Giovanni Berchet

Giovanni Berchet (23 December, 1783 – 23 December, 1851) was an Italian poet and patriot. He wrote an influential manifesto on Italian Romanticism, Lettera semiseria di Grisostomo, which appeared in 1816, and contributed to Il Conciliatore, a reformist periodical.

Berchet was born in Milan. He participated in various nationalist activities, including the revolutions that shook the Italian peninsula in 1821. Thereafter, he lived in exile, primarily in Britain, until returning to Italy to take part in the revolutions of 1848. His works include Il trovatore, Il romito del Cenisio, and, most famously, I profughi di Parga (1821).

Lettera semiseria (Half-serious letter) presents the translations (written by Berchet) of two poems by Gottfried August Bürger as an example of a new kind of poetry, and expresses the author's thought about contents and language that can reach a new public: that is, no longer a public of academic readers, but the so-called "third class", i.e. the bourgeoisie, which is waiting for books that are interesting, full of real feelings, simple in language, without mythology and classic models. This text took an important part in the debate over Romanticism that developed in Italy (specially in Milan) in the second decade of the 19th century.

Giovanni Berchet
Giovanni Berchet.

Further reading

  • Bellorini, Egidio (1930). Giovanni Berchet, 1783-1851. Torino, Milano: Paravia.
  • Croce, Benedetto (1924). "Berchet." In: European Literature in the Nineteenth Century. London: Chapman & Hall, pp. 167–181.
  • Derla, G. (1968). "Poetica e Ideologia di G. Berchet," Convivium, Vol. 36, pp. 293–308.
  • Gotti, Ettore Li (1933). G. Berchet, la Letteratura e la Politica del Risorgimento Nazionale, 1783-1851. Firenze: La Nuova Italia.

External links

Andrea De Carlo

Andrea De Carlo (born December 11, 1952 in Milan) is an Italian novelist.

Beatrice Borromeo

Beatrice dei Principi Borromeo Arese Taverna (born 18 August 1985 in San Candido) is a member of the ancient aristocratic House of Borromeo, and she is well known in the Italian news media as a television personality. She is the wife of Pierre Casiraghi, younger son of Caroline, Princess of Hanover.

Culture of Milan

Having been ruled by several different countries over the years, Milanese culture is eclectic and borrows elements from other countries, including Austria, Spain and France. Similarities between these places and Milan can be noticed through the language, architecture, cuisine and general culture of these countries. In the 18th century, Austrian rule stimulated much of the city's cultural, political, social and economic life, resulting in the founding of numerous important artistic institutions, as well as contributing to the city's architecture. After the unification of Italy in 1861, Milan became a major industrial and cultural centre in the new Kingdom; in the late 19th century onwards, the city held the position of the country's economic capital, whilst Rome was the seat of the government, making it the country's main political and administrative hub. In the fin-de-siècle period and the early 20th century, the city became an important architectural centre (highly influenced by Art Nouveau, additionally highlighted by the 1906 World Exposition, which was held in the city), and remained a prominent city with regard to a major intellectual scene. After World War II, Milan was highly affected by the Italian economic miracle, or il boom, and attracted a wave of immigrants from Southern Italy, who sought work in the prosperous city. By then an important centre for finance and design, the metropolis grew into a major fashion capital in the 1980s. In the 2000s Milan still remains one of the country's most important cultural, media and economic centres, regarded as the nation's second city; its prominence is extended worldwide, and it is recognised as an Alpha global city. The city additionally hosted the Expo 2015. Milan is traditionally referred to as the moral capital of Italy, especially due to the city's perceived work ethic.Milan today is an international city, with numerous museums and cultural icons. Such include the Duomo di Milano (Milan Cathedral), the Castello Sforzesco, the Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II and the Teatro alla Scala, to name but a few. The city has been home to numerous renowned people in history, such as Giuseppe Verdi, Mario Prada, Caravaggio, Enzo Biagi and Bramante.

Dischi Ricordi

Dischi Ricordi is an Italian record company founded on (1959-10-01)October 1, 1959 by Nanni Ricordi and Guido Crepax, active from 1958 to 1994.

