Ginger

Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is a flowering plant whose rhizome, ginger root or ginger, is widely used as a spice and a folk medicine.[2] It is a herbaceous perennial which grows annual pseudostems (false stems made of the rolled bases of leaves) about a meter tall bearing narrow leaf blades. The inflorescences bear pale yellow with purple flowers and arise directly from the rhizome on separate shoots.[3]

Ginger is in the family Zingiberaceae, to which also belong turmeric (Curcuma longa), cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum), and galangal. Ginger originated in Island Southeast Asia and was likely domesticated first by the Austronesian peoples. It was transported with them throughout the Indo-Pacific during the Austronesian expansion (c. 5,000 BP), reaching as far as Hawaii. Ginger was also one of the first spices exported from Asia, arriving in Europe with the spice trade, and was used by ancient Greeks and Romans.[4] The distantly related dicots in the genus Asarum are commonly called wild ginger because of their similar taste.

Ginger
Koeh-146-no text
1896 color plate from
Köhler's Medicinal Plants
Ginger inflorescence
Inflorescence
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Monocots
Clade: Commelinids
Order: Zingiberales
Family: Zingiberaceae
Genus: Zingiber
Species:
Z. officinale
Binomial name
Zingiber officinale

Etymology

The English origin of the word, "ginger", is from the mid-14th century, from Old English gingifer, from Medieval Latin gingiber, from Greek zingiberis, from Prakrit (Middle Indic) singabera, from Sanskrit srngaveram, from srngam "horn" and vera- "body", from the shape of its root.[5] The word probably was readopted in Middle English from Old French gingibre (modern French gingembre).[6]

Origin and distribution

Ginger Plant vs
Ginger plant with flower

Ginger originated from Island Southeast Asia. It is a true cultigen and does not exist in its wild state.[7][8] The most ancient evidence of its domestication is among the Austronesian peoples where it was among several species of ginger cultivated and exploited since ancient times. The other notable gingers they also cultivated included turmeric (Curcuma longa), white turmeric (Curcuma zedoaria), and bitter ginger (Zingiber zerumbet), among others. The rhizomes and the leaves were used to flavor food or eaten directly. The leaves were also used to weave mats. Aside from these uses, ginger had religious significance among Austronesians, being used in rituals for healing and for asking protection from spirits. It was also used in the blessing of Austronesian ships.[9][10][11][12][13][14]

Ginger was carried with them in their voyages as canoe plants during the Austronesian expansion, starting from around 5,000 BP. They introduced it to the Pacific Islands in prehistory, long before any contact with other civilizations. Reflexes of the Proto-Malayo-Polynesian word *laqia is still found in Austronesian languages all the way to Hawaii.[11] They also presumably introduced it to India along with other Southeast Asian food plants and Austronesian sailing technologies, during early contact by Austronesian sailors with the Dravidian-speaking peoples of Sri Lanka and South India at around 3,500 BP.[9][13][15] It was also carried by Austronesian voyagers into Madagascar and the Comoros in the 1st millennium CE.[16]

From India, it was also carried by traders into the Middle East and the Mediterranean by around the 1st century CE. It was primarily grown in southern India and the Greater Sunda Islands during the spice trade, along with peppers, cloves, and numerous other spices.[8][17]

Horticulture

Ginger produces clusters of white and pink flower buds that bloom into yellow flowers. Because of its aesthetic appeal and the adaptation of the plant to warm climates, it is often used as landscaping around subtropical homes. It is a perennial reed-like plant with annual leafy stems, about a meter (3 to 4 feet) tall. Traditionally, the rhizome is gathered when the stalk withers; it is immediately scalded, or washed and scraped, to kill it and prevent sprouting. The fragrant perisperm of the Zingiberaceae is used as sweetmeats by Bantu, and also as a condiment and sialagogue.[18]

Ginger production, 2016 
Country Production (tonnes)
 India
1,109,000
 Nigeria
522,964
 China
463,707
 Indonesia
340,341
   Nepal
271,863
 Thailand
164,266
 World
3,270,762

Source: Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, Statistics Division (FAOSTAT)[19]

Production

In 2016, global production of ginger was 3.3 million tonnes, led by India with 34% of the world total. Nigeria, China, and Indonesia also had substantial production.[19]

Uses

Ingwer 2 fcm
Fresh ginger rhizome
Fresh ginger
Freshly washed ginger

Ginger produces a hot, fragrant kitchen spice.[4] Young ginger rhizomes are juicy and fleshy with a mild taste. They are often pickled in vinegar or sherry as a snack or cooked as an ingredient in many dishes. They can be steeped in boiling water to make ginger herb tea, to which honey may be added. Ginger can be made into candy or ginger wine.

