Girona (/dʒɪˈroʊnə/, Catalan: [ʒiˈɾonə], Spanish: Gerona [xeˈɾona]) is a city in Catalonia, Spain, at the confluence of the rivers Ter, Onyar, Galligants, and Güell and has an official population of 100,266 in 2018. It is the capital of the province of the same name and of the comarca of the Gironès. It is located 99 km (62 mi) northeast of Barcelona. Girona is one of the major Catalan cities.
|• Mayor||Marta Madrenas (2016) (PDeCAT)|
|• Total||39.1 km2 (15.1 sq mi)|
|76 m (249 ft)|
|Area code(s)||+34 (E) + 972 (Gi)|
The first historical inhabitants in the region were Iberians; Girona is the ancient Gerunda, a city of the Ausetani. Later, the Romans built a citadel there, which was given the name of Gerunda. The Visigoths ruled in Girona until it was conquered by the Moors in 715. Finally, Charlemagne reconquered it in 785 and made it one of the fourteen original counties of Catalonia. It was wrested temporarily from the Moors, who recaptured it in 793. From this time until the Moors were finally driven out, 1015, the city repeatedly changed hands and was sacked several times by the Moors (in 827, 842, 845, 935, 982). Wilfred the Hairy incorporated Girona into the County of Barcelona in 878. Alfonso I of Aragon declared Girona a city in the 11th century. The ancient county later became a duchy (1351) when King Peter III of Aragon gave the title of Duke to his first-born son, John. In 1414, King Ferdinand I in turn gave the title of prince of Girona to his first-born son, Alfonso. The title is currently carried by Princess Leonor of Asturias, the second since the 16th century to do so.
The 12th century saw the Jewish community of Girona flourish, having one of the most important Kabbalistic schools in Europe. The Rabbi of Girona, Moshe ben Nahman Gerondi (better known as Nahmanides or Ramban) was appointed Great Rabbi of Catalonia. The presence of the Jewish community of Girona came to an end in 1492, when the Catholic Monarchs outlawed Judaism throughout Spain and Jews were given the choice of conversion or exile. Today, the Jewish quarter or Call is one of the best preserved in Europe and is a major tourist attraction. On the north side of the old city is the Montjuïc (or hill of the Jews in medieval Catalan), where an important religious cemetery was located.
Girona has undergone twenty-five sieges and been captured seven times. It was besieged by the French royal armies under Charles de Monchy d'Hocquincourt in 1653, under Bernardin Gigault de Bellefonds in 1684, and twice in 1694 under Anne Jules de Noailles. In May 1809, it was besieged by 35,000 French Napoleonic troops under Vergier, Augereau and St. Cyr, and held out obstinately under the leadership of Alvarez until disease and famine compelled it to capitulate on 12 December. Finally, the French conquered the city in 1809, after 7 months of siege. Girona was center of the Ter department during the French rule, which lasted from 1809 to 1813. The defensive city walls of the western side were demolished at the end of the 19th century to allow for the expansion of the city, while the walls of the eastern side remained untouched but abandoned.
In recent years, the missing parts of the city walls on the eastern side of the city have been reconstructed. Called the Passeig de la Muralla it now forms a tourist route around the old city.
In the Köppen climate classification, Girona has a humid subtropical climate (Cfa), with cool winters and hot summers. In winter, temperatures can drop to below −2 °C (28 °F). In summer, maximum temperatures are typically 27–34 °C (81–93 °F). Although rainfall is evenly spread throughout the year, it is more common in spring (April–May) and autumn (September–November). The driest month is July. Thunderstorms are very common, particularly in the summer. Notice that the following climate chart is based on Girona airport, which is further inland and very affected by the thermal inversion.
|Climate data for Girona Airport 143m (1981-2010)|
|Average high °C (°F)||13.1
|Daily mean °C (°F)||7.1
|Average low °C (°F)||1.1
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||62
|Average precipitation days||5||5||5||7||7||5||3||5||7||6||5||5||65|
|Average relative humidity (%)||75||73||70||69||68||63||59||65||70||75||76||76||71|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||147||156||179||194||224||247||285||261||195||143||132||132||2,295|
|Source: Agencia Estatal de Meteorología|
Girona is a popular destination for tourists and Barcelona day-trippers - the train journey from Barcelona Sants to Girona takes approximately forty minutes on express trains. The old town stands on the steep hill of the Capuchins to the east of the river Onyar, while the more modern section stands on the plains to the west.
