Gippsland

Gippsland is an economic rural region of Victoria, Australia,[1] located in the south-eastern part of that state. It covers an area of 41,556 square kilometres (16,045 sq mi), and lies to the east of the eastern suburbs of Greater Melbourne, to the north of Bass Strait, to the west of the Tasman Sea, to the south of the Black-Allan Line that marks part of the Victorian/New South Wales border, and to the east and southeast of the Great Dividing Range that lies within the Hume region and the Victorian Alps.[2] Gippsland is generally broken down into the East Gippsland, South Gippsland, West Gippsland, and the Latrobe Valley statistical divisions.

As at the 2016 Australian census, Gippsland had a population of 271,266, with the principal population centres of the region, in descending order of population, being Traralgon, Moe, Warragul, Morwell, Sale, Bairnsdale, Drouin, Leongatha, and Phillip Island. Gippsland is best known for its primary production such as mining, power generation and farming as well as its tourist destinations— Phillip Island, Wilsons Promontory, the Gippsland Lakes, Walhalla, the Baw Baw Plateau, and the Strzelecki Ranges.

Gippsland Region
Victoria
Gippsland, Sunday night, February 20th, 1898
John Longstaff's Gippsland, Sunday night, 20 February 1898, depicting the "Red Tuesday" bushfires that ravaged Gippsland
Port Welshpool, Victoria
Waterfront at Port Albert.
Gippsland Region is located in Victoria
Gippsland Region
Gippsland Region
The location of Bairnsdale, a town in Gippsland
Coordinates37°51′S 147°35′E / 37.850°S 147.583°ECoordinates: 37°51′S 147°35′E / 37.850°S 147.583°E
Population271,266 (2016 census)[Note 1]
 • Density6.52772/km2 (16.90672/sq mi)
Area41,556 km2 (16,044.9 sq mi)
Time zoneAEST (UTC+10)
 • Summer (DST)AEDT (UTC+11)
Location120 km (75 mi) E of Melbourne
LGA(s)
State electorate(s)
Federal Division(s)
Localities around Gippsland Region:
Hume Hume New South Wales
Greater Melbourne Gippsland Region Tasman Sea
Bass Strait Bass Strait Bass Strait

History

The area was originally inhabited by Indigenous Australians of the Gunai nation and part of West Gippsland by the Bunurong nation. Before permanent European settlement, the area was visited by sealers and wattle bark gatherers, but who did not settle. Samuel Anderson (1803-1863),[3][4] a Scottish immigrant from Kirkcudbright, agriculturist and explorer, arrived in Hobart, Tasmania in 1830, and in 1835 established a squatter agricultural settlement on the Bass River in Gippsland, the third permanent settlement in Victoria (then called the Port Phillip District). His business partner Robert Massie joined him in 1837. Both had worked for the Van Diemen's Land Company at Circular Head, Tasmania. Samuel's brothers Hugh (1808-1898) and Thomas (1814-1903) arrived at Bass shortly after, where they established a successful farming venture.[3]

Further European settlement followed two separate expeditions to the area.

During his expedition to the South (December 1839 - May 1840) in March 1840, Polish explorer Paweł Edmund Strzelecki led an expedition across the terrain, and gave his own names to many natural landmarks and places. Following these expeditions, the area was officially named "Gippsland", a name chosen by Strzelecki in honour of the New South Wales Governor, George Gipps, his sponsor.[5] See also Count Strzelecki - a magic name in Gippsland

Angus McMillan led the second European expedition between 1840, naming the area "Caledonia Australis".[6] The naming of this geographical region, however, remained the name given by P. E. Strzelecki - Gippsland

The township of Bass was surveyed and settled in the early 1860s.