Mature ginger rhizomes are fibrous and nearly dry. The juice from ginger roots is often used as a seasoning in Indian recipes and is a common ingredient of Chinese, Korean, Japanese, Vietnamese, and many South Asian cuisines for flavoring dishes such as seafood, meat, and vegetarian dishes.

Fresh ginger can be substituted for ground ginger at a ratio of six to one, although the flavors of fresh and dried ginger are somewhat different. Powdered dry ginger root is typically used as a flavoring for recipes such as gingerbread, cookies, crackers and cakes, ginger ale, and ginger beer. Candied ginger or crystallized ginger, known in the U.K. as "stem ginger", is the root cooked in sugar until soft, and is a type of confectionery. Fresh ginger may be peeled before eating. For longer-term storage, the ginger can be placed in a plastic bag and refrigerated or frozen.

Regional uses

In Indian cuisine, ginger is a key ingredient, especially in thicker gravies, as well as in many other dishes, both vegetarian and meat-based. Ginger also has a role in traditional Ayurvedic medicine. It is an ingredient in traditional Indian drinks, both cold and hot, including spiced masala chai. Fresh ginger is one of the main spices used for making pulse and lentil curries and other vegetable preparations. Fresh ginger together with peeled garlic cloves is crushed or ground to form ginger garlic masala. Fresh, as well as dried, ginger is used to spice tea and coffee, especially in winter. In south India, "sambharam" is a summer yogurt drink made with ginger as a key ingredient, along with green chillies, salt and curry leaves. Ginger powder is used in food preparations intended primarily for pregnant or nursing women, the most popular one being katlu, which is a mixture of gum resin, ghee, nuts, and sugar. Ginger is also consumed in candied and pickled form. In Japan, ginger is pickled to make beni shōga and gari or grated and used raw on tofu or noodles. It is made into a candy called shoga no sato zuke. In the traditional Korean kimchi, ginger is either finely minced or just juiced to avoid the fibrous texture and added to the ingredients of the spicy paste just before the fermenting process.

In Burma, ginger is called gyin. It is widely used in cooking and as a main ingredient in traditional medicines. It is consumed as a salad dish called gyin-thot, which consists of shredded ginger preserved in oil, with a variety of nuts and seeds. In Thailand' where it is called ขิง khing, it is used to make a ginger garlic paste in cooking. In Indonesia, a beverage called wedang jahe is made from ginger and palm sugar. Indonesians also use ground ginger root, called jahe, as a common ingredient in local recipes. In Malaysia, ginger is called halia and used in many kinds of dishes, especially soups. Called luya in the Philippines, ginger is a common ingredient in local dishes and is brewed as a tea called salabat.[20][21] In Vietnam, the fresh leaves, finely chopped, can be added to shrimp-and-yam soup (canh khoai mỡ) as a top garnish and spice to add a much subtler flavor of ginger than the chopped root. In China, sliced or whole ginger root is often paired with savory dishes such as fish, and chopped ginger root is commonly paired with meat, when it is cooked. Candied ginger is sometimes a component of Chinese candy boxes, and a herbal tea can be prepared from ginger. Raw ginger juice can be used to set milk and make a desert, ginger milk curd.

In the Caribbean, ginger is a popular spice for cooking and for making drinks such as sorrel, a drink made during the Christmas season. Jamaicans make ginger beer both as a carbonated beverage and also fresh in their homes. Ginger tea is often made from fresh ginger, as well as the famous regional specialty Jamaican ginger cake. On the island of Corfu, Greece, a traditional drink called τσιτσιμπύρα (tsitsibira), a type of ginger beer, is made. The people of Corfu and the rest of the Ionian islands adopted the drink from the British, during the period of the United States of the Ionian Islands.

In Western cuisine, ginger is traditionally used mainly in sweet foods such as ginger ale, gingerbread, ginger snaps, parkin, and speculaas. A ginger-flavored liqueur called Canton is produced in Jarnac, France. Ginger wine is a ginger-flavored wine produced in the United Kingdom, traditionally sold in a green glass bottle. Ginger is also used as a spice added to hot coffee and tea.

Ginger root (raw)
Ginger cross section
Ginger section
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy333 kJ (80 kcal)
17.77 g
Sugars1.7 g
Dietary fiber2 g
0.75 g
1.82 g
VitaminsQuantity %DV
Thiamine (B1)
2%
0.025 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
3%
0.034 mg
Niacin (B3)
5%
0.75 mg
Pantothenic acid (B5)
4%
0.203 mg
Vitamin B6
12%
0.16 mg
Folate (B9)
3%
11 μg
Vitamin C
6%
5 mg
Vitamin E
2%
0.26 mg
MineralsQuantity %DV
Calcium
2%
16 mg
Iron
5%
0.6 mg
Magnesium
12%
43 mg
Manganese
11%
0.229 mg
Phosphorus
5%
34 mg
Potassium
9%
415 mg
Sodium
1%
13 mg
Zinc
4%
0.34 mg
Other constituentsQuantity
Water79 g

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Similar ingredients

Other members of the family Zingiberaceae are used in similar ways. They include the myoga (Zingiber mioga), the several types of galangal, the fingerroot (Boesenbergia rotunda), and the bitter ginger (Zingiber zerumbet).

