Ghent

Ghent (/ɡɛnt/; Flemish: Gent [ɣɛnt] (listen); French: Gand [ɡɑ̃] (listen)) is a city and a municipality in the Flemish Region of Belgium. It is the capital and largest city of the East Flanders province, and the second largest municipality in Belgium, after Antwerp.[2] The city originally started as a settlement at the confluence of the Rivers Scheldt and Leie and in the Late Middle Ages became one of the largest and richest cities of northern Europe, with some 50,000 people in 1300. It is a port and university city.

The municipality comprises the city of Ghent proper and the surrounding suburbs of Afsnee, Desteldonk, Drongen, Gentbrugge, Ledeberg, Mariakerke, Mendonk, Oostakker, Sint-Amandsberg, Sint-Denijs-Westrem, Sint-Kruis-Winkel, Wondelgem and Zwijnaarde. With 260,467 inhabitants in the beginning of 2018,[3] Ghent is Belgium's second largest municipality by number of inhabitants. The metropolitan area, including the outer commuter zone, covers an area of 1,205 km2 (465 sq mi) and has a total population of 594,582 as of 1 January 2008, which ranks it as the fourth most populous in Belgium.[4][5] The current mayor of Ghent, Mathias De Clercq is from the liberal & democratic party Open VLD.

The ten-day-long Ghent Festival (Gentse Feesten in Dutch) is held every year and attended by about 1–1.5 million visitors.

Ghent

Gent  (Dutch)
View of Ghent from the Cathedral with Belfry of Ghent and Saint Nicholas church visible
View of Ghent from the Cathedral with Belfry of Ghent and Saint Nicholas church visible
Flag of Ghent

Flag
Coat of arms of Ghent
Coat of arms
Ghent is located in Belgium
Ghent
Ghent
Location in Belgium
Ghent in the province of East Flanders
GemGentLocation
Coordinates: 51°3′N 3°44′E / 51.050°N 3.733°ECoordinates: 51°3′N 3°44′E / 51.050°N 3.733°E
CountryBelgium
CommunityFlemish Community
RegionFlemish Region
ProvinceEast Flanders
ArrondissementGhent
Government
 • Mayor (list)Mathias De Clercq
 • Governing party/iessp.a-Groen, Open VLD, CD&V
Area
 • Total156.18 km2 (60.30 sq mi)
Population
 (2018-01-01)[1]
 • Total260,341
 • Density1,700/km2 (4,300/sq mi)
Postal codes
9000–9052
Area codes09
Websitewww.gent.be

History

Ghent, Ferraris Map, 1775
Ghent in 1775

Archaeological evidence shows human presence in the region of the confluence of Scheldt and Leie going back as far as the Stone Age and the Iron Age.[6]

Most historians believe that the older name for Ghent, 'Ganda', is derived from the Celtic word ganda which means confluence.[6] Other sources connect its name with an obscure deity named Gontia.[7]

There are no written records of the Roman period, but archaeological research confirms that the region of Ghent was further inhabited.

When the Franks invaded the Roman territories from the end of the 4th century and well into the 5th century, they brought their language with them and Celtic and Latin were replaced by Old Dutch.

Middle Ages

Around 650, Saint Amand founded two abbeys in Ghent: St. Peter's (Blandinium) and Saint Bavo's Abbey. The city grew from several nuclei, the abbeys and a commercial centre. Around 800, Louis the Pious, son of Charlemagne, appointed Einhard, the biographer of Charlemagne, as abbot of both abbeys. In 851 and 879, the city was however attacked and plundered twice by the Vikings.

Engelbert Van Siclers - De Kouter in Ghent in 1763
De Kouter in Ghent in 1763 by Engelbert van Siclers

Within the protection of the County of Flanders, the city recovered and flourished from the 11th century, growing to become a small city-state. By the 13th century, Ghent was the biggest city in Europe north of the Alps after Paris; it was bigger than Cologne or Moscow.[8] Within the city walls lived up to 65,000 people. The belfry and the towers of the Saint Bavo Cathedral and Saint Nicholas' Church are just a few examples of the skyline of the period.

The rivers flowed in an area where much land was periodically flooded. These rich grass 'meersen' ("water-meadows": a word related to the English 'marsh') were ideally suited for herding sheep, the wool of which was used for making cloth. During the Middle Ages Ghent was the leading city for cloth.

The wool industry, originally established at Bruges, created the first European industrialized zone in Ghent in the High Middle Ages. The mercantile zone was so highly developed that wool had to be imported from Scotland and England. This was one of the reasons for Flanders' good relationship with Scotland and England. Ghent was the birthplace of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster. Trade with England (but not Scotland) suffered significantly during the Hundred Years' War.

Early modern period

The city recovered in the 15th century, when Flanders was united with neighbouring provinces under the Dukes of Burgundy. High taxes led to a rebellion and eventually the Battle of Gavere in 1453, in which Ghent suffered a terrible defeat at the hands of Philip the Good. Around this time the centre of political and social importance in the Low Countries started to shift from Flanders (Bruges–Ghent) to Brabant (AntwerpBrussels), although Ghent continued to play an important role. With Bruges, the city led two revolts against Maximilian of Austria, the first monarch of the House of Habsburg to rule Flanders.