The intensive settlement of south Gippsland began late in the 1870s. The story of that process is told in, The land of the Lyre Bird (1920).[7]

Geography

East Gippsland old growth 01 Pengo
Old growth forests in East Gippsland

Gippsland is traditionally subdivided into four or five main sub–regions or districts:

Climate

VM 0267 Stratford - Avon River valley
On the Avon River near Stratford

The climate of Gippsland is temperate and generally humid, except in the central region around Sale, where annual rainfall can be less than 600 millimetres (24 in). In the Strzelecki Ranges annual rainfall can be as high as 1,500 millimetres (59 in), while on the high mountains of East Gippsland it probably reaches similar levels – much of it falling as snow. In lower levels east of the Snowy River, mean annual rainfall is typically about 900–950 millimetres (35–37 in) and less variable than in the coastal districts of New South Wales. Mean maximum temperatures in lower areas range from 24 °C (75 °F) in January to 15 °C (59 °F) in July. In the highlands of the Baw Baw Plateau and the remote Errinundra Plateau, temperatures range from a maximum of 18 °C (64 °F) to a minimum of 8 °C (46 °F). However, in winter, mean minima in these areas can be as low as −4 °C (25 °F), leading to heavy snowfalls that often isolate the Errinundra Plateau between June and October.

Natural resources

Potato field through fence - Thorpdale
Potato farming in the Thorpdale region

The soils in Gippsland are generally very infertile, being profoundly deficient in nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and calcium. Apart from frequently flooded areas, they are classed as Spodosols, Psamments and Ultisols. Consequently, heavy fertilisation is required for agriculture or pastoral development. Despite this, parts of Gippsland have become highly productive dairying and vegetable-growing regions: the region supplies Melbourne with most of its needs in these commodities. A few alluvial soils (chiefly near the Snowy) have much better native fertility, and these have always been intensively cultivated. In the extreme northeast is a small section of the Monaro Tableland used for grazing beef cattle.

Gippsland possesses very few deposits of metallic minerals (gold rushes in the nineteenth century around Foster, Buchan petered out quickly). However, the deep underground gold mines operated at Walhalla for a fifty-year period between 1863-1913. Gippsland has no deposits of major industrial nonmetallic minerals, but it does feature the world's largest brown coal deposits and, around Sale and offshore in the Bass Strait, some of the largest deposits of oil and natural gas in Australia.

Like the rest of Australia, the seas around Gippsland are of very low productivity as there is no upwelling due to the warm currents in the Tasman Sea. Nonetheless, towns such as Marlo and Mallacoota depended for a long time on the fishing of abalone, whose shells could fetch very high prices because of their use for pearls and pearl inlays.

Administration

Political representation

For Australian federal elections for the House of Representatives, the electoral divisions of Flinders,[8] McMillan,[9] and Gippsland[10] lay entirely or partly in the Gippsland region. Flinders and McMillan are currently held by the Liberal Party, while Gippsland is held by the Nationals.

For elections for the Victorian Legislative Assembly, the electoral districts of Bass, Narracan, Morwell, Gippsland South and Gippsland East lay entirely or partly in the Gippsland region. Bass and Narracan are currently held by the Liberal Party, while the other electorates are held by the Nationals.

Local government areas

Gippsland contains six local government areas:

Gippsland region LGA populations
Local government area Area Population
(2011 census)
Source(s) Population
(2016 census)
Source(s)
km2 sq mi
Bass Coast Shire 864 334 29,614 [11] 32,804 [12]
Shire of Baw Baw 4,031 1,556 42,864 [13] 48,479 [14]
Shire of East Gippsland 20,941 8,085 42,196 [15] 45,040 [16]
Latrobe City 1,426 551 72,396 [17] 73,257 [18]
South Gippsland Shire 3,305 1,276 27,208 [19] 28,703 [20]
Shire of Wellington 10,989 4,243 41,440 [21] 42,983 [22]
Totals 41,556 16,045 255,718 271,266

Environmental protection

The Gippsland region contains the Alfred National Park, Baw Baw National Park, Coopracambra National Park, Croajingolong National Park, Errinundra National Park, Gippsland Lakes Coastal Park, Lind National Park, Mitchell River National Park, Morwell National Park, Snowy River National Park, Tarra-Bulga National Park, The Lakes National Park, and Wilsons Promontory National Park.

