Giovanni Papini

Giovanni Papini (January 9, 1881 – ibid. July 8, 1956)[1] was an Italian journalist, essayist, literary critic, poet, philosopher and writer.

Giovanni Papini
Papini in 1921
Papini in 1921
BornJanuary 9, 1881
DiedJuly 8, 1956 (aged 75)
Pen nameGian Falco
OccupationEssayist, journalist, literary critic, poet, novelist
GenreProse poetry, fantasy, autobiography, travel literature, satire
SubjectPolitical philosophy, history of religion
Literary movementFuturism
Notable worksThe Failure, Gog, The Story of Christ
Notable awardsValdagno Prize (1951), Golden Quill Prize (1957)
SpouseGiacinta Giovagnoli
ChildrenGioconda Papini, Viola Papini

Signature of Giovanni Papini

Early life

Born in Florence as the son of a modest furniture retailer (and former member of Giuseppe Garibaldi's Redshirts) from Borgo degli Albizi, Papini's mother baptized Papini secretly to avoid the aggressive anti-clericalism of his father. Papini lived a rustic, lonesome childhood. At that time he had felt a strong aversion to all beliefs, to all churches, as well as to any form of servitude (which he saw as connected to religion); he also became enchanted with the idea of writing an encyclopedia wherein all cultures would be summarized.

Trained at the Istituto di Studi Superiori (1900–2), he taught for a year in the Anglo-Italian school and then was librarian at the Museum of Anthropology from 1902 to 1904.[2] The literary life attracted Papini, who in 1903 founded the magazine Il Leonardo, to which he contributed articles under the pseudonym of "Gian Falco."[3] His collaborators included Giuseppe Prezzolini, Borgese, Vailati, Costetti and Calderoni.[4] Through Leonardo's Papini and his contributors introduced in Italy important thinkers such as Kierkegaard, Peirce, Nietzsche, Santayana and Poincaré. He would later join the staff of Il Regno,[5] a nationalist publication directed by Enrico Corradini, who formed the Associazione Nazionalistica Italiana, to support his country colonial expansionism.

Papini met William James and Henri Bergson, who greatly influenced his early works.[6] He started publishing short-stories and essays: in 1906, Il Tragico Quotidiano ("Everyday Tragic"), in 1907 Il Pilota Cieco ("The Blind Pilot") and Il Crepuscolo dei Filosofi ("The Twilight of the Philosophers"). The latter constituted a polemic with established and diverse intellectual figures, such as Immanuel Kant, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Auguste Comte, Herbert Spencer, Arthur Schopenhauer, and Friedrich Nietzsche. Papini proclaimed the death of philosophers and the demolition of thinking itself. He briefly flirted with Futurism[7][8] and other violent and liberating forms of Modernism[9] (Papini is the character in several poems of the period written by Mina Loy).[10]

In 1907 Papini married Giacinta Giovagnoli; the couple had two daughters, Viola and Gioconda.[11]

Before and during World War I

Caricature of Giovanni Papini
"Caricature of Papini", by Carlo Carrà & Ardengo Soffici, from Broom, 1922.

After leaving Il Leonardo in 1907, Giovanni Papini founded several other magazines. First he published La Voce in 1908, then L'Anima together with Giovanni Amendola and Prezzolini. In 1913 (right before Italy's entry into World War I) he started Lacerba (1913–15). From three years Papini was correspondent for the Mercure de France and later literary critic for La Nazione.[12] About 1918 he created yet another review, La Vraie Italie, with Ardengo Soffici.

Other books came from his pen. His Parole e Sangue ("Words and Blood") showed his fundamental atheism. Furthermore, Papini sought to create scandal by speculating that Jesus and John the Apostle had a homosexual relationship.[13] In 1912 he published his best-known work, the autobiography Un Uomo Finito ("The Failure").

In his 1915 collection of poetic prose Cento Pagine di Poesia (followed by Buffonate, Maschilità, and Stroncature), Papini placed himself face-to-face with Giovanni Boccaccio, William Shakespeare, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, but also contemporaries such as Benedetto Croce and Giovanni Gentile, and less prominent disciples of Gabriele D'Annunzio. A critic wrote of him:

Giovanni Papini [...] is one of the finest minds in the Italy of today. He is an excellent representative of modernity's restless search for truth, and his work exhibits a refreshing independence founded, not like so much so-called independence, upon ignorance of the past, but upon a study and understanding of it.[14]

He published verse in 1917, grouped under the title Opera Prima. In 1921, Papini announced his newly found Roman Catholicism,[15][16] publishing his Storia di Cristo ("The Story of Christ"), a book which has been translated into twenty-three languages and has had a worldwide success.[17]

Fascism and later years

After further verse works, he published the satire Gog (1931) and the essay Dante Vivo ("Living Dante", or "If Dante Were Alive"; 1933).[18]

Caricature of G. Papini
Drawing of Papini, by Julius Zirinsky.

He moved towards Fascism,[19] and his beliefs earned him a teaching position at the University of Bologna in 1935 (although his studies only qualified him for primary school teaching); the Fascist authorities confirmed Papini's "impeccable reputation" through the appointment. In 1937, Papini published the only volume of his History of Italian Literature, which he dedicated to Benito Mussolini: "to Il Duce, friend of poetry and of the poets",[20] being awarded top positions in academia, especially in the study of Italian Renaissance. An Antisemite, he believed in an international plot of Jews, applauding the racial discrimination laws enforced by Mussolini in 1938. In 1940 Papini's Storia della Letteratura Italiana was published in Nazi Germany with the title Eternal Italy -- The Great in its Empire of Letters (in German: Ewiges Italien - Die Großen im Reich seiner Dichtung). Papini was the vice president of the Europäische Schriftstellervereinigung (i.e. European Writers' League), which was founded by Joseph Goebbels in 1941/42.[21] When the Fascist regime crumbled (1943), Papini entered the Franciscan convent in La Verna, with the name Fra' Bonaventura.[22]

Largely discredited at the end of World War II, he was defended by the Catholic political right. His work concentrated on different subjects, including a biography of Michelangelo, while he continued to publish dark and tragic essays. He collaborated with Corriere della Sera, contributing articles that were published as a volume after his death.

