Giant grouper

The giant grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus), also known as the brindlebass, brown spotted cod, or bumblebee grouper, and as the Queensland groper[2] in Australia, is the largest bony fish found in coral reefs, and the aquatic emblem of Queensland. It is found from near the surface to depths of 100 m (330 ft) at reefs throughout the Indo-Pacific region, with the exception of the Persian Gulf. It also enters estuaries,[3] such as the lowermost part of the Brisbane River. It reaches up to 2.7 m (8.9 ft) in length and 400 kg (880 lb) in weight.[3] Giant groupers feed on a variety of marine life, including small sharks and juvenile sea turtles. Due to overfishing, this species has declined drastically in many regions, and as of the mid-1990s. It is considered Data Deficient by the IUCN.[1]

Epinephelus lanceolatus young
Young specimen

This giant fish is similar to the Malabar grouper, and its colour changes with age. The giant grouper has a large mouth and a rounded tail. Juveniles have irregular black and yellow markings, while adults are green-grey to grey-brown with faint mottling, with numerous small black spots on the fins.

The first fish to undergo chemotherapy was Bubba, a giant grouper at the Shedd Aquarium in Chicago.[4]

Giant grouper
Georgia Aquarium - Giant Grouper
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Perciformes
Family: Serranidae
Genus: Epinephelus
Species:
E. lanceolatus
Binomial name
Epinephelus lanceolatus
Bloch, 1790
Synonyms

Serranus magnificus Macleay, 1882 Promicrops lanceolatus Bloch, 1790

Reproduction

Like most groupers, giant groupers are protogynous hermaphrodites (all are born female, but some become male when few males are present). They spawn on a lunar cycle, with spawns lasting about 7 days. They are aggregative broadcast spawners, usually with several females per male. Studies in captive populations suggest that the dominant male and female begin the spawning event as nearly the only spawners for the first day or two, but other members of the aggregation fertilize more eggs as the event progresses, with even the most recently turned males fathering offspring.[5] Unlike males, where one male is dominant across spawns, the dominant female of an aggregation seems to change from month to month.

References

  1. ^ a b Fennessy, S., Pollard, D.A. & Samoilys, M. 2018. Epinephelus lanceolatus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T7858A100465809. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-2.RLTS.T7858A100465809.en. Downloaded on 25 December 2018.
  2. ^ "Giant Queensland groper" (PDF). Department of Primary Industries. State of New South Wales. July 2006. Retrieved 2018-02-03.
  3. ^ a b Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Epinephelus lanceolatus" in FishBase. May 2012 version.
  4. ^ "'Bubba,' Famed Cancer-surviving Grouper, R.I.P.; 'Overcame Some Incredible Odds'". Underwatertimes.com News Service. Underwatertimes. 2006-08-24. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
  5. ^ Bright, David; Reynolds, Adam; Nguyen, Nguyen H.; Knuckey, Richard; Knibb, Wayne; Elizur, Abigail (June 2016). "A study into parental assignment of the communal spawning protogynous hermaphrodite, giant grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus)". Aquaculture. 459: 19–25. doi:10.1016/j.aquaculture.2016.03.013.

External links

Alphestes

Alphestes is a genus of fish in the family Serranidae. Alphestes is an eastern Pacific species.

Brown-spotted rockcod

The brown-spotted rock cod or cat-face rock cod (Epinephelus andersoni) is a species of fish in the family Serranidae found off the coasts of Mozambique and South Africa. Its natural habitats are shallow seas, coral reefs, and estuarine waters.

Bubba (fish)

Bubba (circa 1982 – August 22, 2006) was a giant grouper (Queensland grouper) that resided at the Shedd Aquarium in Chicago, Illinois. Bubba is believed to be the first fish to undergo chemotherapy. He was often nicknamed "The Super Grouper".

Cephalopholis

Cephalopholis is a genus of fish in the family Serranidae.

It contains the following species:

Rusty hind (Cephalopholis aitha)

Blue-spotted grouper (Cephalopholis argus)

Golden hind (Cephalopholis aurantia) (Valenciennes in Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1828)

Chocolate hind (Cephalopholis boenak)

Graysby (Cephalopholis cruentata)

Bluespotted hind (Cephalopholis cyanostigma) (Valenciennes, 1828)

Bluelined hind (Cephalopholis formosa) (Shaw in Shaw & Nodder, 1812)

Coney fish (Cephalopholis fulva)

Yellowfin hind (Cephalopholis hemistiktos) (Rüppell, 1830)

Neptune grouper (Cephalopholis igarashiensis) Katayama, 1957

Leopard grouper (Cephalopholis leopardus) (Lacepède, 1801)

Freckled hind (Cephalopholis microprion) (Bleeker, 1852)

Vermillion seabass (Cephalopholis miniata)

Niger hind (Cephalopholis nigri)

Vermilion hind (Cephalopholis oligosticta) Randall & Ben-Tuvia, 1983

Pacific graysby (Cephalopholis panamensis)

Harlequin hind (Cephalopholis polleni) (Bleeker, 1868)

Cephalopholis polyspila Randall & Satapoomin, 2000

Six-blotch hind (Cephalopholis sexmaculata) (Rüppell, 1830)

Tomato hind (Cephalopholis sonnerati) (Valenciennes in Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1828)

Strawberry grouper (Cephalopholis spiloparaea) (Valenciennes in Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1828)

Blue-spotted sea bass (Cephalopholis taeniops)

V-tail grouper (Cephalopholis urodelus)

Darkfin hind (Cephalopholis urodeta) (Forster in Bloch & Schneider, 1801)

Dermatolepis

Dermatolepis is a genus of fish in the Serranidae family.