A dicotyledonous native species of eastern North America, Asarum canadense, is also known as "wild ginger", and its root has similar aromatic properties, but it is not related to true ginger. The plant contains aristolochic acid, a carcinogenic compound.[22] The United States Food and Drug Administration warns that consumption of aristolochic acid-containing products is associated with "permanent kidney damage, sometimes resulting in kidney failure that has required kidney dialysis or kidney transplantation. In addition, some patients have developed certain types of cancers, most often occurring in the urinary tract."[22]

Nutritional information

Raw ginger is composed of 79% water, 18% carbohydrates, 2% protein, and 1% fat (table). In 100 grams (a standard amount used to compare with other foods), raw ginger supplies 80 Calories and contains moderate amounts of vitamin B6 (12% of the Daily Value, DV) and the dietary minerals, magnesium (12% DV) and manganese (11% DV), but otherwise is low in nutrient content (table).

When used as a spice powder in a common serving amount of one US tablespoon (5 grams), ground dried ginger (9% water) provides negligible content of essential nutrients, with the exception of manganese (70% DV).[23]

Composition and safety

If consumed in reasonable quantities, ginger has few negative side effects.[24] It is on the FDA's "generally recognized as safe" list,[25] though it does interact with some medications, including the anticoagulant drug warfarin[26] and the cardiovascular drug nifedipine.[2]

Chemistry

The characteristic fragrance and flavor of ginger result from volatile oils that compose 1-3% of the weight of fresh ginger, primarily consisting of zingerone, shogaols and gingerols with [6]-gingerol (1-[4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl]-5-hydroxy-3-decanone) as the major pungent compound.[27] Zingerone is produced from gingerols during drying, having lower pungency and a spicy-sweet aroma.[27] Shagoals are more pungent and have higher antioxidant activity but not found in raw ginger, but is formed from gingerols during heating, storage or via acidity.[27]

Fresh ginger also contains an enzyme zingibain which is a cysteine protease and has similar properties to rennet.

Medicinal use and research

Evidence that ginger helps alleviate nausea and vomiting resulting from chemotherapy or pregnancy is inconsistent.[2][28][29][30] There is no clear evidence of harm from taking ginger during pregnancy, although its safety has not been established.[28][31] Ginger is not effective for treating dysmenorrhea,[32] and there is insufficient evidence for it having analgesic properties due to the lack of well conducted trials. Available data provides weak evidence for its anti-inflammatory role and it may reduce the subjective experience of pain in osteoarthritis.[33]

Allergic reactions to ginger generally result in a rash.[2] Although generally recognized as safe, ginger can cause heartburn and other side effects, particularly if taken in powdered form.[2] It may adversely affect individuals with gallstones and may interfere with the effects of anticoagulants, such as warfarin or aspirin.[2]

