|Catholic Church titles|
Giuliano della Rovere
| Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals
The papal conclave of 1471 (August 6–9) elected Pope Sixtus IV following the death of Pope Paul II. With the exception of the conclaves of the Western Schism, this conclave was the first since 1305 to feature a working, two-thirds majority of Italians within the College of Cardinals, in no small part because of the absence of six non-Italian cardinals. This was in part due to the unexpectedness of the death of Paul II.1484 papal conclave
The papal conclave of 1484 (August 26–29), elected Pope Innocent VIII after the death of Pope Sixtus IV.1492 papal conclave
The papal conclave of 1492 (6–11 August) was convened after the death of Pope Innocent VIII (25 July 1492). It was the first papal conclave to be held in the Sistine Chapel.
Cardinal Rodrigo Borja was elected unanimously on the fourth ballot as Pope Alexander VI. The election is notorious for allegations that Borja bought the votes of his electors, promising them lucrative appointments and other material gifts—a practice known as simony. Concerns about this conclave led Pope Julius II to create stronger rules against simony in 1503.1501
Year 1501 (MDI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.Cardinals created by Paul II
Pope Paul II (r. 1464–1471) created ten cardinals in two consistories.Giovanni Michiel
Giovanni Michiel (* 1446 or 1447, died 1503) was an Italian Roman Catholic cardinal and bishop.List of Camerlengos of the Sacred College of Cardinals
The Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals was the treasurer of that body within the Catholic Church. The title is based on an Italian word for chamberlain, a word no longer used in secular contexts. The position existed from at least 1272 until 1997, when it was allowed to lapse.
He administered all property, fees, funds and revenue belonging to the College of Cardinals, celebrated the requiem mass for a deceased cardinal and was charged with the registry of the Acta Consistoralia.
It is believed that the post was created by Pope Eugene III in 1150, but there is no documentary proof of its existence before the pontificate of Pope Innocent III, or perhaps even before the year 1272.List of cardinal-nephews
A cardinal-nephew is a cardinal elevated by a pope who was his uncle, or more generally, his relative. The practice of creating cardinal-nephews originated in the Middle Ages, and reached its apex during the 16th and 17th centuries. From the Avignon Papacy (1309–1377) until Pope Innocent XII's anti-nepotism bull, Romanum decet pontificem (1692), nearly every pope who appointed cardinals appointed at least one relative to the College of Cardinals, including every Renaissance-era pope.Although nephews were the most common relation to be elevated to the College, other family members include (legitimate, illegitimate, or adopted) sons and grandsons, brothers, grandnephews, cousins and even uncles. At least 15, and possibly as many as 19 cardinal-nephews were later elected pope (Gregory IX, Alexander IV, Adrian V, Gregory XI, Boniface IX, Innocent VII, Eugene IV, Paul II, Alexander VI, Pius III, Julius II, Leo X, Clement VII, Benedict XIII, and Pius VII, perhaps also John XIX, Benedict IX, if they were really promoted cardinals, as well as Innocent III and Benedict XII, if in fact they were related to their elevators). One became antipope (John XXIII), and two or three were canonized (Charles Borromeo, Guarinus of Palestrina, and perhaps Anselm of Lucca, if in fact he was really elected cardinal).Similarly-created cardinals include cardinal-nephews of antipopes and papal relatives made cardinals by other popes.Pope Julius II
Pope Julius II (Italian: Papa Giulio II; Latin: Iulius II) (5 December 1443 – 21 February 1513), born Giuliano della Rovere, was head of the Roman Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 1503 to 1513. Nicknamed the Warrior Pope or the Fearsome Pope, he chose his papal name not in honor of Pope Julius I but in emulation of Julius Caesar. One of the most powerful and influential popes of all time, Julius II was the central figure of the High Renaissance and left a significant mark in world history.Julius II centralized the Papal States and created the Swiss Guards. He was a great patron of the arts, and commissioned the Raphael Rooms and Michelangelo's paintings in the Sistine Chapel. Julius II ratified the Treaty of Tordesillas between Castile and Portugal, establishing the first bishoprics in the Americas and beginning the catholicization of Latin America. Julius II opposed the conciliarist movement promoted by foreign monarchs, and affirmed ultramontanism at the Fifth Lateran Council. In Italy, he crushed the Borgias and proved a bulwark against Venetian expansionism. Pope Julius II commissioned the rebuilding of St. Peter's Basilica and practised the selling of indulgences: Martin Luther's visit to Rome occurred during the pontificate of Julius II.Julius II became Pope in the context of the Italian wars, shortly after France occupied the Duchy of Milan and Aragonese troops arrived in the Kingdom of Naples. With France taking over the North of Italy after defeating Venice at the Battle of Agnadello and Ferdinand of Aragon coming to southern Italy to be crowned King of the Two Sicilies, Julius II planned to "free Italy from the barbarians" and orchestrated the liberation of the peninsula. After Ferdinand of Aragon recognized the Two Sicilies as a Papal fief with a cardinal as viceroy, Julius II personally led the Papal armed forces at the Battle of Mirandola and forced the French of Louis XII out of Italy.A Holy League he formed came to include many European states, and Julius II planned to call for a crusade against the Ottoman Empire to retake Constantinople. His death caused the collapse of the League, and Italy returned to the French-Aragonese status quo ante bellum with treaty of Brussels (1516). Neverthless, the Papal States remained independent and centralized as a result of his policies, continued by Leo X. Julius II was described as the ideal Prince by Machiavelli and Guicciardini. In his Julius Excluded from Heaven, the scholar Erasmus of Rotterdam described a Pope Julius II in the after-life planning to capture the Paradise.Roman Catholic Diocese of Vicenza
The Diocese of Vicenza (Latin: Dioecesis Vicentina) is a Roman Catholic ecclesiastical territory in Italy.Among its patron saints the city venerates St. Lontius, bishop and martyr, and St. Theodore and St. Apollonius, bishops and confessors in the fourth century. The Christian cemetery discovered near the Church of Sts. Felix and Fortunatus, dates from the earlier half of the fourth century, and these two saints were probably martyred under Diocletian.Roman Catholic Suburbicarian Diocese of Frascati
The Diocese of Frascati (Lat.: Tusculana) is a suburbicarian see of the Holy Roman Church and a diocese of the Catholic Church in Italy, based at Frascati, near Rome. The bishop of Frascati is a Cardinal Bishop; from the Latin name of the area, the bishop has also been called Bishop of Tusculum. Tusculum was destroyed in 1191. The bishopric moved from Tusculum to Frascati, a nearby town which is first mentioned in the pontificate of Pope Leo IV. Until 1962, the Cardinal-Bishop was concurrently the diocesan bishop of the see in addition to any curial duties he possessed. Pope John XXIII removed the Cardinal Bishops from any actual responsibility in their suburbicarian dioceses, and made the title purely honorific.San Fantin, Venice
San Fantin (short for San Fantino) is a church in the sestiere of San Marco in Venice, Italy. It stands in front of the Fenice Theater and adjacent to the Ateneo Veneto (the former Scuola grande di San Fantin).