Ghent hist centrum 2
Buildings along the Leie river in the city of Ghent
Flickr - …trialsanderrors - Justitiepaleis, Ghent, Belgium, ca. 1895
The Palace of Justice in Ghent, c. 1895

In 1500, Juana of Castile gave birth to Charles V, who became Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain. Although native to Ghent, he punished the city after the 1539 Revolt of Ghent and obliged the city's nobles to walk in front of the Emperor barefoot with a noose (Dutch: "strop") around the neck; since this incident, the people of Ghent have been called "Stroppendragers" (noose bearers). Saint Bavo Abbey (not to be confused with the nearby Saint Bavo Cathedral) was abolished, torn down, and replaced with a fortress for Royal Spanish troops. Only a small portion of the abbey was spared demolition.

The late 16th and the 17th centuries brought devastation because of the Eighty Years' War. The war ended the role of Ghent as a centre of international importance. In 1745, the city was captured by French forces during the War of the Austrian Succession before being returned to the Empire of Austria under the House of Habsburg following the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748, when this part of Flanders became known as the Austrian Netherlands until 1815, the exile of the French Emperor Napoleon I, the end of the French Revolutionary and later Napoleonic Wars and the peace treaties arrived at by the Congress of Vienna.

19th century

In the 18th and 19th centuries, the textile industry flourished again in Ghent. Lieven Bauwens, having smuggled the industrial and factory machine plans out of England, introduced the first mechanical weaving machine on the European continent in 1800.

The Treaty of Ghent, negotiated here and adopted on Christmas Eve 1814, formally ended the War of 1812 between Great Britain and the United States (the North American phase of the Napoleonic Wars). After the Battle of Waterloo, Ghent and Flanders, previously ruled from the House of Habsburg in Vienna as the Austrian Netherlands, became a part of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands with the northern Dutch for 15 years. In this period, Ghent established its own university (1816)[9] and a new connection to the sea (1824–27).

After the Belgian Revolution, with the loss of port access to the sea for more than a decade, the local economy collapsed and the first Belgian trade union originated in Ghent. In 1913 there was a world exhibition in Ghent.[9] As a preparation for these festivities, the Sint-Pieters railway station was completed in 1912.

20th century

Ghent was occupied by the Germans in both World Wars but escaped severe destruction. The life of the people and the German invaders in Ghent during World War I is described by H. Wandt in "etappenleven te Gent". In World War II the city was liberated by the British 7th "Desert Rats" Armoured Division and local Belgian fighters on 6 September 1944.

Geography

GentMap
Municipalities

After the fusions of municipalities in 1965 and 1977, the city is made up of:

Neighbouring municipalities

Climate

The climate in this area has mild differences between highs and lows, and there is adequate rainfall year-round. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Ghent has a marine west coast climate, abbreviated "Cfb" on climate maps.[10]

Tourism

The Graslei is one of the most scenic places in Ghent's old city centre
The Graslei is one of the most scenic places in Ghent's old city centre

Architecture

Ghent3
Historical centre of Ghent – from left to right: Old post office, Saint-Nicholas Church, Belfry, and Saint Bavo Cathedral.
Ghent canal, night
Ghent at night
Riverside at Ghent at noon
Riverside in Ghent
Sunset over a canal in Ghent, Belgium
Sunset over the river Leie in Ghent

Much of the city's medieval architecture remains intact and is remarkably well preserved and restored. Its centre is a carfree area. Highlights are the Saint Bavo Cathedral with the Ghent Altarpiece, the belfry, the Gravensteen castle, and the splendid architecture along the old Graslei harbour. Ghent has established a blend between comfort of living and history; it is not a city-museum. The city of Ghent also houses three béguinages and numerous churches including Saint-Jacob's church, Saint-Nicolas' church, Saint Michael's church and St. Stefanus.

Lamgods open
The well-known Ghent Altarpiece, a 15th century painting by Hubert and Jan Van Eyck in Saint Bavo Cathedral.

In the 19th century Ghent's most famous architect, Louis Roelandt, built the university hall Aula, the opera house and the main courthouse. Highlights of modern architecture are the university buildings (the Boekentoren or Book Tower) by Henry Van de Velde. There are also a few theatres from diverse periods.

The beguinages, as well as the belfry and adjacent cloth hall, were recognized by UNESCO as World Heritage Sites in 1998 and 1999.

The Zebrastraat, a social experiment in which an entirely renovated site unites living, economy and culture, can also be found in Ghent.

Campo Santo is a famous Catholic burial site of the nobility and artists.