Gallery

Opening ginger flower

ginger flower about to bloom

Ginger Flower

Ginger Flower overview

Ginger flower stamen

Ginger flower stamen

Gingerfield

Ginger field

Ginger crop

Ginger crop, Myanmar

Ginger in China 01

Two varieties of ginger

Ginger on Dark Board

Chopped ginger

Gari ginger

Gari, a type of pickled ginger

German Ginger wine with stem ginger decoration 4

German ginger flavored wine (grape based) with stem ginger decoration

See also

References

  1. ^ "Zingiber officinale". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 10 December 2017.
  2. ^ a b c d e f "Ginger, NCCIH Herbs at a Glance". US NCCIH. 1 September 2016. Retrieved 2 February 2019.
  3. ^ Sutarno H, Hadad EA, Brink M (1999). "Zingiber officinale Roscoe". In De Guzman CC, Siemonsma JS (eds.). Plant resources of South-East Asia: no.13: Spices. Leiden (Netherlands): Backhuys Publishers. pp. 238–244.
  4. ^ a b "Zingiber officinale Roscoe". Kew Science, Plants of the World Online. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 2017. Retrieved 25 November 2017.
  5. ^ "Ginger". Online Etymology Dictionary. Douglas Harper. Retrieved 22 January 2011.
  6. ^ Caldwell R (1 January 1998). A Comparative Grammar of the Dravidian Or South-Indian Family of Languages (3rd ed.). New Delhi: Asian Educational Services. ISBN 9788120601178.
  7. ^ Ravindran P, Nirmal Babu K (2016). Ginger: The Genus Zingiber. Boca Raton: CRC Press. p. 7. ISBN 9781420023367.
  8. ^ a b Singh RJ (2011). Genetic Resources, Chromosome Engineering, and Crop Improvement. Medicinal Plants. 6. Boca Raton: CRC Press. p. 398. ISBN 9781420073867.
  9. ^ a b Viestad A (2007). Where Flavor Was Born: Recipes and Culinary Travels Along the Indian Ocean Spice Route. San Francisco: Chronicle Books. p. 89. ISBN 9780811849654.
  10. ^ Ross M (2008). "Other cultivated plants". In Ross M, Pawley A, Osmond M (eds.). The lexicon of Proto Oceanic: The culture and environment of ancestral Oceanic society. Vol. 3: Plants. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics. pp. 389–426. ISBN 9780858835894.
  11. ^ a b Robert B, Trussel S (2013). "The Austronesian Comparative Dictionary: A Work in Progress". Ocean. Linguist. 52 (2): 493–523. doi:10.1353/ol.2013.0016.
  12. ^ Zanariah U, Nordin NI, Subramaniam T (2015). "Ginger Species and Their Traditional Uses in Modern Applications". Journal of Industrial Technology. 23 (1): 59–70. doi:10.21908/jit.2015.4.
  13. ^ a b Dalby A (2002). Dangerous Tastes: The Story of Spices. University of California Press. ISBN 9780520236745.
  14. ^ Kikusawa R, Reid LA (2007). "Proto who utilized turmeric, and how?" (PDF). In Siegel J, Lynch JD, Eades D (eds.). Language Description, History and Development: Linguistic indulgence in memory of Terry Crowley. John Benjamins Publishing Co. pp. 339–352. ISBN 9789027292940.
  15. ^ Mahdi W (1999). "The Dispersal of Austronesian boat forms in the Indian Ocean". In Blench R, Spriggs M (eds.). Archaeology and Language III: Artefacts languages, and texts. One World Archaeology. 34. London: Routledge. pp. 144–179. ISBN 9780415518703.
  16. ^ Beaujard P (2011). "The first migrants to Madagascar and their introduction of plants: linguistic and ethnological evidence". Azania: Archaeological Research in Africa. 46 (2): 169–189. doi:10.1080/0067270X.2011.580142.
  17. ^ Doran CF, Dixon C (1991). South East Asia in the World-Economy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521312370.
  18. ^ Watt JM, Breyer-Brandwijk MG (1962). Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of Southern and Eastern Africa. E & S Livingstone.
  19. ^ a b "Ginger production in 2016, Crops/Regions/World/Production/Quantity (from pick lists)". FAOSTAT. FAO, Statistics Division. 2017. Retrieved 8 May 2018.
  20. ^ Hardon A, Boonmongkon P, Streefland P, et al. (2001). Applied health research manual: anthropology of health and health care (3rd ed.). Amsterdam: Het Spinhuis. ISBN 9789055891917.
  21. ^ Co LL, Taguba YB (1984). Common medicinal plants of the Cordillera region (Northern Luzon, Philippines). Community Health Education, Services and Training in the Cordillera Region (CHESTCORE). ISBN 978-9718640005.
  22. ^ a b "Aristolochic Acid: FDA Warns Consumers to Discontinue Use of Botanical Products that Contain Aristolochic Acid". US FDA. 11 April 2001. Archived from the original on 3 June 2017.
  23. ^ "Nutrition facts for dried, ground ginger, serving size of one tablespoon, 5 grams (from pick list)". nutritiondata.self.com. Condé Nast. 2014. Retrieved 11 June 2017.
  24. ^ Spinella M (2001). The Psychopharmacology of Herbal Medications: Plant Drugs That Alter Mind, Brain, and Behavior. MIT Press. p. 272. ISBN 9780262692656.
  25. ^ "Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21, Part 182, Sec. 182.20: Essential oils, oleoresins (solvent-free), and natural extractives (including distillates): Substances Generally Recognized As Safe". US FDA. 1 September 2014. Retrieved 21 December 2014.
  26. ^ Shalansky S, Lynd L, Richardson K, et al. (2007). "Risk of warfarin-related bleeding events and supratherapeutic international normalized ratios associated with complementary and alternative medicine: a longitudinal analysis". Pharmacotherapy. 27 (9): 1237–47. doi:10.1592/phco.27.9.1237. PMID 17723077.
  27. ^ a b c An K, Zhao D, Wang Z, et al. (2016). "Comparison of different drying methods on Chinese ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe): Changes in volatiles, chemical profile, antioxidant properties, and microstructure". Food Chem. 197 (Part B): 1292–300. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.11.033. PMID 26675871.
  28. ^ a b Giacosa A, Morazzoni P, Bombardelli E, et al. (2015). "Can nausea and vomiting be treated with ginger extract?" (PDF). Eur. Rev. Med. Pharmacol. Sci. 19 (7): 1291–6. ISSN 1128-3602. PMID 25912592.
  29. ^ Lee J, Oh H (2013). "Ginger as an antiemetic modality for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: A systematic review and meta-analysis". Oncol. Nurs. Forum. 40 (2): 163–170. doi:10.1188/13.onf.163-170. ISSN 0190-535X. PMID 23448741.
  30. ^ Matthews A, Haas DM, Mathúna DP, et al. (2015). "Interventions for nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy". Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. (9). CD007575. doi:10.1002/14651858.cd007575.pub4. PMID 26348534.
  31. ^ Ernst E, Pittler MH (2000). "Efficacy of ginger for nausea and vomiting: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials". Br. J. Anaesth. 84 (3): 367–371. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.bja.a013442. PMID 10793599.
  32. ^ Pattanittum P, Kunyanone N, Brown J, et al. (2016). "Dietary supplements for dysmenorrhoea". Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 3 (3). CD002124. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD002124.pub2. PMID 27000311.
  33. ^ Terry R, Posadzki P, Watson LK, et al. (2011). "The use of ginger (Zingiber officinale) for the treatment of pain: A systematic review of clinical trials". Pain Medicine. 12 (12): 1808–18. doi:10.1111/j.1526-4637.2011.01261.x. PMID 22054010.