Papini had been suffering from progressive paralysis (due by motor neuron disease[23]) and was blind during the last years of his life.

Giovanni Papini's grave in Cimitero delle Porte Sante (Florence)
Papini's grave in the Cimitero delle Porte Sante in Florence.

According to art historian Richard Dorment,[24][25][26] Francisco Franco's regime and NATO used Papini's series of imaginary interviews (Il Libro Nero, 1951) as propaganda against Pablo Picasso,[27] to dramatically undercut his pro-Communist image. In 1962, the artist asked his biographer Pierre Daix, to expose the pretend interview, which he did in Les Lettres Françaises.[28]

He was admired by Bruno de Finetti, founder of a subjective theory of probability and Jorge Luis Borges, who remarked that Papini had been "unjustly forgotten" and included some of his stories in the Library of Babel.[29]


  • La Teoria Psicologica della Previsione (1902).
  • Sentire Senza Agire e Agire Senza Sentire (1905).
  • Il Crepuscolo dei Filosofi (1906).
  • Il Tragico Quotidiano (1906).
  • La Coltura Italiana (with Giuseppe Prezzolini, 1906).
  • Il Pilota Cieco (1907).
  • Le Memorie d'Iddio (1911).
  • L'Altra Metà (1911).
  • La Vita di Nessuno (1912).
  • Parole e Sangue (1912).
  • Un Uomo Finito (1913).
  • Ventiquattro Cervelli (1913).
  • Sul Pragmatismo: Saggi e Ricerche, 1903-1911 (1913).
  • Almanacco Purgativo 1914 (with Ardengo Soffici et al., 1913).
  • Buffonate (1914).
  • Vecchio e Nuovo Nazionalismo (with Giuseppe Prezzolini, 1914).
  • Cento Pagine di Poesia (1915).
  • Maschilità (1915).
  • La Paga del Sabato (1915).
  • Stroncature (1916).
  • Opera Prima (1917).
  • Polemiche Religiose (1917).
  • Testimonianze (1918).
  • L'Uomo Carducci (1918).
  • L'Europa Occidentale Contro la Mittel-Europa (1918).
  • Chiudiamo le Scuole (1918).
  • Giorni di Festa (1918).
  • L'Esperienza Futurista (1919).
  • Poeti d'Oggi (with Pietro Pancrazi, 1920).
  • Storia di Cristo (1921).
  • Antologia della Poesia Religiosa Italiana (1923).
  • Dizionario dell'Omo Salvatico (with Domenico Giuliotti, 1923).
  • L'Anno Santo e le Quattro Paci (1925).
  • Pane e Vino (1926).
  • Gli Operai della Vigna (1929).
  • Sant'Agostino (1931).
  • Gog (1931).
  • La Scala di Giacobbe (1932).
  • Firenze (1932).
  • Il Sacco dell'Orco (1933).
  • Dante Vivo (1933).
  • Ardengo Soffici (1933).
  • La Pietra Infernale (1934).
  • Grandezze di Carducci (1935).
  • I Testimoni della Passione (1937).
  • Storia della Letteratura Italiana (1937).
  • Italia Mia (1939).
  • Figure Umane (1940).
  • Medardo Rosso (1940).
  • La Corona d'Argento (1941).
  • Mostra Personale (1941).
  • Prose di Cattolici Italiani d'Ogni Secolo (with Giuseppe De Luca, 1941).
  • L'Imitazione del Padre. Saggi sul Rinascimento (1942).
  • Racconti di Gioventù (1943).
  • Cielo e Terra (1943).
  • Foglie della Foresta (1946).
  • Lettere agli Uomini di Papa Celestino VI (1946).
  • Primo Conti (1947).
  • Santi e Poeti (1948).
  • Passato Remoto (1948).
  • Vita di Michelangiolo (1949).
  • Le Pazzie del Poeta (1950).
  • Firenze Fiore del Mondo (with Ardengo Soffici, Piero Bargellini and Spadolini, 1950).
  • Il Libro Nero (1951).
  • Il Diavolo (1953).
  • Il Bel Viaggio (with Enzo Palmeri, 1954).
  • Concerto Fantastico (1954).
  • Strane Storie (1954).
  • La Spia del Mondo (1955).
  • La Loggia dei Busti (1955).
  • Le Felicità dell'Infelice (1956).


  • L'Aurora della Letteratura Italiana: Da Jacopone da Todi a Franco Sacchetti (1956).
  • Il Muro dei Gelsomini: Ricordi di Fanciullezza (1957).
  • Giudizio Universale (1957).
  • La Seconda Nascita (1958).
  • Dichiarazione al Tipografo (1958).
  • Città Felicità (1960).
  • Diario (1962).
  • Schegge (Articles published in Corriere della Sera, 1971).
  • Rapporto sugli Uomini (1978).