Museums

Important museums in Ghent are the Museum voor Schone Kunsten (Museum of Fine Arts), with paintings by Hieronymus Bosch, Peter Paul Rubens, and many Flemish masters; the SMAK or Stedelijk Museum voor Actuele Kunst (City Museum for Contemporary Art), with works of the 20th century, including Joseph Beuys and Andy Warhol; and the Design Museum Gent with masterpieces of Victor Horta and Le Corbusier. The Huis van Alijn (House of the Alijn family) was originally a beguinage and is now a museum for folk art where theatre and puppet shows for children are presented. The Museum voor Industriële Archeologie en Textiel or MIAT displays the industrial strength of Ghent with recreations of workshops and stores from the 1800s and original spinning and weaving machines that remain from the time when the building was a weaving mill. The Ghent City Museum (Stadsmuseum, abbreviated STAM), is committed to recording and explaining the city's past and its inhabitants, and to preserving the present for future generations.

Restaurants and culinary traditions

In Ghent and other regions of East-Flanders, bakeries sell a donut-shaped bun called a "mastel" (plural "mastellen"), which is basically a bagel. "Mastellen" are also called "Saint Hubert bread", because on the Saint's feast day, which is 3 November, the bakers bring their batches to the early Mass to be blessed. Traditionally, it was thought that blessed mastellen immunized against rabies.

Other local delicacies are the praline chocolates from local producers such as Leonidas, the cuberdons or 'neuzekes' ('noses'), cone-shaped purple jelly-filled candies, 'babelutten' ('babblers'), hard butterscotch-like candy, and of course, on the more fiery side, the famous 'Tierenteyn', a hot but refined mustard that has some affinity to French 'Dijon' mustard.

Stoverij is a classic Flemish meat stew, preferably made with a generous addition of brown 'Trappist' (strong abbey beer) and served with French fries. 'Waterzooi' is a local stew originally made from freshwater fish caught in the rivers and creeks of Ghent, but nowadays often made with chicken instead of fish. It is usually served nouvelle-cuisine-style, and will be supplemented by a large pot on the side.

The city promotes a meat-free day on Thursdays called Donderdag Veggiedag[12][13] with vegetarian food being promoted in public canteens for civil servants and elected councillors, in all city funded schools, and promotion of vegetarian eating options in town (through the distribution of "veggie street maps"). This campaign is linked to the recognition of the detrimental environmental effects of meat production, which the United Nations' Food and Agriculture Organization has established to represent nearly one-fifth of global greenhouse gas emissions.

Ghent has the world's largest number of vegetarian restaurants per capita.[14]

The traditional confectionery is the cuberdon (also known as neuzekes or little noses). These are conical sweets with a soft centre, usually raspberry but other flavours can be found on the many street stalls around the city. Between 2011 and 2015 a feud between two local vendors made international news.[15]

Festivities

The city is host to some big cultural events such as the Gentse Feesten, I Love Techno in Flanders Expo, the "10 Days Off" musical festival, the International Film Festival of Ghent (with the World Soundtrack Awards) and the Gent Festival van Vlaanderen. Also, every five years, an extensive botanical exhibition (Gentse Floraliën) takes place in Flanders Expo in Ghent, attracting numerous visitors to the city.

The Festival of Flanders had its 50th celebration in 2008. In Ghent it opens with the OdeGand City festivities that takes place on the second Saturday of September. Some 50 concerts take place in diverse locations throughout the medieval inner city and some 250 international artists perform. Other major Flemish cities hold similar events, all of which form part of the Festival of Flanders (Antwerp with Laus Polyphoniae; Bruges with MAfestival; Brussels with KlaraFestival; Limburg with Basilica, Mechelen and Brabant with Novecento and Transit).

The city of Ghent will co-host the 2020 World Choir Games together with the city of Antwerp.[16] Organised by the Interkultur Foundation, the World Choir Games is the biggest choral competition and festival in the world.

Nature

The numerous parks in the city can also be considered tourist attractions. Most notably, Ghent boasts a nature reserve (Bourgoyen-Ossemeersen, 230 hectare[17]) and a recreation park (Blaarmeersen, 87 hectares).[18]

Economy

The port of Ghent, in the north of the city, is the third largest port of Belgium. It is accessed by the Ghent–Terneuzen Canal, which ends near the Dutch port of Terneuzen on the Western Scheldt. The port houses, among others, large companies like ArcelorMittal, Volvo Cars, Volvo Trucks, Volvo Parts, Honda, and Stora Enso.

The Ghent University and a number of research oriented companies, such as Ablynx, Innogenetics, Cropdesign and Bayer Cropscience, are situated in the central and southern part of the city.

As the largest city in East Flanders, Ghent has many hospitals, schools and shopping streets. Flanders Expo, the biggest event hall in Flanders and the second biggest in Belgium, is also located in Ghent. Tourism is becoming a major employer in the local area. Recently a local business man donated a substantial amount of money to have all the kerbs lowered by two inches in the city

Transport

As one of the largest cities in Belgium, Ghent has a highly developed transport system.

Road

R4 gezien vanuit de Beekstraat - Gent
The R4 ringroad

By car the city is accessible via two motorways:

In addition Ghent also has two ringways:

  • The R4 connects the outskirts of Ghent with each other and the surrounding villages, and also leads to the E40 and E17 roads.
  • The R40 connects the different downtown quarters with each other and provides access to the main avenues.

