The Gioventù Italiana del Littorio (GIL) (English: Italian Youth of the Lictor) was the consolidated youth movement of the National Fascist Party of Italy that was established in 1937, to replace the Opera Nazionale Balilla (ONB). It was created to supervise and influence the minds of all youths, that was effectively directed against the influence of the Catholic Church on youths.
|Gioventù Italiana del Littorio|
|Motto||Libro e moschetto, fascista perfetto|
(Book and rifle, perfect Fascist)
|Legal status||Defunct, illegal|
|Kingdom of Italy|
|National Fascist Party|
The organization surpassed its purpose as a cultural institution that was intended to serve as the ideological counterpart of school, and served as a paramilitary group (training for future assignments in the Italian Army), as well as education in the career of choice, technology (including postschool courses for legal adults), or education related to home and family (solely for the girls). It carried out indoctrination with a message of Italian-ness and Fascism, training youths as "the fascists of tomorrow".
Moreover, the GIL took charge of all activities initiated by schools, and pressured teachers to enlist all students. Aside from the usual "Fascist Saturdays", children would spend their summers in camps (which included the national-level Campi Dux, reunions of Balilla and Avanguardisti).
Male children enrolled wore a uniform adapted from that of the Blackshirts: the eponymous black shirt, the fez of Arditi tradition, grey-green trousers, black fasces emblems, and azure handkerchiefs (i.e.: in the national colour of Italy). During military exercises, they were armed with scaled-down version of Royal Italian Army service rifle, Moschetto Balilla (the rifles were replaced with replica versions for the Figli della Lupa).
The Academia della Farnesina, also known as the Accademia fascista maschile di educazione fisica or Accademia fascista della Farnesina, was a center for sport and political education in fascist Italy.Bagnoli
Bagnoli is a western seaside quarter of Naples, Italy, well beyond the confines of the original city. It is beyond Cape Posillipo and, thus, looking on the coast of the Bay of Pozzuoli. AfterCUS Genova Hockey
CUS Genova Hockey is an Italian field hockey club based in Genoa, Italy. The club was formed in 1947 changing name from GIL ("Gioventù Italiana del Littorio", which means "Italian Youth of Littorio") and it won three Italian scudettos in 1949, 1951 and 1954.Ethiopian Lictor Youth
Ethiopian Lictor Youth (Italian: Gioventù Etiopica del Littorio, abbreviated G.E.L.) was a fascist youth organization in Ethiopia.Eurac Research
Eurac Research is a private research center headquartered in Bozen, South Tyrol. The center has eleven institutes organized into four research areas: autonomy, mountains, technology and health. Eurac Research has around 200 partners spread across 50 countries. Eurac Research collaborates with international organizations such as the Alpine and Carpathian Conventions, UNEP and UNIDO in the context of sustainable development and energy technology, and also hosts the headquarters of the Permanent Secretariat of the Alpine Convention at its headquarters in Bozen. Core funding is provided by the autonomous province of South Tyrol, with additional financing coming from membership fees and European project funds.Foro Italico
Foro Italico, formerly Foro Mussolini, is a sports complex in Rome, Italy. It was built between 1928 and 1938 as the Foro Mussolini (literally Mussolini's Forum) under the design of Enrico Del Debbio and, later, Luigi Moretti. Inspired by the Roman forums of the imperial age, its design is lauded as a preeminent example of Italian Fascist architecture instituted by Mussolini. The purpose of the prestigious project was to get the Olympic Games of 1940 to be organised by fascist Italy and held in Rome.Francesco Morosini Naval Military School
The Francesco Morosini Naval Military School (Italian: Scuola militare navale "Francesco Morosini") is a military education college based in Venice operated by the Italian Navy and named after the great venetian Doge.
Boys and girls of an age between 15 and 18 years old, after having positively passed the admission process, are enrolled to attend the last three high school years. Cadets' military and vocational education is provided both by civil teachers and naval officers in order to promote, in addition to regular studies, interest and love for life at sea through various related activities like sailing, rowing, swimming etc., preparing them to their future careers.Glossary of Fascist Italy
This is a list of words, terms, concepts, and slogans in the Italian language and Latin language which were specifically used in Fascist Italian monarchy and Italian Social Republic.