There are also large areas of State forest that contribute towards conservation objectives.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Population figure is the combined population of all LGAs in the region

References

  1. ^ "Meaning of Regional Victoria". Department of State Development, Business and Innovation (MS Word requires download). State Government of Victoria. 2011. Archived from the original on 19 August 2014. Retrieved 15 August 2014.
  2. ^ "Victoria's Gippsland Region". Regional Development Victoria. State Government of Victoria. 3 June 2014. Retrieved 10 August 2014.
  3. ^ a b The Andersons of Westernport "Horton and Morris" 1983
  4. ^ Niel Gunson (1966). "Anderson, Samuel (1803–1863)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. National Centre of Biography, Australian National University. Retrieved 29 August 2016.
  5. ^ Wells, J. (2003), "Colourful Tales of Old Gippsland", p. 92.
  6. ^ Webster, Theo (1967). "McMillan, Angus (1810-1865)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. National Centre of Biography, Australian National University. Retrieved 6 October 2007.
  7. ^ The land of the Lyre Bird: a story of early settlement in the Great South Forest of South Gippsland; being a description of the big scrub in its virgin state with its birds and animals, and of the adventures and hardships of its early explorers and prospectors also accounts by the settlers of clearing, settlement and development of the country, Gordon & Gotch for the Committee of the South Gippsland Pioneers Association, Melbourne, 1920 (reprinted 1966).
  8. ^ "Profile of the electoral division of Flinders (Vic)". Current federal electoral divisions. Australian Electoral Commission. 24 December 2010. Retrieved 8 August 2014.
  9. ^ "Profile of the electoral division of McMillan (Vic)". Current federal electoral divisions. Australian Electoral Commission. 24 December 2010. Retrieved 8 August 2014.
  10. ^ "Profile of the electoral division of Gippsland (Vic)". Current federal electoral divisions. Australian Electoral Commission. 24 December 2010. Retrieved 8 August 2014.
  11. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (31 October 2012). "2011 Community Profiles: Bass Coast (S) (Local Government Area)". 2011 Census of Population and Housing. Retrieved 8 August 2014. Edit this at Wikidata
  12. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "2016 Community Profiles: Bass Coast (S) (Local Government Area)". 2016 Census of Population and Housing. Retrieved 3 April 2018. Edit this at Wikidata
  13. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (31 October 2012). "2011 Community Profiles: Baw Baw (S) (Local Government Area)". 2011 Census of Population and Housing. Retrieved 8 August 2014. Edit this at Wikidata
  14. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "2016 Community Profiles: Baw Baw (S) (Local Government Area)". 2016 Census of Population and Housing. Retrieved 3 April 2018. Edit this at Wikidata
  15. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (31 October 2012). "2011 Community Profiles: East Gippsland (S) (Local Government Area)". 2011 Census of Population and Housing. Retrieved 8 August 2014. Edit this at Wikidata
  16. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "2016 Community Profiles: East Gippsland (S) (Local Government Area)". 2016 Census of Population and Housing. Retrieved 3 April 2018. Edit this at Wikidata
  17. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (31 October 2012). "2011 Community Profiles: Latrobe (Local Government Area)". 2011 Census of Population and Housing. Retrieved 8 August 2014. Edit this at Wikidata
  18. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "2016 Community Profiles: Latrobe (Local Government Area)". 2016 Census of Population and Housing. Retrieved 3 April 2018. Edit this at Wikidata
  19. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (31 October 2012). "2011 Community Profiles: South Gippsland (S) (Local Government Area)". 2011 Census of Population and Housing. Retrieved 8 August 2014. Edit this at Wikidata
  20. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "2016 Community Profiles: South Gippsland (S) (Local Government Area)". 2016 Census of Population and Housing. Retrieved 3 April 2018. Edit this at Wikidata
  21. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (31 October 2012). "2011 Community Profiles: Wellington (Local Government Area)". 2011 Census of Population and Housing. Retrieved 8 August 2014. Edit this at Wikidata
  22. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "2016 Community Profiles: Wellington (Local Government Area)". 2016 Census of Population and Housing. Retrieved 3 April 2018. Edit this at Wikidata
Berrima River

The Berrima River (in Victoria), also called the Berrima Creek (in New South Wales), is a perennial river of the Snowy River catchment, located in the Alpine region of the Australian states of New South Wales and Victoria.