Rail

The municipality of Ghent comprises five railway stations:

  • Gent-Sint-Pieters Station: an international railway station with connections to Bruges, Brussels, Antwerp, Kortrijk, other Belgian towns and Lille. The station also offers a direct connection to Brussels Airport.
  • Gent-Dampoort Station: an intercity railway station with connections to Sint-Niklaas, Antwerp, Kortrijk and Eeklo.
  • Gentbrugge Station: a regional railway station in between the two main railway stations, Sint-Pieters and Dampoort.
  • Wondelgem Station: a regional railway station with connections to Eeklo once an hour.
  • Drongen Station: a regional railway station in the village of Drongen with connections to Bruges once an hour.

Public transport

Ghent has an extensive network of public transport lines, operated by De Lijn.

Trams

HermeLijn Korenmarkt
A HermeLijn low-floor tram in Ghent
  • Line 1: Flanders Expo – Sint-Pieters-Station – Korenmarkt (city centre) – Wondelgem - Evergem
  • Line 2: Zwijnaarde Bibliotheek - Sint-Pieters-Station - Zonnestraat (city centre) - Brabantdam - Zuid - Melle Leeuw (fuse of line 21 and 22 as of May 2017[19])
  • Line 4: UZ - Sint-Pieters-Station – Muide – Korenmarkt (city centre) – Zuid – Moscou
  • Line 21: Zwijnaarde Bibliotheek - Sint-Pieters-Station – Zonnestraat (city centre) – Zuid – Melle Leeuw (fused into line 2)
  • Line 22: Kouter - Bijlokehof - Sint-Pieters-Station – Zonnestraat (city centre) – Zuid – Gentbrugge (fused into line 2)

Buses

  • Line 3: Mariakerke – Korenmarkt (city centre) – Dampoort – Gentbrugge (formerly a trolleybus line; see picture below)
  • Line 5: Van Beverenplein – Sint-Jacobs (city centre) – Zuid – Heuvelpoort - Nieuw-Gent
  • Line 6: Watersportbaan – Zuid – Dampoort – Meulestede - Wondelgem – Mariakerke
  • Line 8: AZ Sint-Lucas - Sint-Jacobs (city centre) - Zuid - Heuvelpoort - Arteveldepark
  • Line 9: Mariakerke – Malem – Sint-Pieters-Station – Ledeberg - Gentbrugge
  • Line 17/18: Drongen – Malem - Korenmarkt (city centre) - Dampoort – Oostakker
  • Line 38/39: Blaarmeersen – Ekkergem -Korenmarkt (city centre) – Dampoort – Sint-Amandsberg

Apart from the city buses mentioned above, Ghent also has numerous regional bus lines connecting it to towns and villages across the province of East Flanders. All of these buses stop in at least one of the city's regional bus hubs at either Sint-Pieters Station, Dampoort Station, Zuid or Rabot.

International buses connecting Ghent to other European destinations are usually found at the Dampoort Station. A couple of private bus companies such as Eurolines, Megabus and Flixbus operate from the Dampoort bus hub.

Buses to and from Belgium's second airport - Brussels South Airport Charleroi - are operated by Flibco, and can be found at the rear exit of the Sint-Pieters Station.

Cycling

Ghent has the largest designated cyclist area in Europe, with nearly 400 kilometres (250 mi) of cycle paths and more than 700 one-way streets, where bikes are allowed to go against the traffic. It also boasts Belgium’s first cycle street, where cars are considered ‘guests’ and must stay behind cyclists.[14]

Sports

In the Belgian first football division Ghent is represented by K.A.A. Gent, who became Belgian football champions for the first time in its history in 2015. Another Ghent football club is KRC Gent-Zeehaven, playing in the Belgian fourth division. A football match at the 1920 Summer Olympics was held in Ghent.[20]

The Six Days of Ghent, a six-day track cycling race, is held annually, taking place in the Kuipke velodrome in Ghent. In road cycling, the city hosts the start and finish of the Omloop Het Nieuwsblad, the traditional opening race of the cobbled classics season.[21] It also lends its name to another cobbled classic, Gent–Wevelgem, although the race now starts in the nearby city of Deinze.[22]

The city hosts an annual athletics IAAF event in the Flanders Sports Arena: the Indoor Flanders meeting. Two-time Olympic champion Hicham El Guerrouj set a still-standing world record of 3:48.45 in the mile run in 1997.[23]

The Flanders Sports Arena was host to the 2015 Davis Cup Final between Belgium and Great Britain.[24]

Notable people

Titian - Portrait of Charles V Seated - WGA22964
Emperor Charles V was born in Ghent in 1500
JacobVAGent
Statue of Jacob van Artevelde on the Vrijdagmarkt in Ghent

International relations

Twin towns – sister cities

Ghent is twinned with:[25]