The ancient cathedral, which stood on the site of the present one, was used by the Moors as a mosque, and after their final expulsion was either entirely remodelled or rebuilt. The present edifice is one of the most important monuments of the school of the Majorcan architect Jaume Fabre and an excellent example of Catalan Gothic architecture. It is approached by eighty-six steps. An aisle and chapels surround the choir, which opens by three arches into the nave, of which the pointed stone vault is the widest in Christendom (22 meters). Among its interior decorations is a retable which is the work of the Valencian silversmith Pere Bernec. It is divided into three tiers of statuettes and reliefs, framed in canopied niches of cast and hammered silver. A gold and silver altar-frontal was carried off by the French in 1809. The cathedral contains the tombs of Ramon Berenger and his wife.
The old fortifications are another popular sight. Historically, these have played a vital role in protecting Girona from invaders for hundreds of years. The city wall of the old town was an important military construction built in Roman times in the 1st century BC. It was thoroughly rebuilt under the reign of Peter III the Ceremonious in the second half of the 14th century. The Roman wall was used as a foundation. At the start of the 16th century, the wall was absorbed in the city. The walled precinct lost its military value. Bit by bit, the wall was degrading, as parts were gradually altered from the inside and the outside. The walls and lookout towers that make up these fortifications are split in two - a small section in the north of the old town and a much larger section in the south. It is possible to walk the entire length of the walls and climb the towers, where visitors can enjoy panoramic views of Girona and the surrounding countryside.
The Collegiate Church of Sant Feliu is noteworthy from an architectural point of view. Its style is 14th-century Gothic, the façade dating from the 18th, and it is one of the few Spanish churches which possesses a genuine spire. It contains, besides the sepulchre of its patron and the tomb of the valiant Álvarez, a chapel dedicated to St. Narcissus, who according to tradition was one of the early bishops of the see.
The Plaça de la Independència, which refers to the War of Spanish Independence against Napoleon Bonaparte, is one of the best known and busiest places in Girona. Located in the Mercadal district in the city centre, it is also known as Plaça de Sant Agustí, after the former Convent of Sant Agustí.
The interest of the square lies in its 19th-century style, despite its being surrounded by identical austere neoclassical buildings with porches dedicated to the defenders of the city of Girona during the 1808 and 1809 sieges.
However, the symmetrical proportions of the square correspond more to contemporary interventions than its architectural past. The municipal architect Martí Sureda was the first to conceive an arcaded square with closed and neoclassical loops, and with some buildings having matching aesthetic proportions. The development of the area followed this scheme only in part. The construction of the first theatres in the city transgressed the concept of Martí Sureda. Until the 18th century, what that architect had imagined could not be completed. This part of the city in Noucentisme style is a romantic and timeless creation which nowadays captivates inhabitants and visitors. Today the area has great vitality because of the spread of cafés and restaurants, including some businesses well known for their history like the Café Royal, Cinema Albéniz and Casa Marieta
Characteristic of Girona are the picturesque houses overlooking the river Onyar. These were built over many years and give the flavour of a small Mediterranean city. The façades are painted according to a palette created by Enric Ansesa, James J. Faixó and the architects Fuses and J. Viader.
One of these houses (at Ballesteries 29, Girona) is Casa Masó, the birthplace of the architect Rafael Masó and an example of Noucentisme in Girona. Since 2006 it has been the headquarters of the Fundació Rafael Maso. The river façade can be recognised by its unique white color.