This parish church was first erected in the 10th century under the patronage of the patrician families from Barozzi, Aldicina, and Equilia. Reconstruction was undertaken by the Pisani family, who installed in the church a miraculous icon of the Virgin they had obtained from the East. The church of San Fantin by the 15th century came to be called the church of Santa Maria delle Grazie di San Fantino. Ten thousand ducats were willed for the church's reconstruction by Cardinal Giovanni Battista Zeno who died in 1501. A number of relics were transferred to this church including the body of Saint Marcellina and an armbone of the martyred Saint Trifone, Protector of Cattaro.Work on the church has been assigned or attributed to many architects, from Pietro Lombardo, Sebastiano Mariani, and later Jacopo Sansovino. Over the door of the sacristy is conserved the funeral urn of Vinciguerra Dandolo, a work by Tullio Lombardo. In 1908, the church was documented to hold two Piazzetta paintings: Liberation of Venice from the Plague and a Pieta. It had a Holy Family attributed to Giovanni Bellini, a Crucifixion by Lionardo Corona, and a Visitation of Mary to Elizabeth by Tintoretto. These works have been relocated elsewhere.Sant'Anastasia al Palatino
Sant'Anastasia is a basilica and titular church for cardinal-priests in Rome, Italy.St. Peter's Basilica
The Papal Basilica of St. Peter in the Vatican (Italian: Basilica Papale di San Pietro in Vaticano), or simply St. Peter's Basilica (Latin: Basilica Sancti Petri), is an Italian Renaissance church in Vatican City, the papal enclave within the city of Rome.
Designed principally by Donato Bramante, Michelangelo, Carlo Maderno and Gian Lorenzo Bernini, St. Peter's is the most renowned work of Renaissance architecture and the largest church in the world. While it is neither the mother church of the Catholic Church nor the cathedral of the Diocese of Rome, St. Peter's is regarded as one of the holiest Catholic shrines. It has been described as "holding a unique position in the Christian world" and as "the greatest of all churches of Christendom".Catholic tradition holds that the basilica is the burial site of Saint Peter, chief among Jesus's apostles and also the first Bishop of Rome. Saint Peter's tomb is supposedly directly below the high altar of the basilica. For this reason, many popes have been interred at St. Peter's since the Early Christian period, and there has been a church on this site since the time of the Roman emperor Constantine the Great. Construction of the present basilica, which would replace Old St. Peter's Basilica from the 4th century AD, began on 18 April 1506 and was completed on 18 November 1626.St. Peter's is famous as a place of pilgrimage and for its liturgical functions. The pope presides at a number of liturgies throughout the year, drawing audiences of 15,000 to over 80,000 people, either within the basilica or the adjoining St. Peter's Square. St. Peter's has many historical associations, with the Early Christian Church, the Papacy, the Protestant Reformation and Catholic Counter-reformation and numerous artists, especially Michelangelo. As a work of architecture, it is regarded as the greatest building of its age. St. Peter's is one of the four churches in the world that hold the rank of major basilica, all four of which are in Rome. Contrary to popular misconception, it is not a cathedral because it is not the seat of a bishop; the cathedra of the pope as Bishop of Rome is in the Archbasilica of St. John Lateran.Stefano Nardini
Stefano Nardini (died 1484) (called the Cardinal of Milan) was an Italian Roman Catholic bishop and cardinal.Zeno family
The Zeno, also known as Zen, are a patrician family in Venice. Members include:
Apostolo Zeno (1669–1750) Venetian poet, librettist, and journalist.
Carlo Zeno (1333–1418) Venetian Admiral during War of Chioggia, but also mercenary
Giovanni Battista Zeno (died 1501), Roman Catholic Cardinal since 1468, nephew of Pope Paul II
Nicolò Zen the younger (1515–1565) Venetian Senator and hydraulic engineer
Pietro Zeno, Lord of Andros and Syros
Reniero Zeno (died 1268) 45th Doge of Venice
Zeno brothers: Nicolò (c. 1326–c. 1402) and Antonio (died c. 1403), marine merchants and putative explorersThe family was also the owner of Villa Zeno.