See also

References

Notes
  1. ^ "Wettelijke Bevolking per gemeente op 1 januari 2018". Statbel. Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  2. ^ Inc, IBP (11 September 2015). Belgium Investment and Business Guide Volume 1 Strategic and Practical Information. Lulu.com. ISBN 9781514528747.
  3. ^ Statistics Belgium; Werkelijke bevolking per gemeente op 1 januari 2009 (excel-file) Population of all municipalities in Belgium, as of 1 January 2009. Retrieved on 2010-11-28.
  4. ^ Statistics Belgium; Werkelijke bevolking per gemeente op 1 januari 2008 (excel-file) Archived 26 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine Population of all municipalities in Belgium, as of 1 January 2008. Retrieved on 2008-10-19.
  5. ^ Statistics Belgium; De Belgische Stadsgewesten 2001 (pdf-file) Archived 29 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine Definitions of metropolitan areas in Belgium. The metropolitan area of Ghent is divided into three levels. First, the central agglomeration (agglomeratie) with 278,457 inhabitants (1 January 2008). Adding the closest surroundings (banlieue) gives a total of 455,302. And, including the outer commuter zone (forensenwoonzone) the population is 594,582. Retrieved on 2008-10-19.
  6. ^ a b "History of Gent". www.gent.be. Archived from the original on 18 August 2005. Retrieved 5 May 2006.
  7. ^ Adrian Room, Placenames of the World: Origins and Meanings of the Names for 6,600 Countries, Cities, Territories, Natural Features, and Historic Sites, McFarland, 2006, p. 144.
  8. ^ Nicholas, David. The Domestic Life of a Medieval City: Women, Children and the Family in Fourteenth Century Ghent. p. 1.
  9. ^ a b Ghent over the centuries: Concise history of a stubborn city
  10. ^ "Climate Summary for Ghent, Belgium". weatherbase.com. Retrieved 18 May 2015.
  11. ^ "Klimaatstatistieken van de Belgische gemeenten" (PDF) (in Dutch). Royal Meteorological Institute. Retrieved 29 May 2018.
  12. ^ "Ghent's veggie day: for English speaking visitors" on Vegetarisme.be
  13. ^ "Belgian city plans 'veggie' days" on BBC News (12 May 2009).
  14. ^ a b "Belgium breaks: The best way to see glorious Ghent? On two wheels..." Daily Mail. Retrieved 18 May 2015.
  15. ^ Van De Poel, Nana (22 July 2017). "A Tale of Two Cuberdon Vendors: The Story Behind Ghent's 'Little Nose War'".
  16. ^ "Double gold for next host country of the World Choir Games 2020/". INTERKULTUR. Retrieved 19 July 2018.
  17. ^ "Nature Domain De Bourgoyen | Visit Gent". visitgent.be. Retrieved 18 May 2015.
  18. ^ "Blaarmeersen Sport and Recreation Park - Sightseeing in Ghent". inyourpocket.com. Archived from the original on 20 May 2015. Retrieved 18 May 2015.
  19. ^ https://static.delijn.be/Images/LCD%20LW%20einde%20Bravoko_tcm3-16462.jpg
  20. ^ FIFA Confederations Cup - Olympic Football Tournament Antwerp 1920 - FIFA.com Archived 1 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  21. ^ "Omloop Het Nieuwsblad race guide". Team Sky. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 21 October 2015.
  22. ^ Beaudin, Matthew (23 March 2013). "Storied Ghent-Wevelgem poised for a brutal edition". VeloNews. Retrieved 22 October 2015.
  23. ^ "World records". iaaf.org. Retrieved 8 June 2015.
  24. ^ "Ghent to host 2015 Davis Cup Final". daviscup.com. 23 September 2015. Retrieved 23 September 2015.
  25. ^ a b c d e f g h "Ghent Zustersteden". Stad Gent (in Dutch). City of Ghent. Retrieved 20 July 2013.
  26. ^ "European networks and city partnerships". Nottingham City Council. Archived from the original on 25 June 2012. Retrieved 20 July 2013.
  27. ^ "Wiesbaden's international city relations". Retrieved 24 December 2012.

External links

2000 European Athletics Indoor Championships

The 26th European Athletics Indoor Championships were held from Friday, 25 February to Sunday, 27 February 2000 in Ghent, Belgium. This was the first ever edition to feature combined events and the first since 1975 to hold relay races.

Arrondissement of Ghent

The Arrondissement of Ghent (Dutch: Arrondissement Gent; French: Arrondissement de Gand) is the largest of the six administrative arrondissements in the Province of East Flanders, Belgium. It is both an administrative and a judicial arrondissement. However, the Judicial Arrondissement of Ghent also comprises the municipalities of the Arrondissement of Eeklo.

Carels Frères

Carels Frères, or Carels Brothers, was a manufacturer of stationary steam engines in Ghent, Belgium. For instance, in 1909, they supplied a 1200 hp tandem compound engine with super heater to Moston Mill, a cotton mill in Moston, North Manchester. It was their works no 875, with cylinders 30 and 53 in (762 and 1,346 mm) bore with a 3 ft 11 1⁄4 in (1,200 mm) stroke. Developing 1,200 hp (890 kW) at 90 rpm, superheated steam 200 psi (1,379 kPa) was supplied by Tetlow boilers. The flywheel, 19 ft (5,791 mm) in diameter, was provided with the sixty rope grooves that the full power would have required. The second half of the mill, however, was never completed, and in 1958 electric drives were installed, and the engine was scrapped.