It contains these species:

Marbled grouper (D. inermis)

Smooth grouper (D. striolata)

Diving sites in Ko Tao

Ko Tao, Thailand is known for its numerous dive sites. Diving plays a significant role in the local economy.

Dotted grouper

The dotted grouper (Epinephelus epistictus) is a tropical marine serranid fish of the Indo-Pacific waters. Its distribution ranges form the Red Sea to South Africa, and to India, Southeast Asia, and Northern Australia, and north to Japan on the Pacific coast. The dotted grouper may grow up to 70–80 cm length. It is a demersal fish found at 70–300 m depths.

Epinephelus

Epinephelus is a genus of fishes in the family Serranidae found in Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans.

Epinephelus albomarginatus

Epinephelus albomarginatus (captain fine, white-edged grouper or white-edged rockcod) is a species of fish in the family Serranidae. It is found in Mozambique and South Africa. Its natural habitats are coral reefs.

Goliath grouper

Goliath grouper can refer to:

Atlantic goliath grouper (Epinephelus itajara) – Atlantic Ocean, including the Caribbean

Pacific goliath grouper (Epinephelus quinquefasciatus) – East Pacific

Grouper

Groupers are fish of any of a number of genera in the subfamily Epinephelinae of the family Serranidae, in the order Perciformes.

Not all serranids are called groupers; the family also includes the sea basses. The common name grouper is usually given to fish in one of two large genera: Epinephelus and Mycteroperca. In addition, the species classified in the small genera Anyperidon, Cromileptes, Dermatolepis, Gracila, Saloptia, and Triso are also called groupers. Fish in the genus Plectropomus are referred to as coralgroupers. These genera are all classified in the subfamily Epiphelinae. However, some of the hamlets (genus Alphestes), the hinds (genus Cephalopholis), the lyretails (genus Variola) and some other small genera (Gonioplectrus, Niphon, Paranthias) are also in this subfamily, and occasional species in other serranid genera have common names involving the word "grouper". Nonetheless, the word "grouper" on its own is usually taken as meaning the subfamily Epinephelinae.

Hybrid grouper

Hybrid grouper is a new type of grouper. The first hybrid grouper is cross-bred by researches from Universiti Malaysia Sabah (UMS), Malaysia, in collaboration among researchers of the Borneo Marine Research Institute of UMS, the Fisheries Development Authority of Malaysia (LKIM) and Kindai University of Japan, represented by Shigeharu Senoo of UMS.

The first hybrid grouper was produced by fertilising the eggs of the tiger grouper (Mycteroperca tigris) with the sperm of the giant grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus) through the in-vitro fertilisation (IVF) technique. It is commonly known as Sabah grouper or pearl grouper.

Mycteroperca

Mycteroperca is a genus of fish in the family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae (groupers).

Mycteroperca rosacea

Mycteroperca rosacea (leopard grouper) is a grouper from the Eastern Central Pacific that occasionally makes its way into the aquarium trade. It grows to a size of 86 cm in length.

Paranthias

Paranthias is a genus of fish in the family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae (groupers).

It contains the following species:

Paranthias colonus (Valenciennes, 1846)

Paranthias furcifer (Valenciennes, 1828)

Serranidae

The Serranidae are a large family of fishes belonging to the order Perciformes. The family contains about 450 species in 65 genera, including the sea basses and the groupers (subfamily Epinephelinae). Although many species are small, in some cases less than 10 cm (3.9 in), the giant grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus) is one of the largest bony fishes in the world, growing to 2.7 m (8 ft 10 in) in length and 400 kg (880 lb) in weight. Representatives of this group live in tropical and subtropical seas worldwide.

Tukun Island

Tukun Island is an island located in Perak, Malaysia. Pulau Tukun Perak is also known as Fairway Rock or Fairway White Rock. This small island can also be reached from Pulau Pinang. There are several boat rental operators who provide fishing trip to Pulau Tukun Perak.

Common fish caught by anglers sought are Giant Trevally, Blue Fin Tuna, Yellow Fin Tuna, Rainbow Runner, Sail Fish, Marlin, Dorado, Coral Trout, Red Snaper, Giant Grouper and others.

White grouper

The white grouper (Epinephelus aeneus) is a species of grouper living in the subtropical eastern Atlantic Ocean and the southern Mediterranean Sea. It can reach a maximum length of 120 cm and a maximum weight of 25 kg.

Alternatively, the term "white grouper" is also used as a local vernacular name for several other species of fish, including the yellowedge grouper (Hyporthodus flavolimbatus), Nassau grouper (Epinephelus striatus), and Venezuelan grouper (Mycteroperca cidi) ([1]).

Yellow-edged lyretail

The yellow-edged lyretail (Variola louti) is a species of grouper, also known as the lyretail grouper or the caramel cod.

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