Collected works

  • Tutte le Opere di Giovanni Papini, 11 vols. Milan: Mondadori (1958–66)

Works in English translation

  • Four and Twenty Minds. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company, 1922.
  • The Story of Christ. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1923 [Rep. as Life of Christ. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Co., 1923].
  • The Failure. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company, 1924 [Rep. as A Man-Finished. London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1924].
  • The Memoirs of God. Boston: The Ball Publishing Co., 1926.
  • A Hymn to Intelligence. Pittsburgh: The Laboratory Press, 1928.
  • A Prayer for Fools, Particularly Those we See in Art Galleries, Drawing-rooms and Theatres. Pittsburgh: The Laboratory Press, 1929.
  • Laborers in the Vineyard. London: Sheed & Ward, 1930.
  • Life and Myself, translated by Dorothy Emmrich. New York: Brentano's, 1930.
  • Saint Augustine. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Co., 1930.
  • Gog, translated by Mary Prichard Agnetti. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Co., 1931.
  • Dante Vivo. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1935.
  • The Letters of Pope Celestine VI to All Mankind. New York: E.P. Dutton & Co., Inc., 1948.
  • Florence: Flower of the World. Firenze: L'Arco, 1952 [with Ardengo Soffici and Piero Bargellini].
  • Michelangelo, his Life and his Era. New York: E. P. Dutton, 1952.
  • The Devil; Notes for Future Diabology. New York: E.P. Dutton, 1954 [London: Eyre & Spottiswoode, 1955].
  • Nietzsche: An Essay. Mount Pleasant, Mich.: Enigma Press, 1966.
  • "The Circle is Closing." In: Lawrence Rainey (ed.), Futurism: An Anthology, Yale University Press, 2009.

Selected articles

Short stories


  1. ^ "Giovanni Papini, Author, is Dead; Italian Philosopher, 75, Who Wrote 'Life of Christ', Won Prize for Study of Dante," The New York Times, July 9, 1956, p. 23.
  2. ^ Hoehn, Matthew (1948). "Giovanni Papini, 1881." In: Catholic Authors: Contemporary Biographical Sketches. Newark, N.J.: St. Mary's Abbey, p. 607.
  3. ^ Boyd, Ernest (1925). "Giovanni Papini." In: Studies from Ten Literatures. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, p. 167.
  4. ^ Kunitz, Stanley (1931). "Giovanni Papini." In: Living Authors: A Book of Biographies. New York: The H.W. Wilson company, p. 314.
  5. ^ Bondanella, Peter, ed. (2001). "Papini, Giovanni (1881-1956)," Cassell Dictionary Italian Literature, Continuum International Publishing Group, p. 422.
  6. ^ Orlandi, Daniela (2007). "Papini (1881–1856)." In: Encyclopedia of Italian Literary Studies, Paolo Puppa & Luca Somigli (eds.), Vol. I. Taylor & Francis, p. 1347.
  7. ^ Collins, Joseph (1920). "Giovanni Papini and the Futuristic Literary Movement in Italy." In: Idling in Italy: Studies of Literature and of Life. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, pp. 88–106.
  8. ^ Clough, Rosa Trillo (1961). Futurism: The Story of a Modern Art Movement, a New Appraisal. New York: Philosophical Library.
  9. ^ Sharkey, Stephen & Robert S. Dombronski (1976). "Revolution, Myth and Mythical Politics: The Futurist Solution," Journal of European History 6 (23), pp. 231–247.
  10. ^ Hofer, Matthew (2011). “Mina Loy, Giovanni Papini, and the Aesthetic of Irritation,” Paideuma 38.
  11. ^ Orlandi, Daniela (2007), p. 1347.
  12. ^ Hoehn, Matthew (1948), p. 607.
  13. ^ Orlandi, Daniela (2007), p. 1347.
  14. ^ Goldberg, Isaac (1919). "The Intellectual Ferment in Post-Bellum Italy," The Bookman, Vol. L, No. 2, p. 158.
  15. ^ Sanctis, Sante de (1927). Religious Conversion, a Bio-Psychological Study. London: K. Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co., ltd., p. 280.
  16. ^ Livingston, Arthur (1950). "Papini Tells of his Intellectual Adventures." In: Essays on Modern Italian Literature. New York: S.F. Vanni, pp. 56–68.
  17. ^ "Giovanni Papini is the author of the Storia di Cristo (The Story of Christ), which marked his conversion to Catholicism. But his conversion has not checked his output, nor devitalized his art, which continued as before in the tradition of Carducci. His greatest novel is Un Uomo Finito (A Man — Finished), one of the fundamental works of modern Italian fiction. Papini's influence has been immense. His proud spiritual impulses, his restless ardour, his wealth of new and provocative ideas, and his crashing judgments, have been a strong stimulus to the younger generation, and have drawn to his side, if only temporarily, even writers of real independence." — Pirandello, Luigi (1967). "Italy." In: Tendencies of the Modern Novel. Freeport, N.Y.: Books for Libraries Press, Inc., pp. 130–131.
  18. ^ Beckett, Samuel (1934). Papini's Dante. London: Hodder and Stoughton.
  19. ^ Franzese, Sergio (2004). "Giovanni Papini." In John Lachs and Robert B. Talisse, ed., American Philosophy: An Encyclopedia, Psychology Press, p. 562.
  20. ^ Traversi, D.A. (1939). "Giovanni Papini and Italian Literature," Scrutiny 7 (4), p. 415.
  21. ^ Hausmann, Frank-Rutger (2004). "Dichte, Dichter, tage nicht!" Die Europäische Schriftsteller-Vereinigung in Weimar 1941-1948. Frankfurt am Main: Vittorio Klostermann, p. 210 ISBN 3-465-03295-0
  22. ^ Orlandi, Daniela (2007), p. 1347.
  23. ^ Roberto Ridolfi, Vita di Giovanni Papini, 1987, p. 211-212
  24. ^ The Spectator, 2 April 1993, p. 24.
  25. ^ "Letter: That Notorious Fake," The Independent, 14 March 1994.
  26. ^ "The quotation occurs in an 'interview' with an Italian journalist named Giovanni Papini. It was published in 1951 in a volume of Papini's collected journalism entitled Il Libro Nero: Nuovo Diario di Gog, a copy of which is in the British Library. That interview is a notorious fake. According to Pierre Daix, in his respected 1977 biography of Picasso, the artist knew about II Libro Nero, but ignored it until 1955, when it was used against him by Franco's government. Because Picasso was a communist and this was the height of the Cold War, it was further disseminated by Nato intelligence. At this point Picasso asked Daix to expose the whole affair, which Daix did in a series of articles in Les Lettres Françaises between 1962 and 1965. In the biography, Daix described the contents of II Libro Nero as 'imaginary interviews and false confessions'. Papini was not a fraud, but a journalist who used the literary device of the pretend interview to write profiles of famous people, including Kafka, Tolstoy, Freud, Molotov, Hitler, Cervantes, Goethe, William Blake and Robert Browning. Picasso never met Papini and never said the words Papini attributed to him." — The Spectator, 1 May 1998, p. 27.
  27. ^ "Apology for a False Picasso 'Quote'," Life, Vol. LXVI, No. 2, January 17, 1969, p. 18B.
  28. ^ Pierre d'Aix, Les Lettres Francaises, 12-18, Décembre, 1963.
  29. ^ Borges, Jorge Louis (1975). Preface to Papini's, Lo Specchio che Fugge. Parma-Milano: Franco Maria Ricci.
  30. ^ Rep. in Vanity Fair 15 (2), 1920, p. 48.
  31. ^ Rep. in Italian Short Stories from the 13th to the 20th Centuries. With an introduction by Decio Pettoello. London: J. M. Dent & Sons, Ltd., 1932; The Copeland Translations; Mainly in Prose from French, German, Italian and Russian. Chosen and arranged with an introduction. New York-London: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1934.
  • Biography partially taken from the introduction to Gog by Ettore Allodoli.