Enrico Tazzoli (priest)

Enrico Tazzoli (19 April 1812 - 7 December 1852) was an Italian patriot and priest, the best known of the Belfiore martyrs.

Giovanni Visconti Venosta

Giovanni "Gino" Visconti Venosta (4 September 1831 – 1 October 1906) was a Milanese writer-scholar and, as a young man, an activist Italian patriot (a partisan for Italian unification).

Giuliano Pisapia

Giuliano Pisapia (Italian pronunciation: [dʒuˈljaːno pizaˈpiːa]; born 20 May 1949) is an Italian lawyer and politician, twice member of the Parliament (from 1996 to 2006) and former Mayor of Milan. As a politician, he has been a member of two left-wings parties, first Proletarian Democracy and then the Communist Refoundation Party; in Milan's mayoral election, he was endorsed by a large left-wing coalition, after winning the primary election of the Centre-left with the strong support of Nichi Vendola's Left Ecology Freedom. As a lawyer, he participated in a number of notable trials with political implications, including that of PKK leader Abdullah Öcalan and the trial that followed the death of anti-global activist Carlo Giuliani, shot by the police during the 27th G8 summit.


Hispanism (sometimes referred to as Hispanic Studies or Spanish Studies) is the study of the literature and culture of the Spanish-speaking world, principally that of Spain and Hispanic America. It can also entail studying Spanish language and culture in the United States and in other presently or formerly Spanish-speaking countries in Africa, Asia, and the Pacific, such as Equatorial Guinea and the Philippines. A practicing scholar who specializes in this field is known as a Hispanist.

Italian literature

Italian literature is written in the Italian language, particularly within Italy. It may also refer to literature written by Italians or in Italy in other languages spoken in Italy, often languages that are closely related to modern Italian. Italian literature begins in the XII century when in different regions of the peninsula the Italian vernacular started to be used in a literary manner. The Ritmo laurenziano is the first extant document of Italian literature.

An early example of Italian literature is the tradition of vernacular lyric poetry performed in Occitan, which reached Italy by the end of the 12th century. In 1230, the Sicilian School is notable for being the first style in standard Italian. Dante Alighieri, one of the greatest of Italian poets, is notable for his Divine Comedy. Petrarch did classical research and wrote lyric poetry. Renaissance humanism developed during the 14th and the beginning of the 15th centuries. Humanists sought to create a citizenry able to speak and write with eloquence and clarity. Early humanists, such as Petrarch, were great collectors of antique manuscripts. Lorenzo de Medici shows the influence of Florence on the Renaissance. Leonardo da Vinci wrote a treatise on painting. The development of the drama in the 15th century was very great. The fundamental characteristic of the era following Renaissance is that it perfected the Italian character of its language. Niccolò Machiavelli and Francesco Guicciardini were the chief originators of the science of history. Pietro Bembo was an influential figure in the development of the Italian language and an influence on the 16th-century revival of interest in the works of Petrarch.

In 1690 the Academy of Arcadia was instituted with the goal of "restoring" literature by imitating the simplicity of the ancient shepherds with sonnets, madrigals, canzonette and blank verse. In the 17th century, some strong and independent thinkers, such as Bernardino Telesio, Lucilio Vanini, Bruno and Campanella turned philosophical inquiry into fresh channels, and opened the way for the scientific conquests of Galileo Galilei, who is notable both for his scientific discoveries and his writing. In the 18th century, the political condition of Italy began to improve, and philosophers throughout Europe in the period known as The Enlightenment. Apostolo Zeno and Metastasio are two of the notable figures of the age. Carlo Goldoni, a Venetian, created the comedy of character. The leading figure of the literary revival of the 18th century was Giuseppe Parini.