Delegate River

The Delegate River is a perennial river of the Snowy River catchment, located in the Alpine regions of the states of Victoria and New South Wales, Australia.

Division of Gippsland

The Division of Gippsland is an Australian electoral division in the state of Victoria. The division was proclaimed in 1900, and was one of the original 65 divisions to be contested at the first federal election. It is named for the Gippsland region of eastern Victoria, which in turn is named for Sir George Gipps, Governor of New South Wales 1838–1846. It includes the towns of Bairnsdale, Morwell, Sale and Traralgon.

East Gippsland

East Gippsland is the eastern region of Gippsland, Victoria, Australia covering 31,740 square kilometres (14%) of Victoria. It has a population of 80,114.

Electoral district of Gippsland East

The electoral district of Gippsland East is an electoral district of the Victorian Legislative Assembly. It covers most of eastern Victoria and includes the towns of Bairnsdale, Lakes Entrance, Orbost, Omeo, Maffra and Heyfield. Gippsland East is the state's third largest electorate in area and covers 27,531 square kilometres.The National Party held the seat without interruption from 1920 to 1999. However at the 1999 election independent candidate Craig Ingram unexpectedly won the seat after receiving preferences from the independent, One Nation and Labor candidates. Ingram's victory affected state politics—Ingram and fellow Independents Susan Davies and Russell Savage contributed to the end of the Kennett era by agreeing to back Labor to form government after the 1999 election. Ingram was also returned in the 2002 and 2006 elections. He was defeated in 2010 by National candidate Tim Bull.

Electoral district of Gippsland South

The electoral district of Gippsland South (initially known as South Gippsland) is a Lower House electoral district of the Victorian Parliament. It is located within the Eastern Victoria Region of the Legislative Council .

Gippsland South extends along the state's coast from Venus Bay to Loch Sport and includes the country Victorian towns of Foster, Korumburra, Leongatha, Mirboo North, Port Albert, Port Welshpool, Rosedale, Sale and Yarram. The electorate includes all of South Gippsland Shire and the southern parts of Wellington Shire. Industries include agriculture, timber production and tourism. Dairying is the biggest agricultural contributor to the local economy. Natural features include Wilsons Promontory National Park, Corner Inlet, and a number of lakes and islands along the coast and border.

Its area was initially defined by the 1858 Electoral Act as: "Commencing at the mouth of Merryman's Creek on the Ninety Mile Beach; bounded on the north by Merryman's Creek to where the road from Tarraville to Rosedale crosses said creek near Bayless's pre-emptive right, thence by a line west fourteen degrees to Buneep; on the west by the counties of Evelyn and Mornington to Cape Patterson; and on the south and south-east by the sea-coast to the commencing point"The Electoral Act Amendment Act of 1888 created new districts of Gippsland Central,

Gippsland East and Gippsland West and reduced the size of Gippsland South (renaming it from South Gippsland) and Gippsland North.It has never been won by the Labor Party, and has been in the hands of the National Party for all but two terms since 1929.

Sir Herbert Hyland held the seat for thirty years from 1929 until he died in office in 1970. He held many portfolios in government including Transport, Chief Secretary, State Development, Labour, Decentralisation and Transport and Prices. Hyland was knighted in 1952,[6] and elected leader of the parliamentary Country Party in 1955.

The district is currently held by Nationals MP Danny O'Brien, who won the seat in a by-election in 2015 following the resignation of former Nationals leader Peter Ryan.

a = now known as Merriman Creek

Electoral district of Gippsland West

The electoral district of Gippsland West was an electoral district of the Legislative Assembly in the Australian state of Victoria.

It was created by the Electoral Act Amendment Act 1888 along with Gippsland Central and

Gippsland East. Gippsland North and Gippsland South were resized at the same time. The electorate was dissolved in 2002.

The principal towns of Gippsland West include Pakenham, Drouin, Warragul and Trafalgar.