Further reading

  • Berghaus, Günter (2000). International Futurism in Arts and Literature. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.
  • Colella, E. Paul (2005). "Reflex Action and the Pragmatism of Giovanni Papini," The Journal of Speculative Philosophy 19 (3), pp. 187–215.
  • Filippis, M. de (1944). "Giovanni Papini," The Modern Language Journal 28 (4), pp. 352–364.
  • Gironella, José María (1958). "The Death and Judgment of Giovanni Papini," Modern Age 2 (3), pp. 240–250.
  • Giuliano, William P. (1946). "Spiritual Evolution of Giovanni Papini," Italica 23 (4), pp. 304–311.
  • Golino, Carlo L. (1955). "Giovanni Papini and American Pragmatism," Italica 32 (1), pp. 38–48.
  • James, William (1906). "G. Papini and the Pragmatist Movement in Italy," The Journal of Philosophy, Psychology and Scientific Methods 3 (13), pp. 337–341.
  • Phelps, Ruth Shepard (1923). "The Poet in Papini," The North American Review, Vol. CCXVII, No. 811, pp. 834–843.
  • Phillips, Charles (1921). "A Prophet in Italy," Catholic World, Vol. CIV, pp. 210–219.
  • Prezzolini, Giuseppe (1922). "Giovanni Papini," Broom 1 (3), pp. 239–248.
  • Riccio, Peter M. (1938). "Giovanni Papini." In: Italian Authors of Today. New York: S.F. Vanni, Inc., pp. 87–96.
  • Waterfield, Lina (1921). "Giovanni Papini," The Living Age, No. 4016, pp. 788–789.
  • Wilson, Lawrence A. (1961). "A Possible Original of Papini's Dottor Alberto Rego," Italica 38 (4), pp. 296–301.
  • Wohl, Robert (2009). The Generation of 1914. Harvard University Press.

In foreign languages

  • Prezzolini, Giuseppe (1915). Discorso su Giovanni Papini. Firenze: Libreria Della Voce.
  • Fondi, Renato (1922). Un costruttore: Giovanni Papini. Firenze: Vallecchi.
  • Ridolfi, Roberto (1957). Vita di Giovanni Papini. Milano: A. Mondadori, 1957 (Edizioni di Storia e Letteratura, 1996).
  • Horia, Vintilă (1963). Giovanni Papini. Paris: Wesmael-Charlier.
  • Castelli, Eugenio & Julio Chiappini (1971). Diez Ensayos sobre Giovanni Papini. Santa Fe, Argentina: Ediciones Colmegna.
  • Fuente, Jaime de la (1970). Papini: Una Vida en Busca de la Verdad. Madrid: E.P.E.S.A.
  • Righi, Lorenzo (1981). Giovanni Papini Imperatore del Nulla: 1881-1981. Firenze: Tip. Sbolci.
  • Fantino, Giuseppe (1981). Saggio su Papini. Milano: Italia Letteraria.
  • Frangini, Giovanni (1982). Papini Vivo. Palermo: Thule.
  • Invitto, Giovanni (1984). Un Contrasto Novecentesco: Giovanni Papini e la Filosofia. Lecce: Ed. Milella.
  • Di Biase, Carmine (1999). Giovanni Papini. L'Anima Intera. Napoli: Edizioni Scientifiche Italiane.
  • Richter, Mario (2005). Papini e Soffici: Mezzo Secolo di Vita Italiana (1903–1956). Florence: Le Lettere.
  • Arnone, Vincenzo (2005). Papini, un Uomo Infinito. Padova: Messaggero.
  • Castaldini, Alberto (2006). Giovanni Papini: la Reazione alla Modernità. Firenze: Leo S. Olschki.
  • De Paulis-Dalembert, Maria Pia (2007). Giovanni Papini: Culture et Identité. Toulouse: Presses de l'Université du Mirail.
  • Di Giovanni, Antonino (2009). Giovanni Papini. Dalla Filosofia Dilettante al Diletto della Filosofia. Roma-Acireale: Bonanno.