The ideas behind the French Revolution of 1789 gave a special direction to Italian literature in the second half of the 18th century. Love of liberty and desire for equality created a literature aimed at national object. Patriotism and classicism were the two principles that inspired the literature that began with Vittorio Alfieri. Other patriots included Vincenzo Monti and Ugo Foscolo. The romantic school had as its organ the Conciliatore established in 1818 at Milan. The main instigator of the reform was Manzoni. The great poet of the age was Giacomo Leopardi. History returned to its spirit of learned research. The literary movement that preceded and was contemporary with the political revolution of 1848 may be said to be represented by four writers - Giuseppe Giusti, Francesco Domenico Guerrazzi, Vincenzo Gioberti and Cesare Balbo. After the Risorgimento, political literature becomes less important. The first part of this period is characterized by two divergent trends of literature that both opposed Romanticism, the Scapigliatura and Verismo. Important early-20th-century writers include Italo Svevo and Luigi Pirandello (winner of the 1934 Nobel Prize in Literature). Neorealism was developed by Alberto Moravia. Umberto Eco became internationally successful with the Medieval detective story Il nome della rosa (The Name of the Rose, 1980). The Nobel Prize in Literature has been awarded to Italian language authors six times (as of 2019) with winners including Giosuè Carducci, Grazia Deledda, Luigi Pirandello, and Dario Fo.

Italian unification

Italian unification (Italian: Unità d'Italia [uniˈta ddiˈtaːlja]), also known as the Risorgimento ([risordʒiˈmento], meaning "the Resurgence"), was the political and social movement that consolidated different states of the Italian peninsula into the single state of the Kingdom of Italy in the 19th century. The process began in 1815 with the Congress of Vienna and was completed in 1871 when Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy.The term, which also designates the cultural, political and social movement that promoted unification, recalls the romantic, nationalist and patriotic ideals of an Italian renaissance through the conquest of a unified political identity that, by sinking its ancient roots during the Roman period, "suffered an abrupt halt [or loss] of its political unity in 476 AD after the collapse of the Western Roman Empire". However, some of the terre irredente did not join the Kingdom of Italy until 1918 after Italy defeated Austria–Hungary in World War I. For this reason, sometimes the period is extended to include the late 19th-century and the First World War (1915–1918), until the 4 November 1918 Armistice of Villa Giusti, which is considered the completion of unification. This view is followed, for example, at the Central Museum of Risorgimento at the Vittoriano.

Lenore (ballad)

"Lenore", sometimes translated as "Leonora", "Leonore" or "Ellenore", is a poem written by German author Gottfried August Bürger in 1773, and published in 1774 in the Göttinger Musenalmanach. Lenore is generally characterised as being part of the 18th century Gothic ballads, and although the character that returns from its grave in the poem is not considered to be a vampire, the poem has been very influential on vampire literature. William Taylor, who published the first English translation of the ballad, would later claim that "no German poem has been so repeatedly translated into English as 'Ellenore'".

List of people from Italy

This is a list of Italians, who are identified with the Italian nation through residential, legal, historical, or cultural means, grouped by their area of notability.

List of romantics

List of romantics


Milan (, also US: , Milanese: [miˈlãː]; Italian: Milano [miˈlaːno] (listen)) is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the second-most populous city in Italy after Rome, with the city proper having a population of 1,395,274 while its metropolitan city has a population of 3,245,308. Its continuously built-up urban area (that stretches beyond the boundaries of the Metropolitan City of Milan) has a population estimated to be about 5,270,000 over 1,891 square kilometres (730 square miles). The wider Milan metropolitan area, known as Greater Milan, is a polycentric metropolitan region that extends over central Lombardy and eastern Piedmont and which counts an estimated total population of 7.5 million, making it by far the largest metropolitan area in Italy and the 54th largest in the world. Milan served as capital of the Western Roman Empire from 286 to 402 and the Duchy of Milan during the medieval period and early modern age.

Milan is considered a leading alpha global city, with strengths in the field of the art, commerce, design, education, entertainment, fashion, finance, healthcare, media, services, research and tourism. Its business district hosts Italy's stock exchange and the headquarters of national and international banks and companies. In terms of GDP, it has the third-largest economy among European cities after Paris and London, but the fastest in growth among the three, and is the wealthiest among European non-capital cities. Milan is considered part of the Blue Banana and one of the "Four Motors for Europe".

