Gibil Gabib

Gibil Gabib (also referred to as Gibil Habib) is an archaeological site located about 5 km south of Caltanissetta, on a 615-metre-high (2,018 ft) mountain.

Excavations were first undertaken in the area in the middle of the 19th century and were reprised with great enthusiasm in the 1950s by the archaeologist Dinu Adameșteanu. They came to an end in 1984. In those undertaken in the middle of the 20th century, remains dating to the 6th century BC were brought to light, including parts of the city walls and some ceramic objects of the Bronze Age Castelluccio culture, while the 1980s excavations revealed a defensive tower from the middle of the 6th century BC. These discoveries were of great significance, because they helped to clarify the course of the city wall discovered almost thirty years earlier.

Objects discovered in the excavations include vases, objects for everyday use, plates and lamps, as well as a terracotta statue of a female divinity and the terracotta head, which demonstrate the existence of various spaces dedicated to religious cult. At the base of the mountain, there is a necropolis, where Siceliote red-figure pottery was found.

The key characteristics of the site are:

  • Traces of settlement in the prehistoric period
  • Traces of indigenous settlement in the 7th century BC. Subsequently, these inhabited areas show Greek influence and in the next century, a fortification system was built which inclosed a sacred building from the early 6th century BC.
  • Two necropoleis located at the base of the mountain, where Siceliote red-figure pottery was found.
  • Objects for everyday use found in the inhabited area and evidence for the existence of a religious cult indicated by a statue of a female deity.
Gibil Gabib
Planimetria di Gibil Gabib
Gibil Gabib is located in Sicily
Gibil Gabib
Shown within Sicily
LocationCaltanissetta, Sicily, Italy
Coordinates37°27′10.21″N 14°4′41.71″E / 37.4528361°N 14.0782528°E
PeriodsBronze Age, 7th-6th centuries
CulturesCastelluccio culture, Sicels, later with Greek influence
Site notes
Excavation datesmiddle of the 19th century, 1950s and 1980s
ArchaeologistsDinu Adameșteanu


Images of objects from Gibil Gabib:

Cratere a calice siceliota a figure rosse

Red-figure krater

Lekythos ariballica a vernice nera

Black-figure lekythos

External links

  • "Area archeologica Gibil Gabib". Assessorato dei Beni culturali e dell' Identita' siciliana..


  • N. G. Brancato, Recenti rinvenimenti di insediamenti umani dal IV millennio a. C. all'epoca romana nel centro-Sicilia, pp. 32–41

Caltanissetta (pronounced [kaltanisˈsetta] (listen); Sicilian: Nissa or Cartanisetta) is a comune in the central interior of Sicily, Italy, and the capital of the Province of Caltanissetta. Its inhabitants are called Nisseni.

In 2017, the city had a population of 62,797. It is the 14th largest comune in Italy measured by area, the sixth highest comune in Italy by elevation (568 m), the second highest elevation in Sicily after the city of Enna (912 m).

Its patron saint is Archangel Michael.


Vassallaggi is a Sicilian prehistoric bronze age archaeological site, located on the hill of the same name, which had a later flourishing after the 7th century BC as a phrourion (fortress). The site is located in the middle of the Salso river valley, at 704 m above sea level, near San Cataldo in the province of Caltanissetta, in a strategic location for communication between the southern coast of Sicily and the northern part of the island. It has a NE-SW orientation and stretches along in parallel with the SS 122 San Cataldo-Serradifalco.

This archaeological site developed over time on five small hills in close proximity to one another. It represents an important example of a Greek settlement in central Sicily, having apparently taken on increasing amounts of Greek cultural forms as a result of Greek people arriving from Rhodes and Crete, via Akragas. The site's position is critical for controlling the central Salso river valley.The site, known already in the 19th century, only became the subject of excavation from 1905. These excavations continued until the 1960s and produced brilliant results, including the discovery of considerable evidence for human habitation from the Bronze Age until the first centuries CE. Remains of walls, houses, streets, tombs and religious sites provide evidence of a prosperous community. Numerous items, some perfectly preserved, are now on display in various museums throughout Sicily.

Archaeological sites in Sicily
Province of Agrigento
Province of Caltanissetta
Province of Catania
Province of Enna
Province of Messina
Province of Palermo
Province of Ragusa
Province of Syracuse
Province of Trapani


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