There are some remains of Girona's historical Jewish community prior to their choice between conversion and expulsion in 1492 (see Alhambra Decree). On Carrer de Sant Llorenc, a rectangular indentation that once held a mezuzah can be seen on the doorway of an old building. Farther along is the Centre Bonastruc ça Porta and the Catalan Jewish Museum. The Bonastruc ça Porta project started in the 1970s, when it became fashionable to renovate properties in the old town.
The city has a number of Art Nouveau buildings including the Farinera Teixidor by Rafael Masó.
During the professional cycling season, various non-European pro cyclists have called Girona home, as illustrated in the book by Michael Barry, written during his time with the US Postal Service cycling team. Between races, cyclists do their training rides outside the city, which provides excellent training terrain.
In the Spring of 1997, Marty Jemison, Tyler Hamilton and George Hincapie moved to Girona as teammates of the US Postal Service Professional Cycling Team. This was the first year that American cyclists started living in Girona and meeting for training rides at the Pont de Pedra. Later, other well-known professional cyclists such as Lance Armstrong came to live in the city.
The city is the home of the Universitat de Girona.
The town is on the Autopista AP-7 and N-II. The city is also the hub of the local road network with routes to the coast and inland towards the Pyrenees.
The city has a comprehensive urban bus service operated by private companies. There are also services to the other towns in the Girona province and long distance buses.
Girona is also an important stop on the AVE services from Paris, Marseille, Toulouse and Figueres to Barcelona, and from Figueres to Barcelona and Madrid.
The journey time to Barcelona is approximately 1 hour 35 minutes on the stopping "Regional" trains, 1 hour and 15 minutes by conventional train ("Media Distancia") or 37 minutes on the AVE. Madrid is reached in 3 h 45 min.
The town's airport, Girona-Costa Brava, is 10 kilometres (6 miles) south of the town centre. It grew tremendously principally as a result of Ryanair choosing it as one of their European hubs, but then shrunk again after they relocated most of the flights to Barcelona El Prat.
Girona Airport is approximately a 30-minute bus ride from the bus terminal and train station in Girona city, and an hour from Barcelona centre, 92 km (57 mi) to the south. The bus stops in the centre of Barcelona, at the Estació d'Autobusos Barcelona Nord, Barcelona's main bus terminal.
Most low cost airlines mention "Barcelona" in their descriptions of Girona airport.
Girona is twinned with:
Amer is a municipality in the comarca of la Selva in the province of Girona, Catalonia, Spain.Anglès, Girona
Anglès (Catalan pronunciation: [əŋˈɡlɛs]) is a Spanish municipality, in the comarca of Selva, in the province of Girona, Catalonia, Spain. It has an area of 16.30 km² and a population of 5,446 people (2008).Begur, Spain
Begur is a municipality in the comarca of the Baix Empordà in Catalonia, Spain, on the coastline of the Costa Brava.
Begur has 3,986 inhabitants (according to the census of 2005). It is an important tourist attraction in the Baix Empordà. During the summer, the population can exceed 40,000 people.
Despite its tourist character, the village has important historical remnants that go back in early history. The castle of Begur is a good example of medieval remains. The castle was constructed in the 16th and 17th centuries.
The town of Begur also includes Esclanyà (with a Romanesque old part), Aiguafreda, Sa Riera, Sa Tuna, Aiguablava and Fornells. Some of the most prestigious beaches of the Costa Brava can be found here: Sa Riera, Aiguafreda, sa Tuna, Platja Fonda, Fornells and Aiguablava. The latter is also home to a Parador Hotel.