The city has been recognized as one of the world's four fashion capitals thanks to several international events and fairs, including Milan Fashion Week and the Milan Furniture Fair, which are currently among the world's biggest in terms of revenue, visitors and growth. It hosted the Universal Exposition in 1906 and 2015. The city hosts numerous cultural institutions, academies and universities, with 11% of the national total enrolled students. Milan is the destination of 8 million overseas visitors every year, attracted by its museums and art galleries that boast some of the most important collections in the world, including major works by Leonardo da Vinci. The city is served by a large number of luxury hotels and is the fifth-most starred in the world by Michelin Guide. The city is home to two of Europe's most successful football teams, A.C. Milan and F.C. Internazionale, and one of Italy's main basketball teams, Olimpia Milano.

Oath of Pontida

The Oath of Pontida ("Giurament de Pontida" in Lombard, "Giuramento di Pontida" in Italian) refers to putative historical event where an oath made by the representatives of the cities of Northern Italy to make the Lombard League on April 7, 1167 in the town of Pontida in the province of Lombardy. The joined forces of the Lombard league would join together and defeat the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick Barbarossa at the Battle of Legnano.

The first references of the oath are in 1500s, but it inspired the supporters of the Italian Risorgimento who opposed the Austrian occupation of much of Northern Italy. It was a metaphor for a unified Italian resistance against Germanic domination. The Oath of Pontida was popular theme depicted by 19th century painters. The event is memorialized in a poem by Giovanni Berchet.

The revolutionary leader Garibaldi in a proclamation issued in Bergamo on August 3, 1848, made reference to the oath, when he claimed: "Bergamo will be the Pontida of the present generation, and God will bring us a Legnano!".With the beginning of Northern League, Italianists have diminished their celebration of the event as an early expression of national unity, and it has instead become adopted and celebrated by partisans of the regionalist Lega Nord, imbuing the event with seccesionist overtones. The Lombard government does celebrate the day of the Battle of Legnano as Lombardy Day.


Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850. Romanticism was characterized by its emphasis on emotion and individualism as well as glorification of all the past and nature, preferring the medieval rather than the classical. It was partly a reaction to the Industrial Revolution, the aristocratic social and political norms of the Age of Enlightenment, and the scientific rationalization of nature—all components of modernity. It was embodied most strongly in the visual arts, music, and literature, but had a major impact on historiography, education, the social sciences, and the natural sciences. It had a significant and complex effect on politics, with romantic thinkers influencing liberalism, radicalism, conservatism and nationalism.The movement emphasized intense emotion as an authentic source of aesthetic experience, placing new emphasis on such emotions as apprehension, horror and terror, and awe—especially that experienced in confronting the new aesthetic categories of the sublimity and beauty of nature. It elevated folk art and ancient custom to something noble, but also spontaneity as a desirable characteristic (as in the musical impromptu). In contrast to the Rationalism and Classicism of the Enlightenment, Romanticism revived medievalism and elements of art and narrative perceived as authentically medieval in an attempt to escape population growth, early urban sprawl, and industrialism.

Although the movement was rooted in the German Sturm und Drang movement, which preferred intuition and emotion to the rationalism of the Enlightenment, the events and ideologies of the French Revolution were also proximate factors. Romanticism assigned a high value to the achievements of "heroic" individualists and artists, whose examples, it maintained, would raise the quality of society. It also promoted the individual imagination as a critical authority allowed of freedom from classical notions of form in art. There was a strong recourse to historical and natural inevitability, a Zeitgeist, in the representation of its ideas. In the second half of the 19th century, Realism was offered as a polar opposite to Romanticism. The decline of Romanticism during this time was associated with multiple processes, including social and political changes and the spread of nationalism.

Scrittori d'Italia Laterza

The Scrittori d'Italia ("Authors of Italy") was an Italian book collection, published by Gius. Laterza & figli from 1910 to 1987 in Bari. The series was born with the intent to define and explain a cultural canon of the new Italy, disassociating from a culture yet considered too much based on the classic of the humanism, and choosing to represent also the civil history of the newborn Italian State. The original work plan included 660 volumes, of which 287 were actually published (including some second editions) for a total of 179 works.

Villa del Balbianello

The Villa del Balbianello is a villa in the comune of Lenno (province of Como), Italy, overlooking Lake Como. It is located on the tip of the small wooded peninsula of Dosso d'Avedo on the western shore of the south-west branch of Lake Como, not far from the Isola Comacina and is famous for its elaborate terraced gardens.

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