George Watkins commented that this was typical of continent design. Six or more of Carels' engines were installed in Lancashire mills in the early 20th century.

Corneille Heymans

Corneille Jean François Heymans (28 March 1892 – 18 July 1968) was a Belgian physiologist. He studied at the Jesuit College of Saint Barbara and then at Ghent University, where he obtained a doctor's degree in 1920.Heymans won the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1938 for showing how blood pressure and the oxygen content of the blood are measured by the body and transmitted to the brain.

East Flanders

East Flanders (Dutch: Oost-Vlaanderen [ˌoːst ˈflaːndərə(n)] (listen), French: (Province de) Flandre-Orientale, German: Ostflandern) is a province of Belgium. It borders (clockwise from the North) the Netherlands and the Belgian provinces of Antwerp, Flemish Brabant, Hainaut and West Flanders. It has an area of 2,991 km², divided into six administrative districts containing 60 municipalities, and a population of 1,408,484. The capital is Ghent.

Gent–Wevelgem

Gent–Wevelgem, officially Gent–Wevelgem – In Flanders Fields, is a road cycling race in Belgium, held annually since 1934. It one of the classic races part of the Flemish Cycling Week, run in late March on the last Sunday before the Tour of Flanders.

Although the event is often called a sprinters classic due to its flat finishing terrain, its early-season date means riders are often tested by wind and rain, as well as several climbs, including two ascents of the steep and fully cobbled Kemmelberg. As a result, few editions of Gent–Wevelgem actually end in a bunch sprint – often the winner comes from a small group of escapees.In 2005 the race was included in the inaugural UCI ProTour and in 2011 in its successor, the UCI World Tour. Since 2011 it is organized by Flanders Classics, which also organizes the Tour of Flanders. Since 2012 a woman's event is held on the same day as the men's race.

Six riders share the record of victories. Belgians Robert Van Eenaeme, Rik Van Looy, Eddy Merckx and Tom Boonen, Italian Mario Cipollini and Slovak Peter Sagan each won the race three times. Sagan also achieved a record six podium finishes in the race.

Ghent, West Virginia

Ghent is a census-designated place in Raleigh County in the U.S. state of West Virginia. As of the 2010 census, its population was 457.

Ghent Altarpiece

The Ghent Altarpiece (or the Adoration of the Mystic Lamb, Dutch: Het Lam Gods) is a very large and complex 15th-century polyptych altarpiece in St Bavo's Cathedral, Ghent, Belgium. It was begun c. the mid-1420s and completed before 1432, and is attributed to the Early Netherlandish painters and brothers Hubert and Jan van Eyck. The altarpiece is considered a masterpiece of European art and one of the world's treasures.

The panels are organised in two vertical registers, each with double sets of foldable wings containing inner and outer panel paintings. The upper register of the inner panels form the central Deësis of Christ the King, Virgin Mary and John the Baptist. They are immediately flanked in the next panels by angels playing music and, on the far outermost panels, the naked figures of Adam and Eve. The four lower-register panels are divided into two pairs; sculptural grisaille paintings of St John the Baptist and St John the Evangelist, and on the two outer panels, donor portraits of Joost Vijdt and his wife Lysbette Borluut. The central panel of the lower register shows a gathering of saints, sinners, clergy and soldiers attendant at an adoration of the Lamb of God. There are several groupings of figures, overseen by the dove of the Holy Spirit. The altarpiece is one of the most renowned and important artworks in European history.

Art historians generally agree that the overall structure was designed by Hubert during or before the mid 1420s, and that the panels were painted by his younger brother Jan between 1430 and 1432. However while generations of art historians have attempted to attribute specific passage to either brother, no convincing separation has been established. The altarpiece was commissioned by the merchant and Ghent mayor Jodocus Vijd and his wife Lysbette as part of a larger project for the Saint Bavo Cathedral chapel. The altarpiece's installation was officially celebrated on 6 May 1432. It was much later moved for security reasons to the principal cathedral chapel, where it remains.

Indebted to the International Gothic as well as Byzantine and Romanic traditions, the altarpiece represented a significant advancement in western art, in which the idealisation of the medieval tradition gives way to an exacting observation of nature and human representation. A now lost inscription on the frame stated that Hubert van Eyck maior quo nemo repertus (greater than anyone) started the altarpiece, but that Jan van Eyck—calling himself arte secundus (second best in the art)—completed it in 1432. The original, very ornate carved outer frame and surround, presumably harmonizing with the painted tracery, was destroyed during the Reformation; it may have included clockwork mechanisms for moving the shutters and even playing music.