The municipality includes the following localities:
sa TunaThe annual festival to celebrate St. Tania takes places each November.Breda, Girona
Breda is a village in the province of Girona and autonomous community of Catalonia, Spain. The municipality covers an area of 5.09 square kilometres (1.97 sq mi) and the population in 2014 was 3,751.CB Sant Josep
CB Girona redirects here. For the basketball club founded in 2014 by Marc Gasol, see Bàsquet Girona.Club Bàsquet Sant Josep was a professional basketball team based in Girona, Catalonia, Spain.Cabanes, Girona
Cabanes is a municipality in the comarca of Alt Empordà, Girona, Catalonia, Spain.Camprodon
Camprodon (Catalan pronunciation: [kəmpɾuˈðon]; from Camp Rodó "Round Field", ultimately from Latin Campus Rotundus) is a small town in the comarca of Ripollès in Girona, Catalonia, Spain, located in the Pyrenees, near the French border.Carles Puigdemont
Carles Puigdemont i Casamajó (Catalan: [ˈkaɾləs ˌpudʒðəˈmon i ˌkazəməˈʒo] (listen); born 29 December 1962 in Amer, Girona) is a Catalan politician and journalist from Spain, currently living in Belgium. A former Mayor of Girona, Puigdemont served as President of the Government of Catalonia from January 2016 to October 2017 when he was removed from office by the Spanish Government following the unilateral Catalan declaration of independence. He is chair of the Catalan European Democratic Party (PDeCAT) and leader of the Junts per Catalunya (JuntsxCat) electoral alliance.
After education in Amer and Girona, he became a journalist in 1982, writing for various local publications and becoming editor-in-chief of El Punt. He was director of the Catalan News Agency from 1999 to 2002 and director of Girona's House of Culture from 2002 to 2004.
Puigdemont's family were supporters of Catalan independence and Puigdemont became involved in politics as a teenager, joining the nationalist Democratic Convergence of Catalonia (CDC), the predecessor to the PDeCAT, in 1980. He gave up journalism to pursue a career in politics in 2006 when he was elected as a member of the Parliament of Catalonia for the constituency of Girona. He was elected to the Municipality Council of Girona in 2007 and in 2011 he became Mayor of Girona. On 10 January 2016, following an agreement between the Junts pel Sí (JxSí), an electoral alliance led by the CDC, and the Popular Unity Candidacy (CUP), the Parliament of Catalonia elected Puigdemont as the 130th President of Catalonia.
On 6-7 September 2017, he approved laws for permitting an independence referendum, and the juridical transition and foundation of a Republic, a new constitution for Catalonia that would be in place if the referendum supported independence. On 1 October 2017, the Catalan independence referendum was held in Catalonia despite Spain's Constitutional Court ruling that it breached the Spanish constitution. Despite the Spanish Government's cyber attacks, the closing of polling stations and the use of excessive force by Spanish Police 43% of Catalan citizens managed to vote in the illegal referendum, 92% of them supporting independence. The Catalan Parliament declared independence on 27 October 2017 which resulted in the Spanish government imposing direct rule on Catalonia, dismissing Puigdemont and the Catalan government. The Catalan Parliament was dissolved and the Catalan regional election, 2017 was held. On 30 October 2017 charges of rebellion, sedition and misuse of public funds were brought against Puigdemont and other members of the Puigdemont Government. Puigdemont, along with others, fled to Belgium and European Arrest Warrants (EAW) were issued against them. At the regional elections held on 21 December 2017 Puigdemont was re-elected to Parliament and Catalan secessionists retained a slim majority. Official results shown an actual support for independence of 47,6% versus a 43,5% that voted constitutionalist parties, the rest being non-aligned parties and blank votes. Puigdemont called for fresh talks with the then Spanish Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy but these were rejected.