External links

1910 in Italy

See also:

1909 in Italy,

other events of 1910,

1911 in Italy.

Events from the year 1910 in Italy.

Anna Balsamo

Anna Balsamo is an Italian poet born in Pisa, Italy, living and working in Florence, Italy.

She began writing for the theater as a teenager, and was next drawn to narrative writing and her stories were recognized in several competitions. A member of Florentine literary salons, she became the editor, then editor-in-chief, of the Italian magazine Firme Nostre (Our Signatures). Her novellas as well as literary and art reviews were published in the magazine, founded and at the time headed by Antonio De Lorenzo.

In 1998, Balsamo became a council member of the new Consiglio della Camerata dei Poeti, the Chamber of Poets in tradition of the Florentine Camerata. Under the presidency of Florentine poet Marcello Fabbri, Balsamo coordinated events in honor of Florentine poet Mario Luzi. The late poet attended full turnout salons that introduced some of his poetry from boyhood years from The Boat (La Barca), as well as key passages from the tragedy Ipazia.

Balsamo created costume design and music for the theatrical poetry presentation of Luzi's Ipazia.

The Chamber coordinates literary events with noted Italian poets such as Giuseppe Brunelli and Duccia Camiciotti.

In 2003, Anna Balsamo was appointed Vice-President to the Florentine association Poets Chamber founded in 1930 by Domenico François on suggestion of Giovanni Papini.

Her books have been featured at Turin, Rome, Frankfurt and Paris book fairs, as well as New York and Mexico. The title Taj Mahal Passion won four Ibiskos literary awards in 2008 and volumes of her poetry have won multiple Italian literary prizes.

In the 2011 she is one of the speakers in the poetic event "Da Firenze alle stelle" organized by La Pergola Arte 2° edition with Vanna Bonta, Giancarlo Bianchi and Enrico Nistri in the Basilica of San Marco in the Salone Annigoni.

Caffè Giubbe Rosse

Caffè Giubbe Rosse is a café in Piazza della Repubblica (13-14r), Florence.

When opened in 1896, the caffè was actually called "Fratelli Reininghaus". It was named "Giubbe Rosse" (Red jackets or coats) in 1910, after the jackets which waiters wear to this very day.

The café has a long-standing reputation as the resort of literati and intellectuals. Alberto Viviani defined the Giubbe Rosse as "fucina di sogni e di passioni" ("a forge of dreams and passions"). The Giubbe Rosse was the place where the Futurist movement blossomed, struggled and expanded; it played a very important role in the history of Italian culture as a workshop of ideas, projects, and passions. "We want to celebrate love of danger, of constant energy, and courage. We want to encourage going in aggressive new directions, feverish sleeplessness, running, deathly leaps, slaps and blows".Poets such as Ardengo Soffici, Giovanni Papini, Eugenio Montale, Filippo Tommaso Marinetti, Giuseppe Prezzolini and many others met and wrote in this literary café, an important venue of Italian literature in the beginning of the 20th century.

Important magazines such as Solaria and Lacerba originated here from the writers who frequented the café.Giubbe Rosse was founded by two Germans, the Reininghaus brothers, in 1896.

Enrico Corradini

Enrico Corradini (20 July 1865 – 10 December 1931) was an Italian novelist, essayist, journalist and nationalist political figure.

Ercole Luigi Morselli

Ercole Luigi Morselli (Pesaro, 19 February 1882 – Rome, 16 March 1921) was an Italian writer and dramatist.

In Florence, where his family moved in 1891 following his father, a state counsel who died there in 1895, Morselli attempted to study medicine and literature, but in both cases he did not succeed and had to interrupt his studies. In the following years he had a very turbulent life, with many journeys first in Africa and Latin America, then also in England and France. Morselli was a friend of Giovanni Papini and Giuseppe Prezzolini. After his return to Italy, Morselli started his literary career, which was initially quite difficult, such that his mother had to support him for long time. In 1910 his tragicomedy Orione obtained a great success, but Morselli did not reach economic stability until 1919, with the success of Glauco, a drama given in Rome. Morselli was also film director and screenplayer. He died of tuberculosis in a Roman hospital in 1921.

The works of Morselli are based on the classical myths, revisited from a modern viewpoint. His most successful works are Orione, a tragicomedy where the main character is a demigod with very unspiritual desires, and Glauco, which describes the story of a fisher who becomes god of the sea but discovers that power does not necessarily bring joy. Morselli, portraying antiheroes, represented an alternative to the spirit of D'Annunzio. With his short story La donna ragno (The spider woman, 1915), Morselli was in addition one of the precursors of the science fiction in Italy. His play Belfagor was used by Claudio Guastalla as subject for the libretto of the opera with the same title (1926) of Ottorino Respighi.

Gas sculpture

Gas sculpture is a proposal made by Joan Miró in his late writings to make sculptures out of gaseous materials.

The idea of a gas sculpture also appeared in the book Gog, by Giovanni Papini (1881–1956).

An example of pure water fog sculpture is in the sculpture garden at the National Gallery of Australia in Canberra. A large bank of very small nozzles is arrayed on the edge of a small rush-filled pond, and when the power is switched on a fine mist of fog billows out. The "sculpture" has a continuously changing shape as it is affected by the water, the rushes, and the air currents in the area.