Ghent University

Ghent University (Dutch: Universiteit Gent, abbreviated as UGent) is a public research university located in Ghent, Belgium. It was established in 1817 by King William I of the Netherlands. After the Belgian revolution of 1830, the newly formed Belgian state began to administer the university. In 1930, the university became the first Dutch-speaking university in Belgium, whereas French had previously been the standard academic language. In 1991,it was granted major autonomy and changed its name accordingly from State University of Ghent (Dutch: Rijksuniversiteit Gent, abbreviated as RUG) to its current designation.

In contrast to the Catholic University of Leuven or the Free University of Brussels, UGent considers itself a pluralist university in a special sense, i.e. not connected to any particular religion or political ideology. Its motto Inter Utrumque ('In Between Both Extremes'), on the coat of arms, suggests the acquisition of wisdom and science comes only in an atmosphere of peace, when the institution is fully supported by the monarchy and fatherland.

Ghent University is one of the biggest Flemish universities, consisting of 41,000 students and 9,000 staff members. The University also supports the University Library and the University Hospital, which is one of the largest hospitals in Belgium. It is one of the greatest beneficiaries of funding from the Research Foundation - Flanders (FWO). Ghent University consistently rates among the top universities in the world.

Henry of Ghent

Henry of Ghent (c. 1217 – 29 June 1293) was a scholastic philosopher, known as Doctor Solemnis (the "Solemn Doctor"), and also as Henricus de Gandavo and Henricus Gandavensis.

Hugo van der Goes

Hugo van der Goes (probably Ghent c. 1430/1440 – Auderghem 1482) was one of the most significant and original Flemish painters of the late 15th century. Van der Goes was an important painter of altarpieces as well as portraits. He introduced important innovations in painting through his monumental style, use of a specific colour range and individualistic manner of portraiture. The presence of his masterpiece, the Portinari Triptych in Florence, from 1483 onwards played a role in the development of realism and the use of colour in Italian Renaissance art.

Jules Ottenstadion

Jules Ottenstadion was a multi-purpose stadium in Gentbrugge, Ghent, Belgium. It was used mostly for football matches and used to be the home ground of K.A.A. Gent. The stadium held 12,919 seats and was built in 1920. It was replaced as the club's home ground by the new Ghelamco Arena in 2013. At the end of the use of the stadium for the home matches of KAA Gent, it was simply called Ottenstadion by the people of Ghent. It was situated in the centre of a residential neighbourhood in the Bruiloftstraat in Gentbrugge.

K.A.A. Gent

Koninklijke Atletiek Associatie Gent (Dutch pronunciation: [ˈkoːnɪŋkləkə ˌʔɑtləˈtik ˌɑsoːˈʃaː(t)si ˈɣɛnt], English: Royal Athletic Association Ghent), often simply known as Ghent or by their nickname De Buffalo's (English: The Buffalos), is a Belgian football, track and field and field hockey club, based in the city of Ghent, East Flanders. Their football team have been playing in the Belgian Pro League since the 1989–90 season. They won the national league once, in 2014–15, in addition to three Belgian Cup victories. Ghent played their home matches in the Jules Ottenstadion in Gentbrugge from 1920 until 2013, when they moved to the Ghelamco Arena. Their team colours are blue and white. The principal sponsor is the financial institution VDK NV.

The field hockey and track and field divisions were founded in 1864, making it one of the oldest sports clubs in Belgium. The club was then known under its French name La Gantoise (and it is still referred to as such in the French-speaking part of Belgium). They changed their name to the current Dutch version in 1971. The football division opened in 1900. The nickname of the club is De Buffalo's, a term coined after a visit of the original Buffalo Bill and his Wild West circus to the city in the early 20th century. Ghent enjoyed its first spell at the highest level in Belgian football between 1913–14 and 1928–29, and a second one from 1936–37 to 1966–67. In the 1970s and 1980s, the club had several promotions and relegations between the first and second divisions, before returning to the highest level in 1989. The club reached the quarter-finals of the 1991–92 UEFA Cup, which is their best achievement ever in European competitions.

Marfan syndrome

Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a genetic disorder of the connective tissue. The degree to which people are affected varies. People with Marfan tend to be tall and thin, with long arms, legs, fingers and toes. They also typically have flexible joints and scoliosis. The most serious complications involve the heart and aorta, with an increased risk of mitral valve prolapse and aortic aneurysm. Other commonly affected areas include the lungs, eyes, bones and the covering of the spinal cord.MFS is an autosomal dominant disorder. About 75% of the time, the condition is inherited from a parent, while 25% of the time it is a new mutation. It involves a mutation to the gene that makes fibrillin, which results in abnormal connective tissue. Diagnosis is often based on the Ghent criteria.There is no known cure for Marfan syndrome. Many people have a normal life expectancy with proper treatment. Management often includes the use of beta blockers such as propranolol or atenolol or, if that is not tolerated, calcium channel blockers or ACE inhibitors. Surgery may be required to repair the aorta or replace a heart valve. It is recommended that strenuous exercise be avoided.About 1 in 5,000 to 10,000 individuals have Marfan syndrome. It occurs equally in males and females. Rates are similar between races and in different regions of the world. It is named after Antoine Marfan, a French pediatrician who first described the condition in 1896.