External links

As Told by Ginger

As Told by Ginger (also known as As Told by Ginger Foutley) is an American animated television series aimed at teenagers, produced by Klasky Csupo and aired on Nickelodeon. The series focuses on a middle school (later high school) girl named Ginger Foutley who, with her friends, tries to become more than a social geek.As Told by Ginger ended production in 2004, although some episodes remain unaired on U.S. television. It was nominated for three Primetime Emmy Awards for Outstanding Animated Program (for Programming Less Than One Hour). The series was praised and noted for the fact that it had ongoing story arcs and characters who developed, aged and changed their clothes throughout the show, a rare quality in an animated series.

Candied fruit

Candied fruit, also known as crystallized fruit or glacé fruit, has existed since the 14th century. Whole fruit, smaller pieces of fruit, or pieces of peel, are placed in heated sugar syrup, which absorbs the moisture from within the fruit and eventually preserves it. Depending on size and type of fruit, this process of preservation can take from several days to several months. This process allows the fruit to retain its quality for a year.The continual process of drenching the fruit in syrup causes the fruit to become saturated with sugar, preventing the growth of spoilage microorganisms due to the unfavourable osmotic pressure this creates.Fruits that are commonly candied include dates, cherries, pineapple, and a root, ginger. The principal candied peels are orange and citron; these with candied lemon peel are the usual ingredients of mixed chopped peel (which may also include glacé cherries).

Recipes vary from region to region, but the general principle is to boil the fruit, steep it in increasingly strong sugar solutions for a number of weeks, and then dry off any remaining water.

Casino (1995 film)

Casino is a 1995 American epic crime film directed by Martin Scorsese and starring Robert De Niro, Sharon Stone and Joe Pesci. It is based on the nonfiction book Casino: Love and Honor in Las Vegas by Nicholas Pileggi, who also co-wrote the screenplay for the film with Scorsese. The two had previously collaborated on Goodfellas.

The film marks the eighth collaboration between director Scorsese and De Niro, following Mean Streets (1973), Taxi Driver (1976), New York, New York (1977), Raging Bull (1980), The King of Comedy (1982), Goodfellas (1990) and Cape Fear (1991).

In Casino, De Niro stars as Sam "Ace" Rothstein, a Jewish American gambling handicapper who is called by the Chicago Outfit to oversee the day-to-day operations at the Tangiers Casino in Las Vegas. His character is based on Frank Rosenthal, who ran the Stardust, Fremont, and Hacienda casinos in Las Vegas for the Chicago Outfit from the 1970s until the early 1980s. Pesci plays Nicholas "Nicky" Santoro, based on real-life Mob enforcer Anthony Spilotro, a "made man" who could give Ace the protection he needed. Nicky is sent to Vegas to make sure that money from the Tangiers is skimmed off the top and the mobsters in Vegas are kept in line. Sharon Stone plays Ginger McKenna, Ace's scheming, self-absorbed wife, based on Geri McGee.