Giovanni (name)

Giovanni is a male Italian given name (from Latin Ioannes). It is the Italian equivalent of John. Giovanni is frequently contracted to Gianni, Gian, or Gio, particularly in the name Gianbattista, and can also be found as a surname. It is sometimes spelled as Geovanni, Giovonnie or Giovannie when used as an English female name. Its female counterpart is Giovanna.

Giuseppe Prezzolini

Giuseppe Prezzolini (27 January 1882 – 16 July 1982) was an Italian literary critic, journalist, editor and writer, later an American citizen.

Gog (novel)

Gog is a 1931 satirical novel by the Italian writer Giovanni Papini.

An English translation was published in 1931, but was poorly received. This was very much out of Gog's hands as the English public are very hard to please, according to the critic Robin Healey's analysis. The American Mercury wrote in its review: "There are, here and there, some ingenious and amusing passages, but in the main the ideas are not striking, nor is their exposition very impressive. It could go with more core anglais, much more core anglais. The book, indeed, only bears out what was suggested in Papini's life of Christ: that there is little in him save a somewhat sophomoric and trashy cleverness."

Italian Nationalist Association

The Italian Nationalist Association (Associazione Nazionalista Italiana, ANI) was Italy's first nationalist political movement founded in 1910, under the influence of Italian nationalists such as Enrico Corradini and Giovanni Papini. Upon its formation, the ANI supported the repatriation of Austrian held Italian-populated lands to Italy and was willing to endorse war with Austria-Hungary to do so. The party had a paramilitary wing called the Blueshirts. The authoritarian nationalist faction of the ANI would be a major influence for the National Fascist Party of Benito Mussolini formed in 1921. In 1922 the ANI participated in the March on Rome, with an important role, but it was not completely aligned with Benito Mussolini' party. Nevertheless, the ANI merged into the Fascist Party in October 1923.

Jorge Gallardo

Jorge Gallardo (December 12, 1924 - April 4, 2002) was a Costa Rican painter and poet.

Gallardo's works are among the most important art collections of the Government of Costa Rica as well as many individuals, both domestic and foreign. His art is an irreverent mix in which he uses an impeccable use of color, which many have considered flat and without complexities. He painted many colorful pictures displaying topics such as agriculture in Costa Rica and the working people on landscapes.

Gallardo spent a great deal of time in Europe which is reflected in his artistic style. Jorge Gallardo, called his art "Christian Realism" and published in 1968, "Art for Charity". He was noted poet and some of his writings include "La Justicia Divina" (1968); "Dar, Amanecer del Amor"(Poetry, 1974); "La Celestina Intelectualoide" (Short novel, 1975); "La Guerra Intrauterina"(Short novel, 1975); "La Pedagogía Diabólica" (Short novel, 1978).

Jorge Gallardo arrived in Europe at a difficult time in the aftermath of World War II. He befriended people as Octavio Paz, Gabriela Mistral, Giovanni Papini, Alfonso Paso and numerous others which helped him visualize his mission as a painter: defining his country of birth, Costa Rica, in pictorial language.

He died in 2002.


Lacerba was an Italian literary journal. It was started as a fortnightly magazine on 1 January 1913 which was closely associated with the Futurist movement. Its frequency was later changed to weekly. The paper was based in Florence.The paper had no official editor. Ardengo Soffici and Giovanni Papini were two of the principal contributors. Lacerba ceased publication on 22 May 1915.

Life of Christ (disambiguation)

Life of Christ may refer to:

Life of Jesus in the New Testament

Life of Christ in art

Life of Christ (Italian Storia di Cristo) 1921 book by Giovanni Papini; Dorothy Canfield Fisher

The life of Christ, by Frederic Farrar 1874

List of Italian writers

This is a list of notable Italian writers, including novelists, essayists, poets, and other people whose primary artistic output was literature.

List of devotees of Saint Thérèse of Lisieux

Over the years, a number of prominent people have become devotees of Saint Thérèse of Lisieux. These include:

Pope Francis - "When I have a problem I ask the saint, not to solve it, but to take it in her hands and help me accept it."

Pope John Paul I - "Dear little Thérèse , I was seventeen when I read your autobiography. It struck me forcibly...Once you had chosen the path of complete dedication to God, nothing could stop you: not illness, nor opposition from outside, nor the mists or inner darkness."

Mother Teresa of Calcutta, originally called Agnes, explained her choice of the name Teresa as follows: "I chose Thérèse as my namesake because she did ordinary things with extraordinary love" She and St. Thérèse were both deeply drawn by the words of Christ on the Cross: "I thirst."

Maximilian Kolbe offered his first Mass for the intention of the beatification and canonization of then-Sister Therese. He also dedicated his Asian missions to St. Therese.

Maria Candida of the Eucharist - Was inspired by reading The Story of a Soul.

Edith Piaf - French singer - "Shortly after her birth Edith developed a cataract. She was blind for almost three years. Her grandmother, Louise, took her to Lisieux. She saw. It was a real miracle for Edith. She always believed this. Since that time she had a real devotion to St Thérèse of the Child Jesus...she always had a small picture of the saint on her bedside table." (Simone Berteaut, Edith Piaf's closest friend).

Lucie Delarue-Mardrus - French writer - "the Carmelite-apparition..appeared, roses in hand, in the midst of an era which grieves and terrifies poets...Thérèse is my fellow-countrywoman, and almost my contemporary. I do not wish to let her glorious entry into sanctity pass by without honoring her in my own way. And besides, she is henceforth public property." (Introducing her book, 1926, on Thérèse).

Marc Sangnier - Founder of Le Sillon - "May Thérèse from on high support us and show us how to be more one with Jesus."