Puigdemont remained in Belgium to avoid arrest if he returned to Spain, with this situation being defined as exile by some, self-imposed exile by some others, and also as fugitive from justice. On 25 March 2018, he was detained by a highway patrol in the northern German state of Schleswig-Holstein. He was released on bail, with the court deciding he could not be extradited for "rebellion" as German law does not coincide with Spanish law on the definition thereof, a requirement of his EAW. On 10 July, 2018 a Supreme Court judge suspended him as a deputy in the Catalan parliament. On 12 July 2018 a German court decided that he could be extradited back to Spain for misuse of public funds, but not for the more serious charge of rebellion. Following this, on 19 July 2018, Spain dropped the European Arrest Warrants against Puigdemont and other Catalan officials in exile.Espinelves
Espinelves is a municipality in the comarca of Osona in
Catalonia, Spain. It is situated in the Guilleries in the east of the comarca. Forestry is the
main economic activity of the municipality, particularly the cultivation of the local species Abies masjoanensis
for Christmas trees. The roman church of Sant Vincenç d'Espinelves dates from the 11th and 12th centuries. The village is linked to Arbúcies and to
Vic by the GI-543 road.Ferdinand II of Aragon
Ferdinand II (Aragonese: Ferrando; Catalan: Ferran; Basque: Errando; Spanish: Fernando; 10 March 1452 – 23 January 1516), called the Catholic (Spanish: el Católico), was King of Aragon from 1479 until his death. His marriage in 1469 to Isabella, the future queen of Castile, was the marital and political "cornerstone in the foundation of the Spanish monarchy." As a consequence of his marriage to Isabella I, he was de jure uxoris King of Castile as Ferdinand V from 1474 until her death in 1504. At Isabella's death the crown of Castile passed to their daughter Joanna, by the terms of their prenuptial agreement and her last will and testament. Following the death of Joanna's husband Philip I of Spain, and her alleged mental illness, Ferdinand was recognized as regent of Castile from 1508 until his own death. In 1504, after a war with France, he became King of Naples as Ferdinand III, reuniting Naples with Sicily permanently and for the first time since 1458. In 1512, he became King of Navarre by conquest. In 1506 he married Germaine of Foix of France, but Ferdinand's only son and child of that marriage died soon after birth; had the child survived, the personal union of the crowns of Aragon and Castile would have ceased.
Ferdinand had a role in inaugurating the first European encounters in the future Americas, since he and Isabella sponsored the first voyage of Christopher Columbus (1451-1506), in 1492. That year was the final victory in the war with Granada which defeated the last Muslim state in Iberia and all of Western Europe. This brought to a close the centuries-long Christian reconquest of Iberia. For that Christian victory, Pope Alexander VI, born in the Kingdom of Valencia, awarded the royal couple the title of Catholic Monarchs. At Ferdinand's death Joanna's son, Ferdinand's grandson, Charles I, who was co-ruler in name over all the several Iberian kingdoms except for Portugal, succeeded him, making Charles the first King of Spain. However, during the regency of Ferdinand, many called him the King of Spain as distinct from his daughter Joanna, “queen of Castile”.Figueres
Figueres (Catalan pronunciation: [fiˈɣeɾəs], Catalan for fig trees) is the capital of the comarca of Alt Empordà, in the province of Girona, Catalonia, Spain.
The town is the birthplace of artist Salvador Dalí, and houses the Teatre-Museu Gala Salvador Dalí, a large museum designed by Dalí himself which attracts many visitors. It is also the birthplace of Narcís Monturiol, inventor of the first successful machine-powered submarine. Also born here was Mónica Naranjo, one of the best selling Spanish singers of the 1990s and 2000s.Girona FC
Girona Futbol Club, S.A.D. is a professional football club based in Girona, Catalonia, Spain. Founded on 23 July 1930, it plays in La Liga, having been promoted to the first-division league for the first time at the end of the 2016–17 season. Girona holds its home matches at the 14,450-capacity Estadi Montilivi.