Pen-y-ghent

Pen-y-ghent or Penyghent is a fell in the Yorkshire Dales, England. It is the smallest of the Yorkshire Three Peaks at 2,277 feet (694 m); the other two being Ingleborough and Whernside. It lies 1.9 miles (3 km) east of Horton in Ribblesdale. It features a number of interesting geological features such as Hunt Pot, and further down, Hull Pot. The waters that flow in have created an extensive cave system which rises at Brants Gill head.

In 2004 the body of an unidentified female, dubbed by the media as the "Lady of the Hills", was found near to the entrance of Sell Gill Hole.

Robert of Ghent

Robert of Ghent or Robert de Gant (c. 1085–after 1154) was Lord Chancellor of England and Dean of York in the 12th century. The younger son of a nobleman, Robert was probably a member of the cathedral chapter of York before his selection as chancellor by King Stephen of England in the mid-1140s. He is not mentioned often in documents from his time as chancellor, but why this is so is unknown. He became dean at York Minster around 1147. Robert was slightly involved in the disputes over who would be Archbishop of York in the late 1140s and 1150s, but it is likely that his chancellorship prevented his deeper involvement in diocesan affairs. He was no longer chancellor after the death of Stephen, but probably continued to hold the office of dean until his death around 1157 or 1158.

Simon of Ghent

Simon of Ghent (or Simon de Gandavo; died 1315) was a medieval Bishop of Salisbury in England.

Simon was a prebendary of the diocese of Salisbury and Chancellor of Oxford University, as well as Archdeacon of Oxford.Simon was elected bishop on 2 June 1297 and consecrated on 20 October 1297 at Canterbury He died on 2 April 1315.

Treaty of Ghent

The Treaty of Ghent (8 Stat. 218) was the peace treaty that ended the War of 1812 between the United States of America and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Both sides signed it on December 24, 1814, in the city of Ghent, United Netherlands (now Belgium). The treaty restored relations between the two nations to status quo ante bellum, restoring the borders of the two countries to the lines before the war started in June 1812. The treaty was approved by the UK parliament and signed into law by the Prince Regent (the future King George IV) on December 30, 1814. It took month for news of the peace treaty to reach the United States, during which American forces under Andrew Jackson won the Battle of New Orleans on January 8, 1815. The Treaty of Ghent was not fully in effect until it was ratified by the U.S. Senate unanimously on February 17, 1815. It began the more than two centuries of peaceful relations between the U.S. and Britain, although there were a few tense moments such as the Trent Affair in 1861.

Waterzooi

Waterzooi is a stew dish from Belgium and originating in Flanders . The second part of the name derives from the Middle Dutch terms "sode", "zo(o)de" and "soot", words referring to the act of boiling or the ingredients being boiled. It is sometimes called Gentse Waterzooi which refers to the Belgian town of Ghent where it originated. The original dish is often made of fish, either freshwater or sea, (known as Viszooitje), though today chicken waterzooi (Kippenwaterzooi) is more common. The most accepted theory is that rivers around Ghent became too polluted and the fish there disappeared. Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor ate the rich dish, even after suffering from gout.

Climate data for Ghent (1981–2010 normals, sunshine 1984–2013)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 6.2
(43.2)
7.0
(44.6)
10.8
(51.4)
14.5
(58.1)
18.1
(64.6)
20.6
(69.1)
23.0
(73.4)
22.9
(73.2)
19.7
(67.5)
15.3
(59.5)
10.1
(50.2)
6.5
(43.7)
14.7
(58.5)
Daily mean °C (°F) 3.4
(38.1)
3.8
(38.8)
6.8
(44.2)
9.4
(48.9)
13.2
(55.8)
15.9
(60.6)
18.1
(64.6)
17.9
(64.2)
14.9
(58.8)
11.2
(52.2)
7.0
(44.6)
4.0
(39.2)
10.6
(51.1)
Average low °C (°F) 0.7
(33.3)
0.4
(32.7)
2.7
(36.9)
4.5
(40.1)
8.3
(46.9)
11.1
(52.0)
13.2
(55.8)
12.8
(55.0)
10.2
(50.4)
7.2
(45.0)
3.9
(39.0)
1.5
(34.7)
6.4
(43.5)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 70.7
(2.78)
56.2
(2.21)
61.5
(2.42)
50.6
(1.99)
63.1
(2.48)
74.3
(2.93)
77.4
(3.05)
84.2
(3.31)
74.2
(2.92)
81.7
(3.22)
82.7
(3.26)
82.2
(3.24)
858.8
(33.81)
Average precipitation days 12.6 10.8 12.0 10.1 11.1 10.5 10.3 10.0 10.9 12.1 13.4 13.0 136.8
Mean monthly sunshine hours 61 79 123 172 204 196 209 196 144 118 66 50 1,618
Source: Royal Meteorological Institute [11]
Places adjacent to Ghent
Aalst
Dendermonde
Eeklo
Ghent
Oudenaarde
Sint-Niklaas

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