Delia Smith - British cookery writer - "Thérèse ..not only personified the first beatitude but is, I am deeply convinced, the supreme teacher in regard to the spiritual life."

Louise Brooks - American dancer and actress - "Her spiritual trek was guided by two New York City priests, whom she saw with increasing frequency in late 1952 and early 1953, and by a book about the life of Saint Thérèse of Lisieux, Storm of Glory by John Beevers. So enamored of Saint Thérèse was Louise that she spent one entire Sunday propped up in bed with her easel, fashioning a portrait in charcoal on canvas from a small photo of Thérèse at eight. It was the best and most haunting of her dozen works of art."

Alain Mimoun - Olympic marathon champion - "St Thérèse of Lisieux is my patron saint. The white roses which I planted in front of her [her statue in the garden] flower almost all the year round."

Henri Bergson - Nobel prize winner - "One reason why the philosopher Henri Bergson esteemed Thérèse so highly was that he was fascinated by the qualities of character which prompted her to confront the Pope of her day , Leo XIII, in pursuit of her own desires...explicitly forbidden by the chaplain to address Leo XIII, Thérèse flouted the injunction..she was dragged away by two papal guards.This is hardly the simpering and docile saint which Thérèse's statuary too often suggests."

Claudia Koll - Italian actress

Don Luigi Orione - Italian saint

Pio of Pietrelcina - Italian saint

Fernando del Valle - Operatic Tenor

Charles Maurras - French author and political philosopher

Jacques Fesch - French murderer turned devotee

Ada Negri - Italian poet

Giovanni Papini - Italian critic and journalist

Giuseppe Moscati - Italian saint

Alfredo Obviar - Filipino Bishop and founder of the Missionary Catechists of St. Therese of the Infant Jesus

Francis Bourne - British Cardinal - "I love St Thérèse of Lisieux very much because she has simplified things: in our relationship with God she has done away with the mathematics.."

Jean Guitton - French writer

Emmanuel Mounier - French writer/philosopher

Gilbert Cesbron

Georges Bernanos - "A few months before her death, Therese wrote of ' a wall rising up as far as the heavens..when I sing of the happiness of Heaven, I feel no joy, because I am simply singing of what I WANT TO BELIEVE' (Manuscrits , 248)... Bernanos, a devotee of Thérèse, employs the same image in his novel Diary of a Country Priest, where the priest confides to his diary, Behind me there was nothing. and in front of me a wall, a black wall'.

Maxence Van Der Meersch

Henri Gheon

Marie-Joseph Lagrange - founder of Biblical School in Jerusalem - "I owe to Saint Thérèse the fact that I didn't become a bookworm. I owe her everything because without her, I would have shrivelled up, my mind dried up."

Marthe Robin

Daniel Brottier - "In 1923, Father Brottier's superiors from the Congregation of the Holy Spirit gave him the responsibility to resume [the] great Work of the Orphan-Apprentices of Auteuil. The former military chaplain already had great devotion to the little Carmelite. At the time of his appointment in Auteuil Paris, he decided to build a chapel in honor of Thérèse who had just been beatified a few months earlier, so that the orphans could pray to their little mama in a sanctuary worthy of her."

Brian Desmond Hurst - film director

Louise de Bettignies

Vita Sackville-West, author of The Eagle and the Dove a study of Thérèse of Lisieux and Teresa of Avila - admired the "tough core of heroism" she found in the pages of Histoire d'une âme.

Gwen John - "Some of her final paintings were in fact of religious subjects [including] countless (over 700) tiny ink copies after a photograph of Thérèse of Lisieux and the saint's elder sister.."

Marcel Van, Servant of God, a Vietnamese Redemptorist brother. He allegedly had visions of and conversations with St. Thérèse. He was heavily influenced by her spirituality, and his teachings are often considered a continuation of her "Little Way."

Jean Vanier – founder of l'Arche

Alphonsa – First Indian Saint

Anna Schaffer – German Saint

Jack Kerouac, American author

List of people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

This is a list of notable people who have or had amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).

Raymond Abrashkin – author

Zeca Afonso – Portuguese folk singer and anti-fascist politician

Gijs van Aardenne – Dutch politician

Derek Bailey – British avant-garde guitar virtuoso

Ady Barkan – American lawyer and political activist

Jason Becker – American guitar virtuoso

Lead Belly – blues singer and guitarist

Stefano Borgonovo – Italian football player

Rob Borsellino – Des Moines Register columnist and author of So I'm Talkin' to This Guy...

Scott Brazil – American television producer and director

O.J. Brigance – American football player and Advisor

Donna Britt – Newscaster At WAFB in Baton Rouge Louisiana for more than 30 years

Harry Browne – best-selling author and 2-time Libertarian U.S. presidential candidate

Ben Byer – American playwright and subject of the film Indestructible, documenting his life post-diagnosis

Jeff Capel II – American collegiate and professional basketball coach

Paul Cellucci – politician and diplomat; 69th Governor of Massachusetts and U.S. Ambassador to Canada

Ezzard Charles – boxer; former world heavyweight champion

Leonard Cheshire – notable RAF pilot and charity worker

Marián Čišovský – Slovak football player

Dwight Clark – American football player

Preston Cloud – eminent American earth scientist

Sid Collins – radio personality; radio voice of the Indianapolis 500

Luca Coscioni – Italian researcher, political activist and advocate for euthanasia

Ronnie Corbett – British comedian and actor

Neale Daniher – former AFL player (Essendon) & coach (Melbourne)

