic noted as a theorist of corporatism. He worked closely with Benito Mussolini and his fascist movement.Crypto-fascism
Crypto-fascism is the secret support for, or admiration of, fascism. The term is used to imply that an individual or group keeps this support or admiration hidden to avoid political persecution or political suicide. The common usage is "crypto-fascist", one who practices this support.Fascio
Fascio (pronounced [ˈfaʃʃo]; plural fasci) is an Italian word literally meaning "a bundle" or "a sheaf", and figuratively "league", and which was used in the late 19th century to refer to political groups of many different (and sometimes opposing) orientations. A number of nationalist fasci later evolved into the 20th century Fasci movement, which became known as fascism.Fascist mysticism
Fascist mysticism (Italian: Mistica fascista) was a current of political and religious thought in Fascist Italy, based on Fideism, a belief that faith existed without reason, and that Fascism should be based on a mythology and spiritual mysticism. A School of Fascist Mysticism was founded in Milan on April 10, 1930 and active until 1943, and its main objective was the training of future Fascist leaders, indoctrinated in the study of various Fascist intellectuals who tried to abandon the purely political to create a spiritual understanding of Fascism. Fascist mysticism in Italy developed through the work of Niccolò Giani with the decisive support of Arnaldo Mussolini.Felice Chilanti
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This 'anarcho-Fascist' circle drew the attentions of philo-Nazi American poet Ezra Pound. Chilanti and his ally, Vittorio Ambrosini, mounted one of the most militant of all Left-Fascist projects when they attempted to eliminate the foreign minister Galeazzo Ciano, whom the plotters saw as a conservative brake on the regime. Chilanti was quickly arrested and sent into internal exile [confino]. Chilanti then adopted communist politics from his Croatian cellmates.
During the Italian Resistance Chilanti was co-editor of the dissident-communist newspaper Bandiera Rossa, organ of the Movimento Comunista d'Italia, an idiosyncratic force that Chilanti labelled 'the party of Stalin who fought for Bordiga'. After liberation Chilanti joined the Italian Communist Party. He later grew disillusioned and signed up to the extra-parliamentary Avanguardia Operaia. As a result of throat cancer Chilanti was unable to speak in his final years.
Chilanti wrote numerous novels of which many were of a semi-autobiographical bent.Giordano Bruno Guerri
Giordano Bruno Guerri (born 21 December 1950) is an Italian writer, journalist, and historian. He is an important scholar of twentieth-century Italy, in particular of the Fascist period and the relationship between Italians and the Catholic Church.Gioventù Fascista
Gioventù Fascista ("Fascist Youth") was a magazine designed for youth in Italy under Benito Mussolini's Fascist state. Its features included stories and cartoons praising the regime and inculcating the tenets of Fascism.
Most of the magazine covers feature the fasces, and sometimes other Roman imagery; the style of its illustrations was heavily influenced by art deco.
The paper was founded on 23 March 1931 (the 12th anniversary of the creation of the Fasci Italiani di Combattimento, the precursor of the National Fascist Party). Its first editor was Carlo Scorza, replaced by Achille Starace later in the first year of the magazine's existence. During its existence, Gioventù Fascista published contributions by notable Fascists, including Filippo Tommaso Marinetti, Italo Balbo, Giovanni Giuriati, and Giuseppe Bottai. It was no longer in print after December 1936.Grand Council of Fascism
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The Charter of Labour of 1927 (Italian: Carta del Lavoro) was one of the main pieces of legislation Benito Mussolini, the Italian Fascist dictator from 1922–43, introduced in his attempts to modernise the Italian economy. The Charter was promulgated by the Grand Council of Fascism and publicized in the Lavoro d'Italia newspaper on April 23, 1927. It was mainly designed by Giuseppe Bottai, Under-Secretary of State of Corporations.List of fascist movements by country
This is a list of political parties, organizations, and movements that have been claimed to follow some form of fascist ideology. Since definitions of fascism vary, entries in this list may be controversial. For a discussion of the various debates surrounding the nature of fascism, see fascism and ideology and definitions of fascism.