Casino was released on November 22, 1995, to a mostly positive critical response, and was a box-office success. Stone's performance was widely praised, earning her a Golden Globe Award for Best Actress in a Motion Picture – Drama and a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Actress.

Galangal

Galangal () is a common name for several tropical rhizomatous spices.

Gilligan's Island

Gilligan's Island is an American sitcom created and produced by Sherwood Schwartz. The show had an ensemble cast that featured Bob Denver, Alan Hale Jr., Jim Backus, Natalie Schafer, Russell Johnson, Tina Louise, and Dawn Wells. It aired for three seasons on the CBS network from September 26, 1964, to April 17, 1967. The series followed the comic adventures of seven castaways as they attempted to survive on an island on which they had been shipwrecked. Most episodes revolve around the dissimilar castaways' conflicts and their unsuccessful attempts, for whose failure Gilligan was frequently responsible, to escape their plight.Gilligan's Island ran for a total of 98 episodes. The first season, consisting of 36 episodes, was filmed in black and white. These episodes were later colorized for syndication. The show's second and third seasons (62 episodes) and the three television movie sequels (aired between 1978 and 1982) were filmed in color.

The show received solid ratings during its original run, then grew in popularity during decades of syndication, especially in the 1970s and 1980s when many markets ran the show in the late afternoon. Today, the title character of Gilligan is widely recognized as an American cultural icon.

Ginger Baker

Peter Edward "Ginger" Baker (born 19 August 1939) is an English drummer and a founder of the rock band Cream. His work in the 1960s earned him the reputation of "rock's first superstar drummer", while his individual style melds a jazz background with African rhythms. He is credited as a pioneer of drumming in genres like jazz fusion, heavy metal and world music.Baker began playing drums aged 15, and later took lessons from Phil Seamen. In the 1960s, he joined Blues Incorporated, where he met bassist Jack Bruce. The two clashed often, but would be rhythm section partners again in the Graham Bond Organisation and Cream, the latter of which Baker co-founded with Eric Clapton in 1966. Cream achieved worldwide success but lasted only until 1968, in part due to Baker's and Bruce's volatile relationship. After briefly working with Clapton in Blind Faith and leading Ginger Baker's Air Force, Baker spent several years in the 1970s living and recording in Africa, often with Fela Kuti, in pursuit of his long-time interest in African music. Among Baker's other collaborations are his work with Gary Moore, Masters of Reality, Public Image Ltd, Hawkwind, Atomic Rooster, Bill Laswell, jazz bassist Charlie Haden, jazz guitarist Bill Frisell and Ginger Baker's Energy.

Baker's drumming is regarded for its style, showmanship, and use of two bass drums instead of the conventional one. In his early days, he performed lengthy drum solos, most notably in the Cream song "Toad", one of the earliest recorded examples in rock music. Baker is an inductee of the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame as a member of Cream, of the Modern Drummer Hall of Fame in 2008, and of the Classic Drummer Hall of Fame in 2016.

Ginger Kids

"Ginger Kids" is the eleventh episode in the ninth season of the American animated television series South Park. The 136th episode of the series overall, it first aired on Comedy Central in the United States on November 9, 2005. The episode was written and directed by series co-creator Trey Parker. It caused controversy after its ironic premise was misunderstood by people who acted violently against redheads.

In the episode, Cartman is led to think he has contracted a mysterious and sudden onset of "gingervitus" (in actuality, Stan and Kyle dresses him up as a ginger kid in his sleep). Sick and tired of being ridiculed for his fake red hair, light skin and freckles, he rallies all the ginger kids everywhere to fight against the persecution and rise up to become the master race they are intended to be, or so he thinks.

Ginger Lynn

Ginger Lynn Allen (born December 14, 1962) is an American pornographic actress and model who was a premier adult-entertainment star of the 1980s. She also had minor roles in various B movies. AVN has ranked her at #7 in a list of the 50 greatest porn stars of all time. After ending her pornography career, she began using her full name, Ginger Lynn Allen, and found work in a variety of B-movies. She had a late-career return to the adult industry and made a brief series of movies. Allen is a member of AVN, NightMoves Adult Entertainment, and XRCO Halls of Fame.

Ginger Rogers

Ginger Rogers (born Virginia Katherine McMath; July 16, 1911 – April 25, 1995) was an American actress, dancer, and singer. She is known for her starring role in Kitty Foyle (1940), but is best remembered for performing in RKO's musical films (partnered with Fred Astaire) on stage, radio and television, throughout much of the 20th century.