Genoa River

Genoa River is a perennial river located in the Monaro region of New South Wales and flows into the East Gippsland region of Victoria in Australia. It used to be known as Bondi Creek or Yard Creek. The river's name derives from the First People "jinoor" ("footpath").

GippsAero GA8 Airvan

The GippsAero GA8 Airvan 8 is a single-engined utility aircraft manufactured by GippsAero (formerly named Gippsland Aeronautics) of Victoria, Australia. It can seat eight, including the pilot.

Gippsland Football League

The Gippsland League (formerly known as the "West Gippsland Latrobe Football League"), is an Australian rules football and netball league in the Gippsland region of Victoria, Australia. It is considered the only AFL Victoria major league in Gippsland.

Gippsland Lakes

The Gippsland Lakes are a network of lakes, marshes and lagoons in east Gippsland, Victoria, Australia covering an area of about 354 square kilometres (137 sq mi). The largest of the lakes are Lake Wellington (Gunai language: Murla), Lake King and Lake Victoria. The lakes are collectively fed by the Avon, Thomson, Latrobe, Mitchell, Nicholson and Tambo rivers.

Gippsland V/Line rail service

The Gippsland V/Line rail service is a passenger service operated by V/Line in Victoria, Australia between Melbourne and the Gippsland region including the regional cities of Moe, Morwell, Traralgon, Sale and Bairnsdale. It operates along the Gippsland railway line.

Gippsland railway line

The Gippsland line (also known as the Orbost railway line) is a railway line serving the Latrobe Valley and Gippsland regions of Victoria, Australia. It runs east from the state capital Melbourne through the cities of Moe, Morwell, Traralgon, Sale and terminating at Bairnsdale.

Prior to its dismantlement in 1994, the line extended to Orbost. The dismantled section now comprises the East Gippsland Rail Trail, a shared bicycle, walking, and horseriding track.

Ingeegoodbee River

The Ingeegoodbee River is a perennial river of the Snowy River catchment, located in the Alpine regions of the states of New South Wales and Victoria, Australia.

NAB League

The NAB League (formerly known as the TAC Cup) is an under-19 Australian rules football representative competition held in Victoria, Australia. It is based on geographic regions throughout country Victoria and metropolitan Melbourne with each team representing twelve Victorian regions, while a thirteenth team from Tasmania was reintroduced in 2019. The competition is sponsored by National Australia Bank, having previously been sponsored by the Transport Accident Commission since its inception.The competition is one of the primary sources of recruitment for AFL clubs from Victoria. The TAC Cup provides an opportunity for talented regional players to participate in a high standard competition without having to relocate too far from their place of origin. The competition has a very successful pathway with players missing AFL selection often being recruited by semi-professional state, country and regional leagues throughout Australia.

Queensborough River

The Queensborough River is a perennial river of the Snowy River catchment, located in the Alpine regions of the Australian states of Victoria and New South Wales.

Shire of East Gippsland

The Shire of East Gippsland is a local government area in Gippsland, Victoria, Australia, located in the eastern part of the state. It covers an area of 20,931 square kilometres (8,082 sq mi) and at the 2016 Census had a population of approximately 45,000.

It includes the towns of Bairnsdale, Benambra, Bruthen, Buchan, Ensay, Lakes Entrance, Mallacoota, Metung, Omeo, Orbost, Paynesville, Swan Reach and Swifts Creek. It was formed in 1994 from the amalgamation of the City of Bairnsdale, Shire of Bairnsdale, Shire of Omeo, Shire of Orbost, Shire of Tambo and parts of the Shire of Rosedale.The Shire is governed and administered by the East Gippsland Shire Council; its seat of local government and administrative centre is located at the council headquarters in Bairnsdale, it also has service centres located in Lakes Entrance, Omeo and Orbost. The Shire is named after the Gippsland region, in which the LGA occupies the eastern portion.

Wallagaraugh River

The Wallagaraugh River is a perennial river of the Genoa River catchment, with its headwaters located in the South Coast region of New South Wales and its lower reaches located in the East Gippsland region of Victoria, Australia.

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