Ghoul

A ghoul (Arabic: الغول‎, al-ghuûl), is a demon or monster originating in pre-Islamic Arabian religion[1] associated with graveyards and consuming human flesh. In modern fiction, the term has often been used for a certain kind of undead monster.

By extension, the word ghoul is also used in a derogatory sense to refer to a person who delights in the macabre, or whose profession is linked directly to death, such as a gravedigger or graverobber.

Amine Discovered with the Goule
"Amine Discovered with the Goule", from the story of Sidi Nouman, of the One Thousand and One Nights

Early etymology

Ghoul is from the Arabic غُول ghūl, from غَالَ ghāla, "to seize".[2] In Arabic, the term is also sometimes used to describe a greedy or gluttonous individual.

The term was first used in English literature in 1786, in William Beckford's Orientalist novel Vathek,[3] which describes the ghūl of Arabic folklore. This definition of the ghoul has persisted until modern times, with ghouls appearing in popular culture.[4]

Folklore

Shah Namah, the Persian Epic of the Kings Wellcome L0035191
Ghouls gathering for combat in a Persian poem

In the Arabic folklore, the ghūl is said to dwell in cemeteries and other uninhabited places. A male ghoul is referred to as ghūl while the female is called ghulah.[5] A source identified the Arabic ghoul as a female creature who is sometimes called Mother Ghoul (umm ghūla) or a relational term such as Aunt Ghoul.[6] She is portrayed in many tales luring hapless characters, who are usually men, into her home where she can eat them.[6]

Some state that a ghoul is a desert-dwelling, shapeshifting demon that can assume the guise of an animal, especially a hyena. It lures unwary people into the desert wastes or abandoned places to slay and devour them. The creature also preys on young children, drinks blood, steals coins, and eats the dead,[7] then taking the form of the person most recently eaten. One of the narratives identified a ghoul named Ghul-I-Beaban, a particularly monstrous character believed to be inhabiting the wilderness of Afghanistan and Iran.[8]

It was not until Antoine Galland translated One Thousand and One Nights into French that the western idea of ghoul was introduced into European society. Galland depicted the ghoul as a monstrous creature that dwelled in cemeteries, feasting upon corpses.

Ghouls (Persian: غول‎) also exist in Iranian folklore.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Ghoul | Arabian mythology". Encyclopedia Britannica.
  2. ^ Robert Lebling (30 July 2010). Legends of the Fire Spirits: Jinn and Genies from Arabia to Zanzibar. I.B.Tauris. pp. 96–. ISBN 978-0-85773-063-3.
  3. ^ "Ghoul Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Ghoul". Encyclopedia.com. Retrieved 2011-03-23.
  4. ^ Al-Rawi, Ahmed K. (11 November 2009). "The Arabic Ghoul and its Western Transformation". Folklore. 120 (3): 291–306. doi:10.1080/00155870903219730.
  5. ^ Steiger, Brad (2011). The Werewolf Book: The Encyclopedia of Shape-Shifting Beings. Canton, MI: Visible Ink Press. p. 121. ISBN 9781578593675.
  6. ^ a b Reynolds, Dwight (2015). The Cambridge Companion to Modern Arab Culture. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 260. ISBN 9780521898072.
  7. ^ "ghoul". Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Retrieved January 22, 2006.
  8. ^ Melton, J Gordon (2010). The Vampire Book: The Encyclopedia of the Undead. Canton, MI: Visible Ink Press. p. 291. ISBN 9781578592814.

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.