This list has been divided into four sections for reasons of length:
List of fascist movements by country A–F
List of fascist movements by country G–M
List of fascist movements by country N–T
List of fascist movements by country U–ZMussolini Cabinet
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The National Fascist Party of Argentina (Partido Nacional Fascista) was a fascist political party formed in 1923. In 1932, a group broke away from the party to form the Argentine Fascist Party, which eventually became a mass movement in the Córdoba region of Argentina.Piero Colonna
Piero Colonna (23 May 1891 – 24 August 1939) was an Italian politician. He was the son of Prospero Colonna di Paliano, who was twice mayor of Rome. He was born in Rome, Kingdom of Italy. He was the 5th fascist governor of Rome from 1936 to 1939. He died in office.Proletarian nation
Proletarian nation was a term used by 20th century Italian nationalist intellectuals such as Enrico Corradini and later adopted by Italian Fascist leader Benito Mussolini to refer to Italy and other poorer countries that were subordinate to the Western imperialist powers. These powers were described by Mussolini as "plutocratic nations" (nazioni plutocratiche). Corradini associated the proletariat with the economic function of production and believed that the producers should be at the forefront of a new imperialist proletarian nation. Mussolini considered that the military struggles unfolding in Europe in the mid-20th century could have revolutionary consequences that could lead to an improvement in the position of Italy in comparison with the major imperialist powers such as Britain.
Nazism rejected the Marxist concept of internationalist class struggle, it identified "class struggle between nations" and sought to resolve internal class struggle in the nation while it identified Germany as a proletarian nation fighting against plutocratic nations.Spazio vitale
Spazio vitale (Italian: [ˈspattsjo viˈtaːle], living space) was the territorial expansionist concept of Italian Fascism. It was defined in universal terms as "that part of the globe over which extends either the vital requirements or expansionary impetus of a state with strong unitary organization which seeks to satisfy its needs by expanding beyond its national boundaries". It was analogous to the German Nazi Party's concept of Lebensraum.The territorial extent of the Italian spazio vitale was to cover the Mediterranean as a whole (Mare Nostrum) and Northern Africa from the Atlantic Ocean to the Indian Ocean. It was to be divided into piccolo spazio ("small space"), which was to be inhabited only by Italians, and grande spazio ("large space") inhabited by other nations to be under the Italian sphere of influence. The nations in the grande spazio would be subjected to Italian rule and protection, but were to keep their own languages and cultures. Fascist ideologist Giuseppe Bottai likened this historic mission to the deeds of the ancient Romans, stating that the new Italians will "illuminate the world with their art, educate it with their knowledge, and give robust structure to their new territories with their administrative technique and ability".Tropical fascism
In African political science, tropical fascism is a type of post-colonial state which is either considered fascist or is seen to have strong fascist tendencies. Gnassingbé Eyadéma dictator of Togo and leader of the Rally of the Togolese People, Mobutu Sese Seko dictator of Zaire and leader of the Popular Movement of the Revolution and Idi Amin dictator of Uganda have all been considered an example of tropical fascism in Africa. The Coalition for the Defence of the Republic and larger Hutu Power movement, a Hutu ultranationalist and supremacist movement that organized and committed the Rwandan Genocide aimed at exterminating the Tutsi people of Rwanda, has been regarded as a prominent example of tropical fascism in Africa. Pol Pot and The Khmer Rouge regime in Cambodia has been called a tropical fascist regime, as they officially renounced communism in 1981.Young Egypt Party (1933)
The Young Egypt Party (Arabic: حزب مصر الفتاة, Misr El-Fatah) was an Egyptian political party.
Members of Mussolini Cabinet
|Head of government and duce of Fascism|
|Minister of the Air Force |
|Minister of Foreign Affairs|
|Minister of agriculture|
(abolished in 1923)
|Minister of Agriculture and Forestry |
|Minister of the Colonies|
(abolished in 1937)
|Minister of Italian Africa|
|Minister of Communications |
|Minister of Corporations |
|Ministry of People's Culture |
|Minister of the Interior|
|Minister of domestic economy|
|Minister of domestic education|
|Minister of Finance|
|Minister of Justice and Affairs of Religion|
|Minister of Industry and Commerce|
|Minister of Public Works|
|Minister of War|
|Minister of Labour and Social Security|
|Minister of Posts and Telegraphs|
|Minister of War Production|
(since 6 February 1943)
|Minister of Public Education|
|Minister of Trades and Currencies|
|Minister of Press and Propaganda|
|Minster of Freed Territories from enemies|
(abolished on 5 February 1923)
|Minister of Treasure |
(merged into Ministry of Finance on 31 December 1922)