Stephen Darby – former footballer for Bolton Wanderers

Dennis Day – singer, comedian, actor

Dieter Dengler – Vietnam era Air Force pilot who escaped from Laotian POW camp

Michael Donnelly – Gulf War veteran

Peter Doohan – Australian tennis player

Ann Downer – Author of books for children and teenagers

Constantinos Apostolou Doxiadis – Greek architect, urban planner and visionary

John Drury – longtime ABC7 Chicago news anchor

Bruce Edwards – PGA Tour caddie for golfer Tom Watson

Jenifer Estess – theatre producer; star of HBO documentary Three Sisters, subject of HBO film Jennifer; founding member of Project ALS

Hal Finney – computer scientist

Jay S. Fishman – Chairman of the Board and former CEO of The Travelers Companies

Roberto Fontanarrosa – Argentine cartoonist

Pete Frates – former Boston College baseball star, founder and inspiration behind the viral ALS Ice Bucket Challenge (Summer 2014)

Steven Gey- law professor and expert on the separation of church and state and freedom of speech; former on-air analyst for ABC during the 2000 presidential recount

Lou Gehrig – baseball player, after whom the disease is commonly referred

Richard Glatzer – writer and director; director of Still Alice

Steve Gleason – American football player for the New Orleans Saints 2000-2007

Jérôme Golmard – French tennis player

Tim Green – Former NFL player and broadcaster.

Stanislav Gross – former Prime Minister of the Czech Republic

Marc Harrison – designer

Pro Hart – Australian painter

Stephen Hawking – theoretical physicist and author of several books on astrophysics, including A Brief History of Time

Bob Haymes – actor, singer, pianist and songwriter of the Great American Songbook ballad "That's All"

Stephen Heywood – carpenter; subject of So Much So Fast and His Brother's Keeper

Stephen Hillenburg – marine biologist and cartoonist; creator of SpongeBob SquarePants

Jim "Catfish" Hunter – baseball player

Jörg Immendorff, German painter

Jacob K. Javits, U.S. Senator from New York

Axel Jensen – writer

Jimmy Johnstone, Scottish international footballer

Tony Judt – historian and writer

Hans Keller – Austrian-born British musicologist and music critic.

Motoo Kimura – Japanese population geneticist

Suna Kıraç, Turkish businesswoman and philanthropist

Dan Klein – Singer of The Frightnrs

Mao Zedong – Chairman of the Chinese Communist Party

Denny Miller- actor

Charles Mingus – jazz bass player

Glenn Montgomery – NFL football player for the Houston Oilers and Seattle Seahawks

Augie Nieto – fitness guru; founder and retired chief executive of Life Fitness and the chairman of Octane Fitness

David Niven – actor

Krzysztof Nowak – Polish footballer

Richard K. Olney – neurologist; ALS physician and researcher

Sidney Preston Osborn – former governor of Arizona

Giovanni Papini - Italian writer

Neon Park – American artist

Mike Porcaro – American bassist, Toto

Diane Pretty – British "right to die" advocate

Tony Proudfoot – CFL player, teacher, coach, broadcaster and journalist.

Don Revie – English football player and manager

Fernando Ricksen – Dutch football player

Sue Rodriguez – Canadian "right to die" advocate

Franz Rosenzweig – philosopher and religious thinker

Ayan Sadakov – Bulgarian football player and manager

Stanley Sadie – British musicologist, music critic and editor of the New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians

Ed Sadowski – baseball catcher and coach

Washington César Santos – Brazilian Footballer.

Michael Schwartz – key conservative political strategist in the U.S. Congress; American "right to life" advocate; chief of staff to U.S. Senator Tom Coburn, M.D. (R-Okla.)

Morrie Schwartz – educator

Raúl Sendic – Uruguayan Marxist and leader of the Tupamaros

Sam Shepard – American actor and playwright

Gianluca Signorini – Italian football player

Lane Smith – actor

Konrad Spindler – archaeologist, involved in the analysis of the Ötzi glacier mummy

Jon Stone – creator of Sesame Street

Maxwell D. Taylor – former chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff

Orlando Thomas- NFL safety for the Minnesota Vikings

Kevin Turner – NFL fullback for the New England Patriots and Philadelphia Eagles

Roy Walford – gerontologist and life extensionist

Henry A. Wallace – 33rd Vice President of the United States to Franklin D. Roosevelt

Charlie Wedemeyer – former athlete and coach; motivational speaker

Doddie Weir – former Scottish rugby union player

Joost van der Westhuizen – former South African Rugby Union player; former Supersport commentator

Michael Zaslow – soap actor

Catherine G. Wolf – American psychologist and expert in human-computer interaction


Papini is a surname. Notable persons with that name include:

Giovanni Papini (1881–1956), Italian writer

Guido Papini (1847–1912), Italian violinist

Nicolas Papini (c. 1751–1834), Italian monk and historian

Romeo Papini (born 1983), Italian footballer

Renato Fondi

Renato Fondi (1887–1929) was a poet, writer and music critic.

Fondi was born in Pistoia. He was active in the city until the years of the First World War, and was President of the choral society Theodule Mabellini. He contributed to the emergence of Giovanni Michelucci, brilliant architect and urban planner, and the whimsical Marino Marini.

He founded the magazines Athena and La Tempra to which they collaborated some of the most influential writers and musicians of the time: Giovanni Papini, Dino Campana, Giuseppe Antonio Borgese, Ildebrando Pizzetti and the Armenian poet Hrand Nazariantz.

His works include three important essays on the epigrammatist Nicolas Chamfort, on Giovanni Papini and on Ildebrando Pizzetti.

Fondi wrote a monograph, in 1927, about Alfredo Catalani, a composer from Lucca. Catalani, who died in 1893, had not previously been studied. Fondi himself died in Rome of the same disease as Catalani, tuberculosis.

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