Some words were coined by Benito Mussolini and other Italian Fascists. Other words and concepts were borrowed and appropriated, and other terms were already in use in Italy. Finally, some are taken from Italy's cultural tradition.Iron Dobbin
The iron Dobbin was a mechanical horse which was first described in Popular Science Monthly in April 1933. The machine, designed by an Italian inventor, was powered by a gasoline engine and moved upon steel pipes allowing it to traverse a rough field. The device was to be used to train the youth of the Gioventù Italiana del Littorio to ride, but was rejected by the Italian military as impractical.The German military, after seeing the iron Dobbin in Popular Science, designed the Panzerpferd for their Gebirgsjaeger troops, which was also rejected.Luigi Moretti
Luigi Walter Moretti (2 January 1907 – 14 July 1973) was an Italian architect.National Fascist Party
The National Fascist Party (Italian: Partito Nazionale Fascista, PNF) was an Italian political party, created by Benito Mussolini as the political expression of fascism (previously represented by groups known as Fasci). The party ruled Italy from 1922 when Fascists took power with the March on Rome to 1943, when Mussolini was deposed by the Grand Council of Fascism.
Preceding the PNF, Mussolini's first established political party was known as the Revolutionary Fascist Party (Partito Fascista Rivoluzionario, PFR), which was founded in 1915 according to Mussolini. After poor November 1919 election results, the PFR was eventually renamed the National Fascist Party during the Third Fascist Congress in Rome on 7–10 November 1921.The National Fascist Party was rooted in Italian nationalism and the desire to restore and expand Italian territories, which Italian Fascists deemed necessary for a nation to assert its superiority and strength and to avoid succumbing to decay. Italian Fascists claimed that modern Italy is the heir to ancient Rome and its legacy and historically supported the creation of an Italian Empire to provide spazio vitale ("living space") for colonization by Italian settlers and to establish control over the Mediterranean Sea.Fascists promoted a corporatist economic system whereby employer and employee syndicates are linked together in associations to collectively represent the nation's economic producers and work alongside the state to set national economic policy. This economic system intended to resolve class conflict through collaboration between the classes.Italian Fascism opposed liberalism, but did not seek a reactionary restoration of the pre-French Revolutionary world, which it considered to have been flawed, and not in line with a forward-looking direction on policy. It was opposed to Marxist socialism because of its typical opposition to nationalism, but was also opposed to the reactionary conservatism developed by Joseph de Maistre. It believed the success of Italian nationalism required respect for tradition and a clear sense of a shared past among the Italian people alongside a commitment to a modernized Italy.The National Fascist Party along with its successor, the Republican Fascist Party, are the only parties whose re-formation is banned by the Constitution of Italy: "It shall be forbidden to reorganize, under any form whatsoever, the dissolved fascist party".Opera Nazionale Balilla
Opera Nazionale Balilla (ONB) was an Italian Fascist youth organization functioning between 1926 and 1937, when it was absorbed into the Gioventù Italiana del Littorio (GIL), a youth section of the National Fascist Party.
It takes its name from Balilla, the nickname of Giovan Battista Perasso, a Genoese boy who, according to local legend, started the revolt of 1746 against the Habsburg forces that occupied the city in the War of the Austrian Succession. Perasso was chosen as the inspiration for his supposed age and revolutionary activity, while his presence in the fight against Austria reflected the irredentist stance taken by early Fascism, and Italy's victories in World War I.Piazza Cesare Beccaria
Piazza Cesare Beccaria is a square of Florence located on the viali di Circonvallazione, the boulevard along the route of the former walls of Florence.Political uniform
A number of political movements have involved their members wearing uniforms, typically as a way of showing their identity in marches and demonstrations. The wearing of political uniforms has tended to be associated with radical political beliefs, typically at the far-right or far-left of politics, and can be used to imply a paramilitary type of organization.Timeline of Venice
The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Venice, Veneto, Italy.Tresigallo
Tresigallo (Ferrarese: Trasgàl) is an Italian municipality in the province of Ferrara, which is in the region of Emilia-Romagna. It has about 4,700 inhabitants.
Despite its medieval origins, to which only a 16th-century palace (Palazzo Pio) of the House of Este bears witness today, it was transformed by the Fascist Minister of Agriculture Edmondo Rossoni, who was born in Tresigallo in 1884. From his ministry in Rome, he developed and supervised the new village map, completely rebuilding it from 1927 to 1934. Two axes were drawn across the town in order to link the main aspects of everyday life: on the horizontal axis there was the Church (spirituality) and the Balilla House, a youth center, renamed Casa della G.I.L (Gioventù Italiana del Littorio); on the vertical axis there was the civic centre (everyday life) and the cemetery (memory).