The club also has youth and amateur women's teams for competition.Girona–Costa Brava Airport
Girona–Costa Brava Airport (IATA: GRO, ICAO: LEGE) (Catalan: Aeroport de Girona-Costa Brava, Spanish: Aeropuerto de Gerona-Costa Brava) is an airport located 12.5 km (7.8 mi) southwest of the city of Girona, next to the small village of Vilobí d'Onyar, in the north-east of Catalonia, Spain. The airport is well connected to the Costa Brava and the Pyrenees. Girona Airport is used as an alternative airport for Barcelona as well, even though the airport is 74 km (46 mi) north of center of Barcelona.Llívia
Llívia (Catalan pronunciation: [ˈʎiβiə]; Spanish: Llivia [ˈʎiβja]) is a town in the comarca of Cerdanya, province of Girona, Catalonia, Spain. It is a Spanish exclave surrounded by the French département of Pyrénées-Orientales. In 2009, the municipality of Llívia had a total population of 1,589. It is separated from the rest of Spain by a corridor about 1.6 km (1.0 mile) wide, which includes the French communes of Ur and Bourg-Madame.Mieres, Girona
Mieres is a village and municipality in the comarca of Garrotxa, in the province of Girona, in Catalonia, Spain.Municipalities of Catalonia
Catalonia is (as of 2018) divided into 947 municipalities.
Each municipality typically represents one significant urban settlement, of any size from village to city, with its surrounding land. This is not always the case, though. Many municipalities have merged as a result of rural depopulation or simply for greater efficiency. Some large urban areas, for example Barcelona, consist of more than one municipality, each of which previously held a separate settlement. The Catalan government encourages mergers of very small municipalities; its "Report on the revision of Catalonia's territorial organisation model" (the "Roca Report"), published in 2000 but not yet implemented, recommends many such mergers.Larger municipalities may sometimes grant the status of "decentralised municipal entity" (EMD) to one or more of its settlements, for more effective provision of services or to substitute for its previous status as a separate municipality.Each municipality is run by a council elected by the residents at periodic nationwide local elections. The council consists of a number of members depending on population, who elect the mayor ("alcalde" or "batlle"). The town hall ("ajuntament") is located in the main settlement, and deals with provision of local services and administrative matters such as registration of residents. The "main settlement" is not always the biggest settlement, as new urban developments such as tourist resorts can become very big very quickly without achieving any political recognition.
Boundaries between municipalities have their origins in ancient landholdings and transfers, and may often appear quite arbitrary and illogical, with exclaves common.
Catalonia's municipalities are (as of 2015) grouped into 42 comarques (by the Catalan government) and four provinces (by the Spanish government). Occasional revisions of the boundaries of comarcas have resulted in municipalities moving from one comarca to another; see the list at Comarques of Catalonia.Province of Girona
Girona (Catalan pronunciation: [ʒiˈɾonə], Spanish: Gerona [xeˈɾona]) is a province of Spain, in the northeastern part of the autonomous community of Catalonia. It is bordered on the northwest by the province of Lleida, on the southwest by the province of Barcelona, on the north by France, and on the east by the Mediterranean Sea.
The population of the province in 2016 was 739,607. Its capital and largest city is Girona, with an urban area (including the neighbouring municipalities of Salt, Sarrià de Ter and Vilablareix) representing, with a total population of 144,709, 19.2% of the population. The Girona area acts as an industrial, commercial and service hub for a significant part of the province.Puigcerdà
Puigcerdà (Catalan pronunciation: [ˌputʃsəɾˈða]; Spanish: Puigcerdá) is the capital of the Catalan comarca of Cerdanya, in the province of Girona, Catalonia, northern Spain, near the Segre River and on the border with France (it abuts directly onto the French town of Bourg-Madame).Third Siege of Girona
The Third Siege of Girona refers to the French Grande Armée's seven-month siege of Girona, from 6 May to 12 December 1809, a significant event in the Peninsular War.
Some 18,000 French and Westphalian troops, commanded by General Laurent de Gouvion Saint-Cyr during much of the siege, before Marshal Pierre Augereau took command on 12 October besieged the town, which held out under General Mariano Alvarez de Castro, in command of some 5,600 regular troops and militiamen, until disease and famine compelled it to capitulate on 12 December.