Born in Independence, Missouri, and raised in Kansas City, Rogers and her family moved to Fort Worth, Texas, when she was nine years old. After winning a 1925 Charleston dance contest that launched a successful vaudeville career, she gained recognition as a Broadway actress for her debut stage role in Girl Crazy. This success led to a contract with Paramount Pictures, which ended after five films. Rogers had her first successful film role as a supporting actress in 42nd Street (1933). Throughout the 1930s, Rogers made nine films with Astaire, among which were some of her biggest successes, such as Swing Time (1936) and Top Hat (1935). After two commercial failures with Astaire, Rogers began to branch out into dramatic films and comedies. Her acting was well received by critics and audiences, and she became one of the biggest box-office draws of the 1940s. Her performance in Kitty Foyle (1940) won her the Academy Award for Best Actress.Rogers remained successful throughout the 1940s and at one point was Hollywood's highest-paid actress, but her popularity had peaked by the end of the decade. She reunited with Astaire in 1949 in the commercially successful The Barkleys of Broadway. After an unsuccessful period through the 1950s, Rogers made a successful return to Broadway in 1965, playing the lead role in Hello, Dolly!. More lead roles on Broadway followed, along with her stage directorial debut in 1985 on an off-Broadway production of Babes in Arms. Rogers also made television acting appearances until 1987. In 1992, Rogers was recognized at the Kennedy Center Honors. She died of a heart attack in 1995, at the age of 83.

Rogers is associated with the phrase "backwards and in high heels", which is attributed to Bob Thaves' Frank and Ernest 1982 cartoon with the caption "Sure he [Astaire] was great, but don't forget that Ginger Rogers did everything he did...backwards and in high heels". This phrase is sometimes incorrectly attributed to Ann Richards, who used it in her keynote address to the 1988 Democratic National Convention.A Republican and a devout Christian Scientist, Rogers was married five times, with all of her marriages ending in divorce; she had no children. During her long career, Rogers made 73 films, and her musical films with Fred Astaire are credited with revolutionizing the genre. Rogers was a major movie star during the Golden Age of Hollywood, and is often considered an American icon. She ranks number 14 on the AFI's 100 Years...100 Stars list of female stars of classic American cinema. Rogers' autobiography "Ginger: My Story" was published in 1991.

Ginger ale

Ginger ale is a carbonated soft drink flavoured with ginger. It is consumed on its own or used as a mixer, often with spirit-based drinks. There are two main types of ginger ale. The golden style is credited to the Irish doctor, Thomas Joseph Cantrell. The dry style (also called the pale style), a paler drink with a much milder ginger flavour, was created by Canadian John McLaughlin.

Ginger beer

Traditional ginger beer is a naturally sweetened and carbonated, usually non-alcoholic beverage. It is produced by the natural fermentation of prepared ginger spice, yeast and sugar.

Its origins date from the colonial spice trade with the Orient and the sugar producing islands of the Caribbean. It was popular in Britain and its colonies from the 18th century. Other spices were variously added and any alcohol content was limited to 2% by excise tax laws in 1855. Few brewers have maintained an alcoholic product.Current ginger beers are often manufactured rather than brewed, frequently with flavor and color additives. Ginger ales are not brewed.

Ginger beer is still produced at home using a symbiotic colony of yeast and a Lactobacillus (bacteria) known as a "ginger beer plant".

Ginger beer has experienced a marked increase in popularity in recent years accompanying the popularity of cocktails based on it, such as the Moscow Mule and the Dark 'n' Stormy.

Ginger tea

Ginger tea is an Asian herbal beverage that is made from ginger root. It has a long history as a traditional herbal medicine in East Asia, Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia and the Middle East.

Ginger wine

Ginger wine is a fortified wine made from a fermented blend of ground ginger root and raisins which was first produced in England. It is often fortified by being blended with brandy (especially cognac). Ginger wine can be drunk with ice ("on the rocks"), or without ice (either "neat" or "straight up"), and is frequently used as an ingredient—along with whisky (typically a blended Scotch whisky)—in a "Whisky Mac" (the shortened form of "Whisky Macdonald"). Ginger wine can also be served mixed with other beverages, such as lemonade, ginger ale, bitter lemon or diluted with water. Ginger wine is traditionally sold in green glass bottles, although the word "green" may or may not appear on the label.

The first documented appearance of ginger wine occurred with the foundation of The Finsbury Distillery Company based in the City of London in 1740. The company, like other distillers, was required to build a retail network in compliance with the Gin Act 1751. Joseph Stone, a grocer on High Holborn street, central London, was one of the most prominent and important customers of the Finsbury wines division, and as such, had his name given to their ginger wine.In the 19th century, sales were boosted by a cholera epidemic and a widely held belief that ginger offered protection against the disease. Other 19th-century claims marketed it as a medicinal tonic that aided digestion and served as an effective aphrodisiac. Today, it is still produced and is widely available through most licensed premises.

In the UK a ginger essence called "Yulade" is produced by the Co-op, and is widely used at festive times to make a non-alcoholic 'ginger wine' popular for children and teetotal households.

Gingerbread

Gingerbread refers to a broad category of baked goods, typically flavored with ginger, cloves, nutmeg or cinnamon and sweetened with honey, sugar or molasses. Gingerbread foods vary, ranging from a soft, moist loaf cake to something close to a ginger snap.

Gingerbread man

A gingerbread man is a biscuit or cookie made of gingerbread, usually in the shape of a stylized human, although other shapes, especially seasonal themes (Christmas, Halloween, Easter, etc.) and characters, are common.

Red hair

Red hair (or ginger hair) occurs naturally in one to two percent of the human population, appearing with greater frequency (two to six percent) among people of Northern or Northwestern European ancestry and lesser frequency in other populations. It is most common in individuals homozygous for a recessive allele on chromosome 16 that produces an altered version of the MC1R protein.Red hair varies in hue from a deep burgundy or bright copper (auburn) to burnt orange or red-orange to and strawberry blond. Characterized by high levels of the reddish pigment pheomelanin and relatively low levels of the dark pigment eumelanin, it is associated with fair skin color, lighter eye color, freckles, and sensitivity to ultraviolet light.Cultural reactions to red hair have varied from ridicule to admiration with many common stereotypes in existence regarding redheads. The term redhead has been in use since at least 1510.

Steve Winwood

Stephen Lawrence Winwood (born 12 May 1948) is an English singer and musician whose genres include progressive rock, blue-eyed soul, rhythm and blues, blues rock, pop rock, and jazz. Though primarily a vocalist and keyboardist, Winwood also plays a wide variety of other instruments; on several of his solo albums he has played all instrumentation, including drums, mandolin, guitars, bass and saxophone.

Winwood was a key member of The Spencer Davis Group, Traffic, Blind Faith and Go. He also had a successful solo career with hits including "While You See a Chance", "Valerie", "Back in the High Life Again" and two US Billboard Hot 100 number ones, "Higher Love" and "Roll with It". He was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame as a member of Traffic in 2004.In 2005 Winwood was honoured as a BMI Icon at the annual BMI London Awards for his "enduring influence on generations of music makers". In 2008, Rolling Stone ranked Winwood No. 33 in its 100 Greatest Singers of All Time. Winwood has won two Grammy Awards. He was nominated twice for a Brit Award for Best British Male Artist: 1988 and 1989. In 2011 he received the Ivor Novello Award from the British Academy of Songwriters, Composers and Authors for Outstanding Song Collection.

The Wildhearts

The Wildhearts are an English rock group, formed in 1989 in Newcastle upon Tyne. The band's sound is a mixture of hard rock and melodic pop music, often described in the music press as combining influences as diverse as The Beatles and 1980s-era Metallica. However, this characterization is denied by the band, who see their influences as being far broader, as shown in the song "29 X The Pain", which lists many of group leader Ginger's influences. Despite several top 20 singles and one top 10 album in Britain, the Wildhearts have not achieved major commercial success, owing in part to difficulties with record companies and many internal problems often relating to recreational drugs and depression. Much of the band's early career was affected by bitter feuds with their record company, East West.

In the band's turbulent and unpredictable history, band members have regularly been replaced, with the only constant member being the band's founder Ginger (birth name David Walls) - the singer, guitarist, and predominant songwriter. Several band members have appeared in the line-up more than once. The band has also been split up or placed on hiatus by Ginger multiple times. In the 2010s, the band convened irregularly for various anniversary tours. A 2018 anniversary tour by the band's 1993 lineup led to a return to the studio. In February 2019 the band released the new single "Dislocated", and their first new album in ten years, Renaissance Men, was released in May 2019.

Zingiberaceae

Zingiberaceae () or the ginger family is a family of flowering plants made up of about 50 genera with a total of about 1600 known species of aromatic perennial herbs with creeping horizontal or tuberous rhizomes distributed throughout tropical Africa, Asia, and the Americas.

Many of the family's species are important ornamental, spice, or medicinal plants. Ornamental genera include the shell gingers (Alpinia), Siam or summer tulip (Curcuma alismatifolia), Globba, ginger lily (Hedychium), Kaempferia, torch-ginger Etlingera elatior, Renealmia, and ginger (Zingiber). Spices include ginger (Zingiber), galangal or Thai ginger (Alpinia galanga and others), melegueta pepper (Aframomum melegueta), myoga (Zingiber mioga), korarima (Aframomum corrorima), turmeric (Curcuma), and cardamom (Amomum, Elettaria).

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